Vitamins and minerals for cancer

Exploring the link between nutrients, metabolism and genetic sensitivity in the etiology of cancer is an important focus from a scientific and public health point of view. Since the etiology of cancer is multifactorial, it is necessary to study whether nutritional therapy, especially vitamins and trace elements, have a positive (preventive) or negative (higher risk) impact.

On the other hand, the evidence points to the fact that calorie restriction can reduce the occurrence of cancer, as in the study of Tannenbaum, which reports that in rodents, calorie restriction is positive in relation to the process of carcinogenesis. Therefore, the connection between is emphasized overweight , sedentary lifestyle and increased risk of cancer, especially colorectal, endometrial and breast cancer, which is explained by the ratio of hyperinsulinemia, elevated growth factors, estrogen and endogenous androgens.

Cancer is characterized by a progressive accumulation of mutations in the genome of the cell, where homeostatic mechanisms that determine the balance between proliferation and cell death are affected. Chemical oxidation is defined as the loss of electrons, while reduction is the gain of electrons. Therefore, it is understood that substrate oxidation is always associated with electron receptor reduction. The oxide reduction potential is therefore the redox potential that measures the flow of electrons involved in oxidation processes.

In aerobic beings, multiple chemical reactions with oxygen represent the most efficient mechanism of energy production, since they can generate intermediates or oxygen-reactive substances that accept electrons, form free radicals, unstable and reactive compounds with one or more unpaired orbital electrons. The isoform of oxidonitric synthase during the chronic inflammatory process can induce carcinogenesis, participating in the angiogenesis of tumor progression. The response of the host to this activity leads to the activation of the immune system, and with it the anti-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha and oxidant molecules. The human antioxidant system depends on some key nutrients: water- and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as trace elements. Oxidative DNA lesions are a crucial process in carcinogenesis, because they generate damage to nitrogenous bases, highly mutagenic modifications, which produce genetic instability at the sites of cell replication.

Diet and cancer: a complex relationship

The relationship between nutritional status, progression and cancer prognosis is based on the fact that both in clinical practice and in several studies it has been observed that well-nourished patients have a better prognosis and quality of life, emphasizing that malnutrition can negatively affect morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. in response to treatment, due to the toxicity that various antineoplastic treatments can cause, among the effects: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, mucositis, xerophthalmia.

On the other hand, tumor products also act on the central and peripheral nervous system , causing psychogenic effects such as anorexia, depression and anxiety, tumor cachexia, metabolic changes, thinness, weakness, decreased protein synthesis, loss of functionality. Among the mechanical effects of tumors, obstruction and malabsorption are considered important, which can cause a lack of macro and microelements, and thus significant weight loss, regardless of sufficient intake.

Another important aspect to consider is the fact that specific antioxidants such as flavonoids, folate and vitamin D. may reduce the risk of developing cancer.

Hence the importance of the nutritionist, who must perform screening to measure risk and nutritional assessment to diagnose nutritional status, as well as food history to study the patient’s eating habits.

Research with vitamin C.

Wright and co-workers studied the genetic variants and their impact on the risk of gastric cancer, based on the strong biological evidence that ascorbic acid has in the stomach. The study found ascorbic acid in high concentrations in the juices and gastric mucosa in patients with chronic gastritis, while in patients with cancer the concentration was low. That describes that ascorbic acid neutralizes reactive oxygen and inhibits the formation of N-nitroso compounds. stomach, showing that ascorbic acid can inhibit cell proliferation and apoptosis in gastric cells;

It even seems that ascorbic acid can directly affect the growth of Helicobacter pylori. They conclude that common variants of the SLC23A2 gene directly regulate the active transport of ascorbic acid, which may have a positive effect on the risk of gastric cancer.

On the other hand, Legut et al. Presented results in which deficient levels of vitamin C and anacardiac acid significantly increased the cytotoxicity of the antineoplastic drug in melanoma compared with ammonium sulfate liposomes. Vitamin C and anacardiac acid protect normal cells from damage caused by antineoplastic drugs. The combined formulation of vitamin C, anacardiac acid and mitoxantrone shows favorable results in terms of cytotoxicity and cytoprotection.

Cherdintsev et al. Report that a nitrotriazole derivative called Sanazole, which is usually used in high doses to improve the effectiveness of radiotherapy, causes peripheral neuropathy in some patients, which is classified as neurotoxic. In view of this, they conducted an in vivo study in mice, in which they noticed that the use of ascorbic acid glucoside before the use of sanazole in cancer patients manages to protect the body from neurotoxic effects.

Glutathione system

The glutathione system is especially important for defending cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Reduced glutathione (GSH) reacts directly with radicals in a non-enzymatic reaction and is an electron donor in the reduction of glutathione peroxidase (GPk) catalyzed peroxides. medicine.

Mikirova et al., Meanwhile, point out that ascorbic acid has therapeutic potential when given intravenously (IV), because plasma ascorbate levels may mediate inflammation, which could increase healing in cancer patients, suggesting that this intravenous form is safe. and can be adjunctive therapy for clinical cancer care.

Study performed using 15 g IVC

The study was performed using 15 g of IVC ascorbic acid in a specific way in patients with different types of cancer, observing favorable results. for their part – point out that ascorbic acid has therapeutic potential when given intravenously (IV), because plasma ascorbate levels may mediate inflammation, which could increase discharge in cancer patients. that this intravenous form is safe and can serve as an adjunct therapy for clinical cancer care. The study was performed using 15 g of IVC ascorbic acid in a specific way in patients with different types of cancer, observing favorable results. which could increase discharge in cancer patients.

They suggest that this intravenous form is safe and can serve as adjunctive therapy to clinical cancer care. The study was performed using 15 g of IVC ascorbic acid in a specific way in patients with different types of cancer, observing favorable results. which could increase release in cancer patients They suggest that this intravenous form is safe and may serve as adjunctive therapy to clinical cancer care. The study was performed using 15 g of IVC ascorbic acid in a specific way in patients with different types of cancer, observing favorable results.

Mehdi et al. Presented important results showing that there is a significant increase in levels of advanced protein oxidation products (AOPP), malondialdehyde (MDA) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) in patients with multiple myeloma before treatment, compared to healthy subjects.

In contrast, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), α-tocopherol (vitamin E), and antioxidant enzymes were significantly reduced. Therefore, biochemical changes caused by this type of cancer are evident.

Research with vitamin zinc

Christudoss et al., In their research, suggest that aspirin, vitamin C, and zinc may be administered separately to obtain a chemoprotective effect against preoplastic colon and carcinogenic colon progression in dimethylhydrazine (DMH) -induced rats. Therefore, the inhibitory effect is associated with maintaining colon tissue essential from zinc and zinc enzyme levels as close to normal as possible.

Because the effect of high doses of vitamin C as a cancer treatment is controversial, several studies have shown that vitamin C at a concentration of 0.25 to 1.0 mM in plasma, induced by dose and time, can inhibit cell proliferation in acute myeloid leukemia. . Treatment of cells with high doses of vitamin C results in an immediate increase in the content of intracellular glutathione S-transferase and its activity, followed by cysteine consumption.

These results indicate a new role of vitamin C in high concentrations as a modulator of sulfur-containing intracellular components, such as glutathione and cysteine. On the other hand, a clinical study reports a significant reduction in L ascorbic acid alternating with supplements in the treatment of patients with acute myeloid leukemia or myeloid dysplasia syndrome.

