Tumor markers, what are they, and how are they analyzed? People who have suffered malignancy on some part of their body organisms have to go through tests like CT scanners or PET scanners. Everyone will be interested in the disease’s progress and the exact condition: their organism and the development and progress of malignancy. Tumor markers can answer many questions.
What are tumor markers?
Tumor markers are substances produced by cancer or other cells in the body in response to the presence of cancer. Many tumor markers are produced by normal cells and thus by cancerous ones. Tumor markers are produced in much higher concentrations in cancerous conditions. These substances can be found in blood, urine, stool, tumor tissue, and other tissues and body fluids. Many tumor markers are proteins. Many gene lines, expressions, and DNA changes are used as tumor markers.
Various tumor markers are characterized and are in clinical use. Some are associated with only one type of cancer, while others are associated with two or more types. There is no universal tumor marker that can detect any cancer.
There are certain limitations when using tumor markers. In some cases, non-cancerous conditions may increase tumor marker levels. Not everyone with a maintained type of cancer will have high tumor markers associated with a maintained type of cancer. Tumor markers have not been identified for individual cancers.
How tumor markers are used in cancer treatment
Tumor markers are used to diagnose and treat some types of cancer. Although some tumor markers may indicate cancer, the test alone is not sufficient to determine the presence of cancer. For this reason, tumor markers are combined with other tests such as a biopsy to diagnose cancer.
Tumor marker levels are measured before treatment to help the doctor plan therapy. In some types of cancer, the level of tumor markers reflects the disease stage and predicts further development of therapy.
Tumor markers are also measured periodically over time for cancer therapies. Reduction of tumor markers and their return to normal values may indicate that the tumor responds to treatment. Also, if there are no changes, it can mean that cancer does not agree to therapies.
Tumor markers are also measured after treatment. In this way, it is checked whether the cancer is returning.
How are tumor markers measured?
The doctor takes a sample of tumor tissue or body fluid and sends them to a laboratory, where advanced methods are used to measure tumor marker levels.
If tumor markers are used to inform whether treatment is working or whether the disease is returning, tumor marker levels will be measured multiple times. Using these serial measurements that show whether tumor marker levels increase, remain the same, or decrease is more accurate than just one measurement.
CA test, CA profile and C reactive protein
In case the level C of Reactive Protein increases sharply, such a condition can be marked as very disturbing because it represents a false inflammation that represents the beginning of the development of malignancy. Then tests and other tumor markers appear. One should not panic and be convinced that this is a false inflammation as mentioned above if you have experienced any damage or are struggling with an internal problem in the body or a certain type of disease. Still, if the inflammation lasts for a very long time and a source cannot be found, this reaction may contain a certain dose of risk.
Then the Cancer Profile test or CA test occurs, and it gives the right answers to possible doubts. CA profile tests are answers to many dilemmas of professional oncologists and biochemists. They include blood tests that do not detect cancer development and existence before the appearance of noticeable symptoms in which certain tumor markers are displayed. These trials are crucial in monitoring individuals receiving non-lethal and lethal treatments and their state of the organism. To understand the actual development of the disease, it is proposed to perform this test in three phases:
-Before giving a specific treatment or medication
-When taking medication or applying treatment
-When completing a particular treatment
What is a Ca profile
American Metabolic Laboratory conducts the aforementioned trials in the above phases in Hollywood, Florida, USA and provides an answer to the question of what a CA profile actually represents:
In case the results of all researches of a person who has problems with cancer are not negative, patients have a natural desire to gain extensive knowledge about the meaning of certain blood tests. Even today, many researchers and physicians are unfamiliar with exceptional, ultra-receptive tumor markers such as PHI (which represents the prostate health index). This is an instrumental blood test that is much more detailed in identifying prostate malignancy than the PSA test.
