klebsiella pneumoniae symptoms

What Is Klebsiella Pneumoniae?

5 minutes, 36 seconds Read

Klebsiella is the genus name for a bacterium that is found in the intestinal, respiratory, and urogenital tracts of our body. Klebsiella pneumoniae belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae family of bacteria. It is rod shaped, non-motile, and a gram negative bacterium. The bacterium has a polysaccharide capsule that encloses it; this makes the treatment of Klebsiella pneumoniae extremely difficult, since, the capsule provides the bacteria with resistance to most anti-biotics.

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a resident of the intestinal track in 40% of the people; and is an opportunistic microbe, meaning, under certain conditions it causes diseases. Klebsiella pneumoniae is also found in abundance in the soil, water and vegetables. By and large, Klebsiella pneumoniae infection occurs in people having a weakened immune system. Most infections develop when one is hospitalized; the commonest infection caused by Klebsiella outside the hospital is pneumonia.

Risk Factors and Causes Associated with Klebsiella Pneumoniae Infection

Klebsiella pneumoniae affects those individuals who have an underlying disease, such as, diabetes, chronic lung disease or alcoholism. Hospital acquired infections occur due to invasive treatments, such as, intravenous catheters used for fluid administration, catheters introduced into the bladder to drain urine and breathing tubes for those on a ventilator; these significantly increase one’s vulnerability to the bacterial infection. Infection occurs when the person’s immune system fails to fight the bacteria. What’s more, those who require invasive treatments, already have a weak immune system due to their underlying disease.

Symptoms of Klebseilla Pneumoniae Infection

• Klebsiella pneumonia tends to have a severe and a relatively rapid onset that results in the destruction of the lung tissue.

• Common clinical manifestations include: flu like symptoms, high fever, chills, and cough productive of a lot of mucous. The mucous is usually viscous and bloody

• Empyema develops, i.e. pus surrounds the lung and scars the lung tissue.

• Klebsiella can also cause less serious respiratory illnesses, like, bronchitis.

• Urinary tract infection, surgical wound infection and toxaemia are other hospital acquired infections triggered by Klebsiella. All these may progress to death if not treated appropriately.

Treating Klebseilla Pneumoniae Infection

Timely and aggressive treatment is the most crucial aspect of treating infections related to Klebseilla. However, treatment options are somewhat limited, since these microbes are resistant to most anti-biotics. The treatment protocol comprises of:

• First and foremost, the doctor carries out a gram-staining technique along with bio-chemical assessment to recognize the bacteria causing pneumonia.

• Once the doctor makes the diagnosis, various treatment options need to be considered; given that the bacteria are resistant to most drugs.

Anti-biotics are started in most cases to curb the infection. More often than not, only cephalosporins and aminoglycosides are found to be useful against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Systemic infections are treated with other 3rd generation anti-biotics.

The mortality rate for Klebsiella pneumonia is about 50%. Pneumonia, by and large, resolves without any complication, however, Klebsiella pneumonia causes massive destruction of the lung tissue. The mortality rate for untreated cases is about 90%. Furthermore, the mortality rate is 100 % for those who have developed bacteremia and are alcoholics.

Klebsiella Pneumoniae Causes

Klebseilla pneumoniae is usually found within our gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract and the urinary tract; however, it does not produce any clinical manifestations. On the other hand, the microbe is highly opportunistic, and can cause complications in certain cases.

Risk Factors and Causes Associated with Klebsiella Pneumoniae Infection

• Klebsiella pneumoniae affects those who have an underlying disease, such as diabetes, chronic lung disease or are chronic alcoholics. Hospital-acquired infections occur due to invasive medical treatments, like, IV catheters to administer fluids, catheters introduced in to the bladder to drain urine and breathing tubes for those on a ventilator.

• Another significant Klebseilla pneumoniae cause is a deranged and attenuated immune system. Susceptibility to klebseilla infections increases when the person’s immune system is weak and it can not fight the bacteria.

Klebsiella Pneumoniae Infections Diagnosis

Klebsiella Pneumoniae is resistant to most anti-biotics and what’s more, it can convey this resistance to other species of bacteria as well. Klebsiella infections are frequently seen in hospitals; the most common being pneumonia and UTI. It largely afflicts patients who have an underlying disease such as diabetes, chronic lung ailments and alcoholism.

Klebsiella Pneumoniae Infections Treatment

Appropriate and aggressive treatment is the most vital aspect of managing infections related to Klebseilla. The treatment protocol includes:

Anti-biotics to be administered depend up on the organ involved. Preliminary therapy is generally broad-spectrum, and the specific anti-biotic that needs to be administered depends upon local susceptibility.

• The doctor will administer an antibiotic that has high-intrinsic activity against the microbe, most commonly, aminoglycosides, cephalosporins and quinolones.

• Invariably, the physician will opt for a combination therapy for three days with aminoglycoside for the patients.

• Lung abscesses, empyema, and pulmonary gangrene need surgical intervention.

Klebsiella Pneumoniae Infections Prognosis

The prognosis for Klebsiella Pneumoniae depends on several factors. The mortality rate is about 50 %. Pneumonia, by and large, resolves without any complication, however, Klebsiella pneumonia causes widespread annihilation of the lung tissue. The prognosis for neglected and untreated cases is very poor, with the mortality rate being about 90 %. Furthermore, the mortality rate is 100 % for those who have developed bacteremia and are alcoholics.

Klebsiella Pneumoniae Symptoms

Klebsiella bacteria do not usually produce symptoms when in the body, but, these organisms tend to cause ‘opportunistic’ infections, i.e. they affect the body when there is an underlying medical condition or when the immune mechanism is weakened. Klebsiella can infect the urinary tract as well as the GI tract, however, the lungs are the most serious site of infection, where it causes a destructive type of pneumonia.

Onset of Klebseilla Pneumoniae Symptoms

What differentiates pneumonia caused by Klebsiella is the rapidity of the progression of the disease. Klebsiella pneumonia triggers rapid annihilation of the lung tissue, and consequently, the symptoms manifest rapidly.

Initial symptoms

The preliminary Klebseilla pneumoniae symptoms comprise of sudden high-grade fever, dizziness, headache, chills and fatigue. Excessive coughing with sputum that is thick, viscous, profuse and bloody is fairly common.

Advanced Symptoms

Klebsiella pneumonia, when neglected, quickly forms abscesses, i.e. tiny pockets that are filled with the bacteria and dead tissue. Shortness of breath, gasping and chest pain are common clinical features. Those diagnosed with Klebsiella pneumonia may suffer from a collapse of the lungs as well. The skin becomes cold and clammy, appetite drops significantly and there may be confusion in old people.

Symptoms of Community Acquired Infections and Hospital Acquired Infections

Klebsiella pneumonia infections occurring within the hospital, (hospital-acquired infections) tend to affect the bronchioles of the respiratory tract and have a relatively gradual onset; commonest symptoms being breathlessness and wheezing. Community-acquired infections inflict the lung tissue predominantly; and the primary Klebseilla symptom is severe cough.

author

Jovan Subotin

Nutricionista sa 8 godina iskustva u pravljenju programa dijetetski suplemenata. dijeta i nutrcionističkih programa za čišćenje organizma, programa ishrane.

Similar Posts

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

X