During the supplementation phase, patients received intravenous vitamin C daily prior to therapy, observing the in vitro behavior and sensitivity of leukemia cells to vitamin C, indicating that cancer cells are sensitive to vitamin C.

They conclude that although they accurately postulate specific mechanisms, vitamin C is difficult, however, they relate to the identification of genes or proteins that are specifically regulated by vitamin C in certain cellular phenotypes and this could improve the efficacy of cancer therapies.

In vivo study of Kontek et al.

In vivo study of Kontek et al. shows that vitamin C can cause a weak effect on DNA damaged by hydrogen peroxide and a positive effect on DNA damaged in HT29 cells (reduction of approximately 30%). They note that DNA damage was effectively repaired within 120 minutes after incubation in test cells that had one of the highest types of oxidative damage.

For their part, Paiva et al investigated the effects of vitamins C and E on tumors in xenographic mice with the sarcoma model (S180) in vivo. The result of the experimental study suggests that doses of 100 mg / kg of vitamin C and 400 mg / kg of vitamin E create a significant inhibition in tumor behavior. The encapsulation of anticancer drugs in the structure of liposomes protects the drug during its circulation and increases the accumulation of the drug in cancerous tissue, as well as its antitumor activity, while reducing the toxicity of the drug. Dominic’s study. and co-workers, propose a new drug loading method based on the pH gradient of vitamin C / ion.

The formulations are characterized in terms of parameters such as optimal external pH, time and drug-lipid ratio to achieve in vitro stability. In the specific case of epirubicin (EPI), its coencapsulation increases anticancer activity through possible synergistic effects reported by different groups of drugs with vitamin C without encapsulation. The method has another advantage which consists in enabling faster release by destabilization of liposomes at the tumor site, thanks to the very good solubility of EPI in vitamin C salts, as is observed in cryogenic transmission. This affects the drug release process and increases the anticancer activity of the liposome formulation. The antitumor activity of the encapsulated drug was confirmed (it inhibited tumor growth by over 40%, while it was shown that the drug that was not encapsulated did not have anticancer activity).

Vitamin E

Fat-soluble vitamin E., called tocopherol: alpha, beta, gamma and delta. Considered the main antioxidant found in the body’s lipid membranes, it protects polyunsaturated fatty acids from cell membranes from their oxidation by blocking free radicals. In addition to preserving carotenoids and selenium in a reduced state, favoring their antioxidant properties.

Its deficiency is characterized by hemolytic anemia, neuronal degeneration and reduction of serum creatinine with excessive losses in urine. Prolonged deficiency of this micronutrient causes musculoskeletal injuries and liver disorders. On the other hand, vitamin E poisoning causes nausea, headache, fatigue, hypoglycemia.

As for its effect on cancer, vitamin E plays an important role in reducing the neurotoxic effects of ciplastin. Vitamin E supplementation with 400 mg / day reduces the frequency and severity of neurotoxicity, and evidence suggests that vitamin E is assigned an important role, along with vitamin C, carotenoids, and folate, in the prevention of pancreatic cancer. While in the study of alpha tocopherol, beta carotene from the Study Group for Cancer Prevention, it was noted that no reduction in the incidence of lung cancer was found among male smokers after 8 years of dietary supplementation with alpha tocopherol or beta carotene. In fact, these tests shed light on the possibility that these supplements may do more harm than good. They also identified an association between vitamin A supplements and breast cancer risk, reporting a statistically significant incidence. Regarding complex B, they reviewed several studies, but did not find a link that supports complex B supplementation with both niacin and breast cancer.

Vitamin A-Retinol or carotenes, carotenoids

Vitamin A -Retinol or carotenes, carotenoids, are a fat-soluble vitamin with a recognized antioxidant effect in vitro. Carotenoids are absorbed in the small intestine and depend on the adequate absorption of fats, bile salts and pancreatic stereos. Its absorption is close to 80%, and then it is transported through the lymphatic system as a part of lipoprotein chylomicrons in the liver.

Its deficiency (serum concentrations <0.35 mmol / l) is characterized by: night blindness, xerophthalmia, Bitot’s spots, among others. Intoxication includes irritability, headache, anorexia, diplopia, alopecia, joint pain, liver disorders, bleeding. Among the antioxidant functions are: regulation of epithelial cell differentiation, inhibition of cell proliferation, increased immune capacity, inhibition of mutagenesis caused by physical carcinogens, reduction of nuclear damage caused by chemical and biological carcinogens. The strongest evidence regarding beta-carotene supplementation and lung cancer currently relates to the fact that high doses of beta-carotene can cause lung cancer in tobacco smokers.

Vitamin D

There are two forms of vitamin D in the body: D2, ergo calciferol and D3 hole calciferol. Vitamin D2 present in vegetables and vitamin formulations, D3 is synthesized in the body by exposing the skin to ultraviolet rays. Due to its characteristics, it is considered a hormone, with different functions from other vitamins, in addition to the fact that the body synthesizes it thanks to the sun’s action. Its activation to calcitriol begins in the liver and ends in the kidneys. Involved in bone growth, bone mineralization, and cell differentiation (cells of the immune and hematopoietic systems), it also acts as a medium to link a family of nuclear receptors such as steroids in general. It is a unique and specific nuclear receptor with direct transcriptional activity related to the response elements to vitamin D.

Because of these global effects and the immune system, including cell differentiation and proliferation, vitamin D is credited with a role in carcinogenesis and genetic polymorphism. Vitamin D deficiency has an epidemic prevalence in India ranging between 70% – 100% of the population, as cultural and religious practices do not allow adequate sun exposure as well as dairy consumption, and as a result people suffer from subclinical vitamin D deficiency, which favors high prevalence of osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer.

Due to the fact that mRNA receptors for vitamin D are detected in the human esophagus, they are assigned a regulatory role in the cell cycle, contributing to inhibition and differentiation in apoptosis of normal and transformed cells, where 25 (OH) 2D3, which is the active form of vitamin D3, contributes by protecting cells from turning into carcinogens. Significant evidence supports the anticancer role of vitamin D3 against breast, prostate, skin, and colon cancers, both in vivo and in vitro experimental models, and the most recent are those supporting Vit D3 metabolites to inhibit the growth and differentiation of esophageal cancer cells in vitro.

However, the evidence does not clearly show a link between vitamin D3 and the risk of esophageal cancer. In a study by Gui-Ling Huang et al., There is evidence of an association between high serum vitamin D3 concentrations and beta-carotene with a low risk of esophageal cancer. On the other hand, in the Pankaj G study, they point out in their hypothesis that the use of chemotherapy in colon cancer can cause changes in diet, such as the removal or reduction of dairy products as part of chemotherapy management due to induced diarrhea.

In addition, it has been observed that patients treated with this treatment do not absorb vitamin D due to subclinical mucositis, which is why these patients may need large amounts of vitamin D over long periods of time to achieve an appropriate serum level of 25 (OH) D. found that an oral formulation of 8,000 IU of vitamin D daily for 8 weeks was a safe regimen to correct vitamin D deficiency in cancer patients.

The response to such supplementation leads to the return of suboptimal to optimal levels in patients with prostate and lung cancer (with initial levels of 20-32 ng / ml), as well as in patients with colon and pancreatic cancer whose baseline levels are usually lowest (below 20 ng / ml). The impact of improvement in patient serum levels of 25 (OH) D, survival and quality of life should be investigated.

