Anemia is a decrease in the number of red blood cells that carry oxygen, or a decrease in the amount of a key protein that carries oxygen (hemoglobin) below a certain value. Normal levels of hemoglobin and red blood cells are different in different groups of patients, they are related to age and gender. In men, hemoglobin is higher, in women it is usually lower. The same goes for the number of red blood cells.
Anemia is a hematological syndrome that manifests as a decrease in the number of red blood cells and hemoglobin in the blood. With this pathology, the patient has general weakness, pale mucous membranes and skin, increased fatigue, tachycardia, dizziness.
Causes of anemia
The main cause of anemia is a lack of iron, vitamin B12 or folic acid . Anemia can also be caused by blood loss due to gastrointestinal bleeding, which can be associated with taking certain medications, such as acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) or ibuprofen, as well as cancer.
In the absence of hemoglobin, the red pigment in the blood cells that carries oxygen, the most common cause is insufficient intake of iron in the diet, although blood loss during menstruation or stomach ulcers are also important.
What are red blood cells
Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are the most numerous cellular component of blood. Red blood cells contain hemoglobin, which binds oxygen in the lungs and transports it to the tissues. The main purpose of red blood cells is to provide a normal supply of oxygen to tissues and organs.
What is the frequency, classification of anemia
– Anemia due to acute blood loss;
– Anemia due to impaired erythrocyte production: aplastic, iron deficiency, megaloblastic, sideroblastic, chronic diseases;
– Anemia due to increased destruction of red blood cells: hemolytic.
Depending on the severity of the decrease in hemoglobin levels, there are three degrees of severity of anemia: mild – hemoglobin level above 90 g / l; medium – hemoglobin in the range of 90-70 g / l; severe – hemoglobin level below 70 g / l.
Different types of anemia are found in 10-20% of the population, mostly in women. The most common anemia associated with iron deficiency (about 90% of all anemias), less common anemia in chronic diseases, even less common anemia associated with vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency (megaloblastic), hemolytic and aplastic.
Anemia can be of complex origin. Sometimes the cause is a combination of iron deficiency and anemia due to B12 deficiency.
Medical tests for anemia
A comprehensive study that takes into account the quantitative and qualitative composition of cells, as well as the biochemical parameters of the blood, which allows you to identify the signs of anemia due to iron deficiency.
Colorimetric photometric method, flow cytometry, SLS (sodium lauryl sulfate) method, conductometric method, immunoturbidimetry.
Μmol / l (micromoles per liter), * 10 ^ 9 / l (10 in Article 9 / l), * 10 ^ 12 / l (10 in Article 12 / l), g / l (grams per liter)),% (percentage), fl (femtoliter), pg (picogram).
What biomaterial can be used for research?
How to prepare for the test?
- Exclude alcohol from your diet 24 hours before the test.
- Do not eat 12 hours before the test.
- Do not take medication 24 hours before the test (as agreed with your doctor).
- Remove physical and emotional stress 30 minutes before the test.
- Do not smoke 30 minutes before the test.
Symptoms of anemia, how to determine the presence of anemia
Symptoms and signs of anemia include fatigue, dizziness, shortness of breath, disturbances, frequent colds and infections, pallor and dark circles. Mental retardation and inappropriate behavior can occur in children.
If you notice paleness, fatigue and weakness, have seizures, shortness of breath, palpitations, you should see a doctor. Stomatitis (inflammation of the mucous membrane of the mouth), inflammation of the tongue, yellowing of the skin, tingling in the hands and feet can occur with anemia caused by a lack of folic acid in the diet.
Treatment of anemia
Blood transfusion in anemia
People with anemia sickle cells they will be operated on more often than the general population due to complications associated with sickle cells such as gallstones, infections and joint problems. However, surgery can lead to sickle cell complications.
Pre-surgery transfusions can help avoid complications by lowering anemia levels, reducing sickle cell counts and increasing blood oxygen levels. This reduces the risk of clogging blood vessels and prevents further damage.