PHI can differentiate between malignant and non-malignant prostate enlargement called BPH (benign prostatic hypertension). The results are very accurate and also do not require biopsies for men who have elevated PSA levels in a certain range. It should be noted that a large number of doctors are not familiar with the use of the HCG (Human Choroidal Gonadropin) test as an indicator of a wide range of cancerous diseases.
The CA profile includes the following:
HCG and its segments
HCG hormone and its amounts are generally obtained from trophoblast cells (The outer layers of blastocyte cells that form the placenta are known as trophoblast cells).
HCG is a very elevated level in the presence of any malignancy. Although HCG is known as the pregnancy hormone, it is also a cancer hormone. Two different techniques are used to estimate tiny amounts of this hormone in the blood:
Immunoraiometric test: a test using radiolabeled antibodies
These methods are susceptible and can detect tiny amounts of the hormone HCG. The above hormone reduces the human body’s immune system and is produced from the coroplast (occurs in conditions of reduced free oxygen levels in the cells).
The latest test is the HCG urine test. Although not an integral part of the CA test, this test can be performed parallel with HCG tumor markers. This tesla requires about 0.5 ml of urine in its natural form. One is very specific for the determination of HCG hormone. Even in minor amounts, it gives accurate results.
PHI is an enzyme that triggers the anaerobic mechanism in cells. This type of cellular metabolism is present in malignant cells (occurs during the combustion of carbohydrates in the absence of oxygen). The pathway that generates more energy is called oxidative phosphorylation. Normal cells function on this principle when they have sufficient amounts of oxygen. Malignant cells lack oxygen, so if there is enough oxygen, the chances of malignancy are minimal and vice versa. Elevated levels of the enzyme PHI mean that anaerobic conditions are enhanced, that is, that the level of oxygen is low.
Although GGTP enzymes are mostly used to diagnose the liver, this test is the most sensitive to this organ, although it can also be used for lung, heart, and kidney diseases. This element can also be elevated due to the proliferation of malignancy or by treatment with some harmful substances such as chemotherapy.
CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen)
CEA is a broad indicator of malignancy and can be identified and found in all types of malignancy. It is dominant in breast and colon malignancies. CEA can be found in the blood of people suffering from different types of malignancies.
TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)
TSH controls the rate of oxygen consumption. Elevated levels (hypotrodism) may be an indicator of the presence of malignancy.
Your immune system is weakened without the proper amount of this hormone. Most patients with malignancy have very little or no DHEA in their blood. This hormone is present when you worry about something for a long period of time.
PH strips for testing the pH value of an organism
This is the test that is the least stressful and economical and is used to calculate the pH value of your body and which takes no more than 60 seconds. You need a box of pH tests that can be purchased at any pharmacy. Analysis of your pH values is important because you can immediately determine your fitness and health level. Healthy blood has a pH level of 7.35, while pH values less than 7 are considered acidic, which is a feeble health signal. People with a pH lower than 7 may experience symptoms such as:
Oscillations in temperature
A difficult dream
Typically white plastic strips or yellow paper strips are available in many pharmacies. These urine-soaked strips can determine the pH of your urine. About the color that appears on the strips, you will determine the pH value of the urine.
In any case and during each measurement, it will vary, but roughly if it is around 7.3 or more, your health and condition of the organism are satisfactory. These tests should be done several times a day for a minimum of 15 consecutive days. If the value is less than 6.5 and around that number, it means that you need to fix some elements in your body to reach the optimal value. Extremely alarming condition is the value around 5. This condition can be changed by consuming alkaline foods and some pH regulators.
These people’s body is deficient in minerals such as calcium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. This indicates that you need to increase your intake of alkaline foods such as uncooked green foods, green leafy vegetables, avocado, fresh almonds, coconut milk, seaweed. It should also be consumed as little as possible meat, sugar, and cereals.
CA 125 is used to test women who have been diagnosed with ovarian malignancy. This test individually may not be relevant to confirm the existence of malignancy. Some women with ovarian malignancy have never had elevated CA 125 levels, while most women with elevated CA 125 levels have not been diagnosed with malignancy.