Another finding by Pankaj and co-workers is the association of obese cancer patients with vitamin D deficiency, compared with normal-weight cancer patients. Some of the proposed mechanisms explain the association between obesity and hypovitaminosis D, which, in addition to involving a lack of sun exposure due to physical inactivity, also refers to the sequestration of vitamin D in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Recently, such studies have suggested determining whether restoring and maintaining adequate levels of vitamin D may affect tumor control and survival.

Folic acid

Folic acid is soluble in water and its sources are fruits, dark green vegetables and seeds. People are not able to synthesize this vitamin, so it must come from dietary sources. Its bioavailability is higher as folic acid than as folate, because it is not conjugated and therefore more stable. Multiple mechanisms suggest that it has a preventive role in carcinogenesis, including molecular mechanisms such as DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation.

Marinos et al., Point out that even a study by nurses (NHS) showed that a diet high in folate reduces the risk of colon cancer or adenomas, but not when folate comes from a supplement.

It has been suggested that folic acid supplementation may be associated with increased adenoma recurrence and may be detrimental to those patients with a history of colon cancer. Therefore, it is recommended that multivitamins containing folic acid do not exceed 400 μg. It is necessary to emphasize that folic acid has nutritional properties and chemical structures similar to folate and folacin; it is a coenzyme that participates in the synthesis of nucleic bases, purines and pyrimidines to form nucleic acids, along with vitamin B, and in protein metabolism. Folate is important in DNA synthesis, so it somehow plays a role in carcinogenesis. This role is considered important, as the folic acid pathway is a natural antifolate drug such as methotrexate.

Therefore, in the treatment of cancer, they are harmful for both cancer cells and normal cells, which is why they cause the well-known side effects of these drugs. Folic acid deficiency results in megaloblastic anemia, leukopenia, anorexia, diarrhea, glossitis, weight loss, dermatological disorders.

Folate is thought to help prevent cancer by participating in the synthesis, repair and function of DNA. Folate deficiency can result in DNA damage which can lead to cancer. In contrast, other studies suggest that excess folate may promote tumor activation. Folic acid is involved in the metabolism of amino acids and is necessary for the methylation of nucleic acid. It is important to consider that one of the drugs that interferes with folate metabolism is methotrexate, which is known to be used to treat cancer. Its direct interaction is that it inhibits the production of the active form, tetrahydrofolate. In addition, methotrexate may have a toxic effect such as inflammation of the digestive tract, which in turn would affect oral intake.

Folic acid, in turn, can help reverse the toxic effects of methotrexate. However, it is known that small doses of methotrexate can reduce folate stores causing deficiency. In contrast, diets high in folic acid, as well as its supplements, can help reduce the side effects of methotrexate without reducing its effectiveness. Compared to the doses indicated as a supplement, they found that there was an increased risk when doses of folic acid greater than 400 μg / day were added.


Calcium, an important macroelement in the processes of blood coagulation, neuromuscular excitability, nerve transmission and muscle contraction. It also plays an important role in bone and tooth mineralization, enzyme activation and hormonal secretion. Responsible for the transport of vitamin B12 in the gastrointestinal tract and necessary for the maintenance and function of membrane cells. Hypocalcemia is associated with the secretion of calcitonin by tumor C cells of the thyroid gland, sometimes the thymus and parathyroid glands, by reducing the concentration of calcium and phosphate in the plasma and by inhibiting bone absorption. Hypercalcemia is associated with parathyroid tumors.


The most common trace element after iron. The composition of metalloenzymes with great antioxidant power, with a relevant role in cell growth and replication, in full maturation, fertility and reproduction, also in phagocytic, immune and humoral functions, as well as in taste and appetite.

On the other hand, zinc deficiency can alter protein synthesis by reducing serum levels of transport proteins such as albumin, pre-albumin, transferrin, affecting the availability of micronutrients. Deficiency can be caused by low consumption or large intestinal losses (diarrhea, drainage, etc.)

With cisplastin and diuretic therapy, it also occurs during chemotherapy with agents that promote mucositis.

Even low Zn levels correlate with higher mortality in cancer patients receiving high doses of antineoplastic drugs in chemotherapy, as occurs with bone marrow transplantation.

Zinc study

Chistudoss and co-workers report that zinc deficiency or excess appears to be involved in the development or progression of some types of cancer. In their experimental model, it is suggested that plasma zinc deficiency in tissue reserves and zinc-dependent enzyme activity are associated with the development of pre-neoplastic lesions, because such biochemical parameters decrease in proportion to the progression of colon cancer. as happens with bone marrow transplants,


Selenium, a trace element that acts through selenium proteins, some of which are enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase. Its functions include the promotion of body growth, prevention of pancreatic disorders, liver necrosis, degenerative diseases of the white muscle and the appearance of Keshan’s disease (juvenile cardiomyopathy).

It is important for neutrophilic and polymorphonuclear cytotoxicity. An important biological role is its recognized antioxidant power, which is secondary to selenoenzymes (glutathione peroxidase, selenoprotein P, thioredoxin peroxidase, immunomodulatory iodothyronine deiodinase: optimization of cellular and humoral immune response by improving the phenomenon of lymphocyte proliferation and phagocytosis.

During the state of hypercatabolism, a deficit in the nutritional status of selenium is created. Reactant in the acute phase. In critical illness (characterized by an inflammatory condition with oxidative stress), serum selenium levels fall early, with an inverse relationship between these events and mortality.

Manzanares suggests a selenium supplement of 450 ug / day for 14 consecutive days. For their part, Heiland and colleagues suggest a selenium intake of 100 μg / day in critical patients, while in large burns it should be 375 μg / day. They state that the dose of selenium is associated with a reduction in mortality in critically ill patients from 500 to 1000 mg / day.

Scientific opinion regarding the relationship between selenium and cancer risk is very mixed. It was initially seen as a possible carcinogenic system during the 1940s, and then as a possible protective agent between the 1960s and 2000s. More recently, controlled studies have found no effect on cancer risk, but suggest low dermatological dose and endocrine toxicity; in animals they indicate both carcinogenic and preventive effects.

Epidemiologically, the evidence reports that there are no cancer-related preventive effects in increasing selenium doses in healthy individuals, but if the risk of causing disorders and diseases of another nature, the form of organic or inorganic presentation may be dramatically different from these biological effects. Selenium deficiency is associated with cancer risk; it is even considered mineral chemotherapy.

Selenium testing

336 patients (black and white race) with Se supplementation and placebo group were examined. After supplementation with Se, a direct association between Se and GSH in the blood was observed, resulting in a higher in whites than in blacks with p <0.01. (44). Se can be effective in preventing lung cancer, especially in people with low Se levels, however it should not be used as a general strategy. It reduces the level of toxicity in chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the same way.


Because cancer treatment and the type of cancer diagnosed affect the patient’s nutritional status, the nutritionist plays a key role in its progression and treatment. Antineoplastic treatments can produce micronutrient deficiencies, hence the importance of nutritional therapy, especially the studied micronutrients, in order to reduce the toxicity of such treatments in a timely manner and thus improve tolerance to them and the quality of the patient’s oncological life.

What is folic acid for?