There are different types of blood transfusions. The main task of the aggressive (intensive) transfusion regime is to reduce the number of red blood cells in the shape of a sickle in the blood to a certain level (usually the sickle cells are removed and the donor cells are introduced (exchange transfusion)). It also reduces anemia. The main goal of the conservative blood transfusion regimen is to reduce the levels of anemia, as well as to reduce the percentage of sickle red blood cells in the blood (dilution effect) until the sickle red blood cells are removed. An aggressive (intensive) blood transfusion regimen reduces the percentage of sickle red blood cells in the blood to a much lower level than a conservative transfusion regimen.
Nutrition in anemia
• Increase consumption of foods rich in easily digestible iron. It is found in beef, pork, lamb, poultry, fish, peas, vegetables with dark green leaves, dried fruits. Iron in animal products is easier to digest than from vegetables.
• To speed up the absorption of iron, include vitamin C in your diet in the form of citrus fruits or juices (orange, grapefruit or lemon). Do not drink tea immediately before, during or immediately after a meal, as it interferes with iron absorption.
• Iron in large doses can cause stomach upset and constipation and can be fatal for children. In addition, it can be neutralized with other minerals, leading to nutritional imbalance. If you have to take it in packs, take it in combination with vitamins and minerals such as selenium, vitamin B2, B12, folic acid, vitamin C and vitamin E.
Chinese remedy for anemia
. It aims to restore the body’s ability to absorb iron by stimulating the activity of the spleen with the help of special tablets (Return Spleen tablets), also known as – pi pi van.
Salt metabolism in tissues in anemia
. Potassium phosphate (Cals Phos), 4 times a day, helps in the formation of red blood cells.
. Iron phosphate (Ferr Phos) facilitates the absorption of iron in food.
Specialized help with anemia
. Acupuncture cures anemia
. Your doctor will look for the underlying cause of the anemia and treat it. If there is no obvious cause, iron injections or tablets are prescribed.
Medicines, herbs that help with anemia
Constantly reduced hemoglobin concentration and the number of red blood cells is one of the most common pathological conditions diagnosed in the entire population of the Earth. Of the several types of this disease, iron deficiency anemia is the most common. According to research, every fourth inhabitant of the planet suffers from a lack of iron in the body. To fill the deficit and restore the normal balance of blood components, you can use the recommendations and prescriptions of alternative medicine.
Anemia can develop due to lack of diet or insufficient absorption of foods that contain iron, amino acids and vitamins. These components are needed for the synthesis of red blood cells. The diet of a patient with anemia should include:
Products that contain iron: strawberries, grapes, pumpkin, onions, garlic, potatoes, dill, lettuce, melons, zucchini.
Sources of vitamins from groups B and C: cranberries, viburnum, cherries, apricots, corn, hawthorn, pomegranate, blackberries, bokvica, orange, lemon, white cabbage, eggplant.
Home remedies, herbs and combinations
Foods rich in amino acids: meat, liver, milk and dairy products.
In case of anemia, it is useful to start the day with a portion of grated carrots mixed with sour cream or vegetable oil. This combination will enable complete absorption of fat-soluble vitamins.
Anemia, Megaloblastic – diet, traditional medicine
B12-folate deficiency anemia is a disease that occurs as a consequence of impaired erythrocyte maturation due to impaired synthesis of RNA and DNA in the cell, followed by the presence in the bone marrow of a large number of altered precursors of red blood cells – megaloblasts.
Causes of megaloblastic anemia
Megaloblastic anemia is caused by a lack of vitamin B12 or folic acid. These are two different and chemically independent nutrients, but the lack of each of them leads to the same result – it interferes with the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow. Sometimes the body cannot absorb them, as is the case with the terminal plexus and whole disease.
The development of megaloblastic anemia is a consequence of a deficiency in the body of vitamin B12 and folic acid, whose deficiency occurs for the following reasons:
- insufficient food intake during fasting or after dieting;
- violation of its adsorption in the intestine caused by various inflammatory lesions of the mucosa;
- the absence of a part of the small intestine associated with its resection;
- increased bodily needs for vitamin B9 associated with breastfeeding, pregnancy and certain diseases;
- increased loss, for example during hemodialysis;
- systemic diseases of the liver and pancreas;
- chronic alcoholism;
- long-term use of certain drugs.