An increased concentration of CA 125 protein can be found in ovarian malignant tumor cells compared to other healthy cells in the body.
Ca 125 was usually obtained from a venous blood sample. Also, information about its concentration can be obtained from the chest and stomach fluid. This analysis focused on the use of antibodies (blood, a protein created in a reaction to neutralize an antigen of an antibody that your body identifies as unknown and foreign. Examples of such bodies are bacteria and viruses), which are concentrated in opposition to CA protein.
In 1991, an advanced form of the test was established and designated as CA 125 IM The results of this test are slightly higher than the previous outdated type of test. When it comes to matching test outcomes, it can be essential to identify exactly which test mode is being used. In most institutions, this protein’s standard value varies from 0 to 35 units per milliliter of sample.
CA 125 when used and what results it gives
This test is not relevant for detecting the presence of malignancy. It can be present in benign diseases and various other organism conditions. CA 125 is most commonly used to monitor patients with identified malignancy or as one of several investigations to prove the presence of a malignant tumor.
This test in humans is common with identified malignancy that raises CA 125 values. In the above case of ovarian malignancy, 70 to 75% of women with ovarian malignancy will have elevated CA 125 levels. Declining CA 125 levels in these cases usually indicate that treatment, including chemotherapy, was successful and operative, while the level of escalation suggests the recurrence of malignant tumors. In individuals with a CA 125 level greater than 65, malignancy can be found to be present with a probability of 90%.
Numerous disorders can cause an increase in CA 125. Some of them are as follows:
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Uterine malignancy, breast, pancreas, lungs, gastrointestinal tract
This simple blood test shows an antigen’s level in the blood in people with pancreatic malignancy. CA 19-9 are materials produced by pancreatic tumor cells.
A blood sample is taken from the patient and then sent to the laboratory to determine CA 19-9 levels. This blood sample is tested using a radioimmunoassay or RIA test. The RIA test is a laboratory technique by which you can identify specific substances in the blood.
This test calculates the level of tumor antigens and their presence in the blood and the production of antibodies in response to the presence of tumors.
The typical range of CA 19-9 in a healthy person’s blood is about 0.37 units per milliliter. It is important to note that every patient with pancreatic cancer has an elevated CA level of 19-9. Also, some non-cancerous disorders can cause high CA 19-9. For this reason, this test cannot be used for diagnostic purposes only as a screening test for pancreatic cancer.
What CA 19-9 shows
Generally, CA 19-9 increases as the disease progresses, and its higher levels mean disease progression. If its amount is the same, then the disease can be stable and unchanging. Decline CA 19-9 confirms the reduction of cancer in the body.
This test helps doctors monitor whether the treatment is working successfully on cancer. Paramedics and medical staff regulate how often the CA 19-9 test should be performed. If it is done to monitor cancer development, it can be done every week, after every cycle. Also, the decision-maker can occasionally use this test to decide whether the patient should continue treatment or when some additional assessments of the patient’s condition are given. People who have had surgical removal of cancer with CA 19-9 can determine if there are any remaining parts of cancer in their body.
Although CA 19-9 is generally associated with pancreatic malignancy, it may also be elevated in colorectal, lung, and gallbladder malignancies. Extraordinary CA 19-9 levels may also be associated with the organism’s non-malignant reactions, such as gallstones, gallbladder omission, pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, and in some liver diseases.
CA 19-9 may be elevated during radiotherapy due to some defense effects and internal malignancy activity. As the results are not accurate, this test is not used during radiotherapy treatment.
This is an exact and sensitive blood test that confirms malignancy by detecting EHOX2 protein. This investigation is used to determine if a malignancy really exists or not. This research is used in other tests, and they are basic tests with elevated PSA, unusual mammogram, suspicious PET scan. The examination determines the existence of malignancies of unidentified origin. This test conducts a wide range of proteins released from malignant cells and can provide complete information on which organ is affected by the malignancy.