Folic acid – which is also well known as vitamin B9, or folate, or methylfolate – is a water-soluble vitamin. As the body cannot store this vitamin for a long time, a daily supplement is necessary. It is used for the production of blood cells, wound healing, helping to build muscle.

Due to its functions, folic acid is necessary for its formation DNA and RNA and to ensure that cells replicate normally. At the beginning of pregnancy, it is of fundamental importance for the development of the embryo, because it is a time of great cell replication.

The vitamin also helps in the production of basic chemicals for the brain and nervous system. Like all vitamins, folic acid is essential for the proper functioning of the metabolism. Its deficiency or excess can cause health problems.

Folic acid and its benefits during pregnancy

Adequate levels of folic acid during conception and during the first three months of pregnancy greatly reduce the risk of serious birth defects in babies. The use of folic acid is very important for you and the development of your baby during pregnancy.

Even in a healthy, natural pregnancy or through assisted fertilization, the intake of folic acid is warmly recommended, because it reduces the risk of malformations of the baby’s central nervous system. Supplementation prevents the appearance of problems in the fetal neural tube, which is formed in the first months of pregnancy, and includes a primitive structure that creates the brain and spinal cord.

Folic acid is one of the most important nutrients for a baby

Folic acid is responsible for reducing the risk of defects in the brain and spine, which is called nerve tube deficiency. The neural tube becomes the baby’s brain and spinal cord in the first month of pregnancy, and this period is the most dangerous for creating disability.

Therefore, it is recommended that you increase your folic acid intake before conception. In addition, folic acid is also responsible for helping placenta formation and DNA development, as well as reducing the risk of preeclampsia during pregnancy.

In general, a dose of 600 mcg per day is recommended for pregnant women, and the dose can be suspended after the first 3 months of pregnancy, because folic acid acts for up to a year. All recommendations, however, must be confirmed by your prenatalist.

The WHO – World Health Organization – also recommends a preventive supplement for pregnant women who have started prenatal care, regardless of gestational age.

Where we find folic acid

One of the most common sources of folic acid are all plants with green leaves, with special emphasis on spinach, broccoli, cabbage, lettuce and primrose. Grains, beans, mushrooms, chicken liver, eggs, brewer’s yeast and wheat germ also have good amounts of folic acid.

Fruits such as avocados, mangoes, oranges, tomatoes, melons and bananas should also be on the menu for those who want to balance the level of folic acid in the body.

Foods rich in folate are quite varied and their menu will not become monotonous. It is always good to remember that part of the folic acid present can be lost during cooking and food preparation.

Another source of pvpg vitamins are supplements, drugs and fortified products. Supplements are most suitable if there is a lack of folic acid in the body.

Risks of overuse

Folate is a water-soluble vitamin and this facilitates its regulation in the body: all excess will be naturally eliminated through urine. Therefore, overdose does not happen with food, but it can happen if you use folic acid as a dietary supplement.

Intake of an overdose of folic acid can result in digestive problems, abdominal pain, nausea and skin reactions. Vitamin B12 deficiency and consequent anemia can also occur. Amounts above 5000 micrograms per day are considered dangerous.

Therefore, it is worth paying attention to excessive use and taking into account the doses.

Women of childbearing potential need 400 mcg of folic acid daily.

Severe birth defects of the baby’s brain or spine appear very early in pregnancy (3 to 4 weeks after conception), before most women realize that they are pregnant.

If you are taking folic acid, consuming a dose higher than 400 mcg per day is not necessarily better to prevent nerve tube damage, unless your doctor recommends taking a larger amount for other conditions.

When planning to become pregnant, women who have already had a pregnancy with neural tube defects should consult their doctor. The CDC recommends that these women consume 4,000 mcg of folic acid daily for one month before becoming pregnant and during the first three months of pregnancy.

Other benefits for the body

In the human body, vitamin B9 performs some specific functions and mainly acts to reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, folic acid prevents heart disease and stroke.

Numerous factors, including B vitamins, including folate, are needed to strengthen the immune system. Vitamin B9 folic acid also reduces possible hearing loss in the elderly; treats poor kidney function;

This vitamin also regulates the production and use of homocysteine, a substance similar to an amino acid that can damage blood vessel tissue at high levels, making them more susceptible to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques (narrowed due to fat accumulation).

In addition, folic acid can help prevent certain cancers, including lung, cervix , colon and rectum. Applying sufficient doses of this vitamin can also prevent thousands of deaths from heart disease.

Continuing with the list of benefits, folic acid plays an important role in the health of the skin, nails and hair. This vitamin helps in growth and fights acne and dermatitis, leaving the skin a healthy glow and controlled oil.

In addition to being necessary for the development of the nervous system of the fetus, folate is necessary for the proper functioning of the brain and plays an important role in cognitive abilities and mental and emotional health. It acts as a cofactor in the production of serotonin, a neurotransmitter that guarantees good mood.

Medical monitoring during pregnancy is of the utmost importance to avoid complications. Any medicine, substance or vitamin should be prescribed and prescribed by a doctor.

Folic acid

How can you get enough folic acid

In addition to eating foods with folate as part of a varied diet, women can also get folic acid in the following ways:

Take a vitamin that contains folic acid.

Most vitamins sold in the United States contain the recommended daily amount of folic acid (400 mcg) that women need.

Vitamins can be purchased at most local drugstores, supermarkets. Check the package label to make sure it contains 100% of the daily nutritional requirement for folic acid, which is 400 mcg.

Eat fortified foods.

Folic acid can be found in breakfast cereals and corn porridge.

Be sure to read the Nutrition Facts label and look for products that say “100%” next to the word “folate.”

Combined use of vitamins and foods rich in folate.

Myths and facts about the connection between cancer and vitamin D.

Vitamin D is fat-soluble, a prohormone (a form of substance that contains hormones but is active in forming hormones). Vitamin D helps the body use calcium and phosphorus to have stronger bones and teeth.

Skin exposed to sunlight can produce vitamin D. Certain foods are also rich in vitamin D. vitamin D deficiency can weaken the bone structure. 

The two main forms of vitamin D for humans are vitamin D2 and vitamin D3. Vitamin D2 is produced by plants, while the human body produces vitamin D3. Vitamin D3 is produced by exposure to skin sunbeams.

Both forms are converted to 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the liver. 25-hydroxyvitamin D travels through the body to the kidneys, where it is modified into 1.25 dihydroxy vitamin D and calcitriol active forms of vitamin D.

Individuals get less vitamin D needed through sunlight. In that case, these people should use vitamin D in supplements. 

Foods that contain large amounts of vitamin d are fish liver, fish oil, and eggs. 

vitamin D in the diet

Connection between cancer and vitamin D

Decades ago, scientists noticed a connection: people in sunny parts of the world had lower cancer rates and fewer deaths from the disease than places with less sun.

To explain the difference, researchers began studying the effects of vitamin D, a nutrient that the body produces when sunlight touches the skin.

After years of research, there are still no definitive answers to whether this vitamin can prevent cancer or play a role in its treatment. However, scientists have learned some things about the connection and are still researching. Here are some myths and facts about vitamin D and cancer.

Vitamin D can help prevent all types of cancer

There is not enough evidence to recommend vitamin D for every form of the disease. In fact, one large study found that taking vitamin D3 and calcium did not reduce the overall chances of getting cancer in healthy postmenopausal women.