Symptoms of megaloblastic anemia
This type of anemia is often accompanied by the development of hypoxia, as a result of which such patients complain of general weakness, headache, dizziness, shortness of breath, swelling and discomfort in various parts of the body. Symptoms include fatigue, headache, paleness, loss of appetite and inflammation in the mouth and tongue. With megaloblastic anemia, there can be a decrease in appetite, nausea, vomiting, frequent diarrhea, reduced physical strength, and the development of unpleasant sensations on the tongue. Sometimes this disease is a lesion of the central nervous system, which is manifested by tingling in the extremities.
What is the role of vitamin B12 and folic acid in the body
Vitamin B12 is required for:
Providing energy – Among other B vitamins, it does not provide energy directly, but helps maintain normal metabolism of amino acids, fats and carbohydrates. Vitamin B12 is involved in a number of intracellular processes, ensuring cell health and producing sufficient energy.
Normal functioning of the nervous system. – Vitamin B12 with folic acid is necessary for the synthesis of myelin. Myelin is a substance that surrounds nerve fibers, which protects them and provides fast signal transmission between nerve cells. If myelin is damaged, impulse transmission is disrupted. Therefore, vitamin B12 is necessary for the normal functioning of the nervous system.
Prevention of anemia.
Good blood circulation is often associated with high iron levels, but in fact folic acid and vitamin B12 play the same role. That is why they are called hematopoietic vitamins. B12 helps to break down red blood cells, which are needed to maintain a constant circulation of oxygen in our body. The constant circulation of oxygen ensures the functioning of all critical processes in the body. Therefore, B12 and folic acid deficiency are often the cause of anemia.
Vitamin B12 also helps the body get rid of excessive amounts of homocysteine or toxins. They are formed as a result of metabolism and are toxic to cells. Therefore, it is imperative to get homocysteine out of the body. In this process, vitamin B12 helps protect the walls of blood vessels, prevents cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease and dementia.
B12 participates in the methylation process, in which the “methyl group” is sacrificed to other molecules and thus maintains the chemical balance of the body and its various functions. This seemingly simple process takes place a billion times a second. It is important for mood, brain function, energy production and cleansing of the body.
How to diagnose megaloblastic anemia
When diagnosing megaloblastic anemia, a physical examination and appointment of a general and biochemical blood test is recommended. A bone marrow puncture is also needed to confirm the diagnosis.
What is the differential diagnosis
The differential diagnosis of MBA is made primarily with other types of anemia.
The combination of increased hemolysis with signs of pancytopenia is also characteristic of autoimmune pancytopenia, Markiiafava-Micheli disease.
The combination in the clinical picture of severe anemic syndrome, abdominal pain and dyspeptic disorders, icteric skin and sclera requires a targeted diagnostic examination in order to exclude oncopathology of the abdominal organs.
In all cases of vitamin B12 deficiency, broadband access invasion can be ruled out. Fragments of strobiles, eggs of parasites can sometimes be found in the stool.
The differential diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency is also made with folic acid deficiency, which is much rarer and is observed during fasting and lack of nutrition in children suffering from alcoholism, during pregnancy and when using anticonvulsants. For the purpose of differential diagnosis of these conditions, folic acid is determined in blood serum and red blood cells.
Treatment of megaloblastic anemia
Nutrition in megaloblastic anemia
• Increase the use of vitamin B12, contained in animal products (lean meat, poultry, fish, sea crabs, milk, liver, kidneys, cheese and eggs). Vegetarians face a higher risk of vitamin B12 deficiency and should take yeast extract or vitamin tablets (2-3 mg daily) as a preventative measure.
Traditional medicine for megaloblastic anemia
• To make up for the lack of these nutrients, vitamin B12 is injected and folic acid tablets are taken.