Besides, when scientists reviewed the results of several studies, they found that vitamin D did not reduce the chances of several species of cancer, including:

Stomach cancer
Prostate cancer
Cancer of the esophagus (esophagus), an organ of the digestive tract that connects the oral cavity and stomach

Fact: Vitamin D shows great potential when it comes to colorectal cancer.

Scientists have done a lot of research on vitamin D’s role in colorectal cancer. The results are not completely consistent, but numerous studies have found that higher vitamin D levels are associated with lower chances of getting the disease.

Clinical trials are still looking for a link, including how the vitamin affects people who take it along with their colorectal cancer therapy.

Women should take vitamin D to reduce their chances of getting breast cancer

breast cancer

Vitamin D can reduce certain chances of getting the disease, but research shows that it does not prevent breast cancer. Women who have a low amount of vitamin D can benefit from taking this vitamin compared to others.

Other studies have linked low vitamin D levels to a higher chance of breast cancer.

Among women in the early stages of the disease, those with low vitamin D content are more likely to get cancer than those with normal levels. Women with less vitamin D were more likely to die from the disease.
Women with healthy vitamin D levels were 63 percent less likely to get breast cancer than women who did not have enough of this vitamin.
In mice, too little vitamin D led to breast cancer cells’ growth.

Fact: Many people are deficient in vitamin D and need a supplement.

Worldwide, nearly 50 percent of people do not get enough vitamin D. Because it is so important for many aspects of health – including the ability to prevent some types of cancer – you can benefit from taking vitamin D.

Instructions for taking

Getting vitamin D through the sun

Before you start taking vitamins, ask your doctor if taking vitamin D is safe for you. If you are taking medication, it may affect their effectiveness. Your doctor can also test your blood to see how much vitamin D you have, which will help determine the exact dose for your body.

Finally, if fear of getting cancer is the main reason you want to take vitamin D, tell your doctor. There may indeed be some promising vitamin D findings in some types of cancer, such as colorectal and breast cancer.

But it would help if you also learned about other, proven ways to reduce your chances of getting cancer. One of the best ways is to check yourself regularly when your doctor recommends it. This will increase your chances of noticing the problem in time.

Using vitamin D u kind supplements

Vitamin D for people aged 1-70 should also be used by pregnant and breastfeeding women in an amount of 15 micrograms per day.  Or 600 IU per day

People over the age of 70 should use 20 micrograms a day or 800 IU.

Newborns can use up to 10 micrograms or 40 IU per day.

Although we think we are getting enough vitamins for the body, the World Health Organization claims the opposite. As much as 80 percent of the world’s population has a deficiency of vitamin D in the body.

Although taking vitamin D is healthy, overdoses can have a toxic effect.  Large doses can be dangerous because they raise calcium levels in the body. This can lead to calcinosis (by depositing calcium in soft tissues, such as the kidneys, heart, or lungs) and hypercalcemia (high levels of calcium in the blood).

Vitamin D toxicity more often comes from the overuse of supplements than from vitamin D ingestion through food. You should note that people should not overdo vitamin D intake through sun exposure. This increases the risk of skin cancer.

Avitaminosis hypovitaminosis for all vitamins

Avitaminosis is any disease caused by chronic or long-term vitamin deficiency or a disease caused by a defect in metabolic conversion, such as that of tryptophan to niacin.

Fat-soluble vitamins

Fat-soluble vitamins are K, A, D, and E. Precisely because they are fat-soluble, they can accumulate in the body, and avitaminosis occurs when fat absorption is impaired. Their lack is noticed only after a few months since they are stored. Diseases of the pancreas, liver, bile, and bile ducts and prolonged and fatty diarrhea can cause a deficiency of these vitamins.

Vitamin A avitaminosis

avitaminosis vitamin a

Vitamin A (retinol, carotene) is important for maintaining normal differentiation of epithelium, skeletal muscle, and cell membrane components. It is essential for photosensitive retinal epithelium. Because vitamin A deficiency  (ICD-10:  E50) causes xerophthalmia and night blindness. In nature, vitamin A appears as retinol  (a more important form in which it is stored, transmitted, and actively involved in the function of sight) or as beta-carotene (provitamin A in yellow and leafy vegetables).

In the absence of vitamin A, the epithelium irregularly keratinizes and shows signs of the cylindrical epithelium’s squamous metaplasia. We see such changes in the trachea, bronchi, renal droplets, uterus, pancreatic ducts, and salivary gland ducts. You cannot regenerate rhodopsin so that vision disorders will occur. In short, in vitamin A deficiency, we have:

  • eye changes –  night blindness due to retinol deficiency,  xerophthalmia  (dry eyes), increased frequency of infections,  Bitot spots, softening of the cornea with consequent susceptibility to infections (keratomalacia).
  • skin changes – follicular hyperkeratosis due to impaired keratinization of the epithelium in hair follicles,
  • respiratory epithelial metaplasia with favoring infections and bronchopneumonias
  • pyelonephritis.

Vitamin D deficiency

vitamin d foods

Vitamin D’s function is to maintain normal plasma calcium and phosphorus levels. Calcium deficiency disrupts neural excitation and muscle relaxation, leading to hypocalcemic tetany. You should remember the sign of hypocalcemia –  Chvostek’s sign (tapping on the facial muscle causes facial muscle spasms) and Trousseau’s sign (arm muscle spasms when a cuff like a pressure gauge is put on).

Vitamin D deficiency in children causes rickets, and in adults, osteomalacia. The underlying disorder in both diseases is reduced mineralization of the newly formed bone matrix. In children, growth is not yet complete, so the pineal glands are open, there is insufficient mineralization of the newly formed bone and cartilaginous matrix in the growth zone. Epiphyseal cartilage overgrows without adequate calcification and normal cartilage cell maturation. The growth zone is wide and irregular. The cartilaginous cells are large, irregularly distributed, only in rows. The thickened ossification border is macroscopically observed as a spherical spindle thickening called a rickets crown.

Due to the abundance of osteoids, the bone is soft, flexible, and suitable for distortion and deformation. The softened occipital bone that dies when touched is called the craniotabes. The head takes on a square shape due to many osteoids created in frontal and parietal protuberances (square head –  square head ). And the spine is softened, causing kyphoscoliosis. The sternum protrudes or dents (pectus carinatum or pectus excavatum). The bones of the limbs are thick and stocky and shorter. The softer bones in the legs bend and form deformed O or X-shaped legs. In women, the pelvis becomes narrowed due to the sacrum’s impression and the suppression of the acetabulum ( pelvis angusta ) or flat ( pelvis plan ).

Vitamin K

Vitamin K comes in two forms: K 1  in plants and K 2, synthesized by the bacterial intestinal flora. Vitamin K serves as a cofactor in glutamic acid’s carboxylation to gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (in the liver). It is necessary for the functioning of the three clotting factors (VII, IX, and X) and proteins C and S. The natural deficiency of vitamin K occurs in newborns because they have sterile intestines. The most important complication is hemorrhagic diathesis (bleeding tendency), with the most dangerous manifestation being intracranial hemorrhage. Therefore, vitamin K is given to newborns prophylactically to avoid vitamin K avitaminosis.

Water-soluble vitamins

Vitamin B 1 (thiamine)

Vitamin B avitaminosis 1 (thiamine) is known as beriberi. It most commonly occurs in alcoholics. Thiamine deficiency is manifested by changes in peripheral nerves, the brain, and the heart. Peripheral nonspecific neuropathy or dry beriberi is asymmetrical neuropathy that first appears on the legs, followed by weakened reflexes, atrophy, and muscle weakness. It is characterized by myelin degeneration and axon fragmentation. Changes in the cardiovascular system or wet beriberi are characterized by peripheral vasodilation leading to AV shunts and consequent dilatation of the heart.

The heart is dilated, thinned walls, heavier and reduced stroke volume, leading to peripheral edema. As mentioned earlier, alcoholics develop Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome due to thiamine deficiency, two syndromes,  Wernicke’s encephalopathy and  Korsakoff’s psychosis, which often occurs together for the same cause. Encephalopathy is characterized by ophthalmoplegia (weakening of extraocular muscles), ataxia (incoordination of voluntary movements), and confusion.

Korsakoff’s syndrome is also called an amnesia-confabulatory syndrome due to retrograde amnesia, inability to remember new information, and confabulation.

Vitamin B 2 (riboflavin)

Vitamin B 2  (riboflavin) coenzyme is in various oxidation and reduction reactions. Today, its deficiency is a rarity. The morphological changes it causes are changes in the scalp, lips, tongue, cornea, and erythroid lineage. Ketosis is a characteristic change. Some fissures radiate and sometimes become secondarily infected in the corner of the lips. Glossitis is also present.

Vitamin B 3 (niacin)

vitamin b3 niacin

Niacin avitaminosis causes a disease called pellagra. It is most commonly found in alcoholics and chronic patients and in people whose diet is poor in tryptophan and rich in leucine (leucine inhibits the conversion of tryptophan to niacin). Pellagra is clinically manifested by dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia. Long-term untreated pellagra is fatal.

Vitamin B 6 (pyridoxine)

Vitamin B 6  (pyridoxine) is a cofactor in a number of enzymes involved in the metabolism of lipids and amino acids, and its deficiency is rare

Vitamin B 12 and folic acid

Vitamin B 12  or cyanocobalamin occurs in two active forms – coenzyme B 12  and methylcobalamin. It is essential to synthesize methionine, nucleic acids, and folic acid metabolism. It is found exclusively in food of animal origin. Plants cannot produce it (that is why people who eliminate animal origin products from their diet sometimes cannot compensate for B 12, and they should be suspected of B after 12  deficiency). For the absorption of vitamin B. 12, gastric cells’ intrinsic factor is necessary.

Vitamin B 9  or folic acid (pteroylmonoglutamic acid) is an oxidized folate form. It has a similar role as cobalamin.

Both vitamins are absorbed in the small intestine. Avitaminosis of both vitamins causes megaloblastic anemia. Since DNA synthesis is disrupted, changes are first observed in the fastest-dividing hematopoietic cells. Glossitis is present. The mucosa of the digestive tract is atrophied. The bone marrow is hyperplastic and, as in the blood, megalocytes and megakaryoblasts predominate.

Anemia leads to tissue hypoxia, so there will be a fatty change in the parenchymal organs. The posterior and lateral columns of the spinal cord are demyelinated. A diet low in folic acid in the first trimester of pregnancy increases the risk of neural tube rupture.

Vitamin C

vitamin c from fruits

Vitamin C ( ascorbic acid ) has the property of reversible oxidation and reduction, on which its action is based. In the body, there is a balance of reduced (L-ascorbic acid) and oxidized (L-dehydroascorbic acid) form:
L-ascorbic acid ↔ dehydro-L-ascorbic acid + 2H +  + 2e .

Vitamin C as a cofactor of proline hydroxylase

This system is associated with other reducing and oxidizing agents. Vitamin C acts in the synthesis of collagen as a coenzyme hydroxylase that hydroxylates the amino acid residues (prolyl and lysyl) of procollagen, a condition for the stabilization of collagen. It also participates in the synthesis of norepinephrine from 3,4-dihydroxy phenyl-ethylamine, carnitine from butyrobetaine 5-hydroxy-tryptophan from tryptamine. The absorption of iron from the intestine is better with ascorbic acid because it reduces the ferric form of iron to the ferrous form. Before the ferritin release, iron is converted to ferric form with ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid protects tetrahydrofolate from the action of oxidizing substances.
In addition to collagen synthesis, vitamin C is important in synthesizing intercellular substances such as ostemucine, chondromucine, and dentin.

Humans, monkeys, and guinea pigs cannot synthesize ascorbic acid due to a mutation in the gene for the enzyme L-gluconolactone oxidase, which catalyzes the transition L-gluconogamalactone to L-ascorbic acid. The daily requirement for vitamin C in quiet conditions is 60 mg, but this need increases two to three times in stress, infection, after surgery, in pregnancy, breastfeeding, and hyperthyroidism. The reserve is small, so it wears out quickly. The kidneys excrete it as oxalate or sulfate.

Vitamin C avitaminosis is rare and causes scurvy, a disease characterized by bone disorders, bleeding, and inability to heal wounds. The cause of this is the formation of abnormal collagen, where the bleeding that accompanies scurvy is the result of a defect in collagen as an integral part of the capillary wall and venules. Therefore, we often see spotting (ecchymoses and purpura) on the mucous membranes.

Often bleeding gums, teeth can fall out due to alveolar bone resorption. Poor connection between the periosteum and bone can lead to subperiosteal bleeding. Due to insufficient production of the osteoid matrix and excessive cartilage growth, wide pineal glands are formed. Anemia is common due to frequent bleeding and reduced release of iron from ferritin reduced absorption of iron from the intestine, and reduced amount of effective folate due to the irreversible oxidation of N 10 formyl-tetrahydrofolate into ineffective metabolites.

Susceptibility to infections is a logical outcome.

Artichoke full of vitamins and good for the heart

Artichoke Cynara scolymus L.- Compositae is a plant from the cephalopod family. It is grown as a vegetable in Western Europe and grows mostly in the Mediterranean and the Canary Islands.

Artichoke has large flower heads with fleshy succulent inflorescence and fleshy sheathing leaves with a succulent base. These juicy parts are used as vegetables. There are forty species of this plant, and it was first mentioned in writings from Egyptian tombs from 2500 years ago, so it is considered one of the oldest foods. The Greeks and Romans considered it an aphrodisiac and a means of obtaining male offspring.

Catherine de ‘Medici introduced the French to this vegetable and contributed to this plant’s promotion. At the beginning of the 20th century, the mayor of New York banned this vegetable’s sale because artichokes could only be purchased from mobsters. But the ban did not last long because it was a delicious vegetable.

Artichoke composition:

Artichoke contains bitter substances that increase appetite, help digestion, act as a mild diuretic, choleretic, and cholagogue, have a beneficial effect on the liver, reduce urea in the blood, and help digest fats, etc.

Artichoke is a good source of folic acid and vitamins C, K, and B and minerals: Fe (iron), K (potassium), Mg (magnesium) and P (phosphorus), Cu (copper), Ca (calcium). In its fresh state, it is the food of choice for people planning pregnancy due to folic acid’s high content, which prevents damage to the fetus’s neural tube. It also contains the antioxidant caffeine cinnarizine, silymarin, ferulic acid, beta carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin.

The least medicinal part of this plant is the one that is eaten as a vegetable, but the rest of the plant is bitter but with a higher content of medicinal components.

Medicinal properties of artichoke:

• Artichoke is considered a protector of the heart and blood vessels because cinnarizine and sesquiterpene-lactone from artichoke have a beneficial effect on heart health and blood vessels. They prevent the appearance of angina pectoris, heart attack, and stroke
• dietary foods, rich in inulin, and suitable for diabetics
• due to modern lifestyle and irregular diet, fast food, artichoke is a plant that you should include in the diet because it solves the problems of bloating, cramps, pain, and heaviness in the stomach
• reduces the level of bad cholesterol and raises the level of good LDL cholesterol by increasing the breakdown of cholesterol
• is considered a natural remedy for dissolving gallstones
• affects liver health by reducing the level of fat and toxins, prevents liver cancer and diseases caused by excessive alcohol consumption
• also has a mild laxative effect
detoxification of the organism
• suitable for the diet of obese people due to its low-calorie content


The use of this vegetable is prevalent in Western Europe. It is prepared by frying, or grilling, with beans or pasta. It is not eaten raw because it is difficult to digest.

The edible part is the heart of artichoke in older plants, and you can eat stems from young plants.

Artichoke tea

Preparation: The prickly leaves of the artichoke, which people usually throw away when preparing vegetables, contain the most medicinal substances, so it is best to prepare tea from these parts. Mash the fresh leaves of one artichoke, then pour 200 ml of water and cook for 15 minutes. Then proceed, i.e., squeeze as much tea as possible, separating the large leaves. Cool the artichoke tea that is ready to use in this way.

If you need more tea during the day, you can prepare it as follows:

Pour 100 g of artichoke (leaf, stalk, root) with 1 liter of cold water, heat to boiling, let it boil for 5 minutes, and then leave to cool. Strain and use the obtained light green tea 3 times a day for 200 ml or differently, depending on the problem.

This tea improves the body’s general condition because it affects the immune system and strengthens the body’s defenses against infections and diseases. Besides, the use of this tea has other healing effects: it prevents infection of the bile, liver, and kidneys, maintains muscle tone, reduces blood sugar levels, prevents the appearance of congenital disabilities, is good against atherosclerosis and stomach problems, etc.


If you are allergic to chamomile and dandelion, check with an expert if you may be allergic to artichokes.

Artichoke recipe

Preparation of artichokes with beans

Needed: 400g beans, 10 – 12 artichoke heads, garlic heads, olive oil, parsley, pretzels.

Preparation: Soak the artichoke head in water before use, wait 1-2 hours for the bitter components to come out. Cook the beans and mix them with the other ingredients (garlic, olive oil (maybe sunflower oil), pretzels, and primrose). Fill the artichokes with the obtained laughter and arrange them in the sherpa when filling zucchini. Add a little water and spices and cook on low heat for an hour or more (depending on the fire’s strength).

Liposomal vitamin C usability 90%

Liposomal vitamin C  is an innovation in the transport of nutrients and absorption of preparations in the body.

Every day something new is discovered, so ingenious people discover superior ways better to assimilate medicinal substances and nutrients into the human body. This last generation of transport integration is called liposomal technology.

Since we need greater utilization of all nutrients and at the same time medicines, this way of protection and transport of the same in the human body has been developed over time.

Liposomes and their role

liposomal vitamin c box

Liposomes are tiny fat particles used as a means of transmission, which transfers food and nutrients to cells throughout the body. Dr. Alec Banham discovered liposomes.  Vitamin C is one of the most widely used and well-known antioxidants worldwide. It is an integral part of various forms of food, and also vitamin C helps and improves our immune system’s functioning. Liposomal vitamin C is a futuristic invention of the assimilation of food in the body and has won many awards in health. Liposomal vitamin C is wrapped like cells in our body and thus is successfully transported through the digestive tract directly into the bloodstream without damage or loss.

This way of transporting matter in the body provides much greater utilization and assimilation. This way of taking vitamin C in liposomal form has a stronger effect and better assimilation than intravenously. This is a technique used in many modern hospitals and unconventional health centers. The dimensions of liposomes fit into the average dimensions of most vitamin C, which vary from 100-400 nanometers. According to their nano dimensions, making miniature capsules or liposomes is very complex and requires special technology.

In addition to the intake of nutrients and their transport and implementation in the body, liposomes are also used for better absorption and all the above functions of various types of drugs in medicine. Thanks to the surprising effects and benefits of liposomal technology, several dietary companies use these methods to produce their dietary supplements.

Dr. Mercola brand liposomal vitamin C.

dr mercola liposomal vitamin c

Dr. Merkola is a manufacturer that has been in the circles of supplement manufacturers since 2001. Dr. Josef Merkola is a manufacturer that essentially has a tradition of producing diet products for more than 100 years and representing perfect quality. These products are used as a benchmark for determining certain supplements in the United States as the best possible. Dr. Merkola has provided the perfect form of vitamin C, which is 10 times more absorbed and even better than intravenous transport as a regular dietary supplement.

Do not buy untested liposomal preparations. Forming liposomes is very complex, and production machines cost tens of thousands of euros. Dr. Mercola is a proven global brand that gives amazing and instant results with its liposomal vitamin c. Read how complex the production of liposomal preparations is and what they are used for in the article Liposomal preparations and their application

Use liposomal vitamin C

Liposomal vitamin C  is the most optimal preparation, with the help of increasing the intake of this harsh substance in your body. You feel liposomal vitamin C immediately, and it acts instantly due to the use of liposomal transfer technology. This technology improves the digestive system’s barrier and increases the percentage of successful transport through the blood system to cells that use vitamin C.

As a result, liposomal vitamin C has a dynamic effect on the body compared to the classic vitamin C, which is incorrectly assimilated and requires much larger amounts to achieve even a close effect. Liposomal vitamin C also helps avoid intestinal stress, which is achieved by using the classic vitamin C in ascorbic acid or sodium ascorbate.

People suffering from various diseases, including malignant diseases, tend to achieve an increased vitamin C concentration in the body. It is recommended to use liposomal vitamin C due to the accelerated action and achieve optimal vitamin C concentrations in the body without side effects with tiny amounts.

The phospholipids used in the production are based on soy lecithin and sunflower oil emulators. The reason for using phospholipids or lecithin is that with the help of these substances, the capsule’s content is protected, in this case, vitamin C, during transport through the body.


All the substances involved improve liposomal vitamin c  implementation of this circulation preparation (bioavailability).

This preparation helps improve your immune system’s functioning and its resistance.

It is necessary to consume it with water to activate liposomes during decomposition.

You can feel the preparation effect after only 20 minutes from the moment of taking it.

It is recommended to take one to two capsules a day with water or a meal for the elderly and a maximum of one for the younger ages.

Contents: 60 and 180 capsules of 1000 mg of liposomal vitamin C.

Vitamins, antioxidants are medicines

Vitamins are organic substances necessary for the optimal functioning of our body. With a few exceptions, our body cannot produce them independently (e.g., D, K). To stay alive, we need to get vitamins from food or dietary supplements. 
Dutch physician Christiaan Eijkman discovered the existence of vitamins and this discovery in 1929. received the Nobel Prize in Medicine.

Vitamins and their role in the body

vitamin cThe name vitamin was coined by the Polish biochemist Kasimir Funk in 1912. year, deriving it from the Latin word for life, vita, and suffix amine (at that time, it was considered that all vitamins belong to the chemical group of amines, which today we know is not true).

In our body, vitamins play a major role and are indispensable components of biochemical mechanisms. They are components of the enzyme systems that regulate our metabolism by keeping us active and capable. Our body uses them to build, develop and rebuild tissues. They are necessary for our growth, vitality, and general well-being.

Vitamin division

Thirteen well-identified vitamins are divided into two basic groups according to their fat or water solubility. Fat-soluble vitamins (D, E, K, A) are stored in the body’s fat stores, so there is no need for their daily intake, while water-soluble vitamins (C, eight vitamins B) cannot build up stocks, so their daily consumption is recommended.

Vitamins in the diet

A well-balanced diet contains all the necessary vitamins. A person who eats adequately can thus correct any vitamin deficiencies. However, people on special diets, increased physical activity, under stress, people recovering from illness or surgery, people suffering from certain types of gastrointestinal disorders, pregnant and breastfeeding women should take higher doses of vitamins (usually in the form of vitamin supplements) to meet the needs of increased metabolism.


Today, there is often a belief in the general population that vitamins, especially those that act as famous antioxidants, can be “cures” for several diseases. Thus, we talk about vitamins as medicines for a wide range of pathological conditions, from the common cold to cancer. One of the reasons is certainly the susceptibility to marketing campaigns of pharmaceutical giants that promote universal vitamin intake. Nowadays, there is a consensus that vitamins are necessary for the body’s optimal functioning. The only question is in what doses.

In the scientific community, there is no single common position on whether to take vitamins in quantities that are greater than the body’s daily needs. As we will show in this article, research is at least contradictory so that despite the great knowledge about vitamins, there are still a lot of unknowns and doubts related to them. 

The antioxidant debate

vitamins antioxidants

Vitamin C, E, and beta carotene (a substance converted to vitamin A in the body) are thought to act as antioxidants. Antioxidants are substances that counteract the action of oxygen radicals, unstable compounds that are normally formed in the body’s cells as a result of cellular metabolism.

They can damage a cell in many ways, damage DNA, and potentially increase cancer risk. Simultaneously, oxygen radicals chemically convert blood fats into bad LDL cholesterol, which settles on the walls of blood vessels. The hypothesis of these vitamins’ action against cancer and cardiovascular diseases is based on these facts. What is the evidence for that? Numerous studies have shown that people who consume many fruits and vegetables (the most important source of vitamins) have a lower risk of cardiovascular disease than those whose diets are poor in fruits and vegetables.

It has also been proven that people with an inadequate diet (lack of fruits and vegetables) have a higher risk of developing cancer forms. However, the basic criticism of these studies is that they do not prove that vitamins have this effect in isolation, so hypothetically, some other substance in fruits and vegetables has this effect.

You should note that oxygen radicals also have their “good” role in the body. Namely, some of them participate in the immune system’s normal functioning by using them to “kill” white blood cells. Therefore, overdoing it with antioxidants can do that function. 

Vitamin C

Linus Pauling

Linus Pauling

Along with several other megavitamin therapy proponents (Dr. Roger Williams, Dr. Irwin Stone …), the double Nobel laureate certainly plays the most important role. Linus Pauling (February 28, 1901 – September 19, 1994). It is hard to imagine the situation he found himself in 1970. in his book “Vitamin C and the common cold,” he announced that megadoses of vitamin C have a preventive and therapeutic effect against heart disease, cancer, and infections. At that time, vitamins were not given much importance, and many thought that only some weirdos wasted time researching their effects.

Today, twelve years after Pauling’s death, his revolutionary ideas are still controversial in some segments. Pauling was one in a series of megavitamin therapy proponents, therapy with very high doses of vitamins, even up to 600 times higher than the recommended daily intake. Today, megavitamin therapy is just one aspect of the still controversial orthomolecular medicine (a term also introduced by Pauling), which seeks to treat the disease with high doses of nutrients (vitamins, minerals, amino acids, essential fatty acids, natural fibers, antioxidants).

Linus Carl Pauling, an American, was considered the greatest chemist of the 20th century. Century. He was a pioneer in applying quantum mechanics in chemistry (the laws of quantum mechanics can explain many relationships in chemistry and molecular biology). He is considered one of the founders of molecular biology. He was a versatile person, and in addition to chemistry and biology, he was also involved in metallurgy, immunology, anesthesiology, psychology, nuclear weapons, radioactivity. He received the first Nobel Prize in 1954. Mr. for chemistry for a paper in which he described chemical bonds’ nature, while he received the second Nobel Prize in 1962. for peace because of the campaign he launched against nuclear tests above the ground, he became the first person in history to be honored twice. Later in life, he became a staunch advocate of regular consumption megadose of vitamin C

The effect of vitamin C on the body

Today, the effect of vitamin C is very well known promotes iron absorption from food, creates and protects collagen (a protein that connects cells in the body), maintains the immune system, reduces the accumulation of fat on the walls of blood vessels, helps the growth of bones, teeth, gums, ligaments, helps create hormones that control our reactions on stress. Vitamin C also works against cancer. It prevents the conversion of nitrates from canned foods to carcinogenic nitrosamines in gastric juice. An in vitro study by the US National Institutes of Health, conducted in 2005. indicates the possible toxicity of higher doses of vitamin C to the cells of some forms of cancer in humans, which to some extent supports Pauling’s claims.

Studies with vitamin C.

On the other hand, several studies modified Pauling’s hypothesis about the effects of vitamin C. Thus, in the early 1970s, Anderson and co-workers conducted a clinical study on 818 volunteers in which one group was given megadoses (4,000 mg/day) of vitamin C for the duration of a cold. the dose is 75 mg daily) and the other a placebo. The results showed that vitamin C did not prevent the onset of the common cold, but people who took it had less pronounced symptoms and faster recovery by up to 30% of the control group.

Similar results are given by recent studies conducted by Coulehan et al. Opponents of megavitamin therapy cite the harmful effects of high-dose vitamin C, primarily chronic diarrhea, and the increased incidence of kidney stones because part of vitamin C is converted to oxalic acid and oxalates, which can be deposited in the kidney as calcium oxalate and form oxalates. Stones. On the other hand, proponents of megadoses of vitamin C counter the fact that vitamin C is a diuretic, i.e., it increases the flow of urine through the kidney and prevents the formation of stones.

You can conclude that the evidence for taking high-dose vitamin C is at least contradictory. Some experts claim that it is useful for the human body, while others express their doubts. Today, however, moderation’s attitude prevails in the medical community, i.e., to megadose vitamin C (> 1000 mg/day) is not necessary. Still, it is enough to take up to 500 mg per day.

Vitamin E

vitamin e

Dr. Shute in 1930. was the first to use high doses of vitamin E to treat cardiovascular patients.

As for vitamin E (tocopherol), research has shown that it certainly has a beneficial effect in heart patients and potentially in cataracts, Parkinson’s disease, and prostate cancer. Thus, a survey was conducted in 1995. Mr. states that people who took high daily doses of vitamin E (400 IU per day) had a significantly more favorable ratio of blood fats, which are an important factor in cardiovascular disease.

Another study found that 100 IU of vitamin E a day reduced heart disease risk by half. Scientists from Cambridge in 1996. Mr. indicated a 75% reduction in the incidence of non-fatal heart attacks in individuals taking 400 to 800 IU daily.

On the other hand, researchers at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore found interesting data analyzing the results of 19 studies (involving over 136,000 patients) related to vitamin E. They found that people who took more than 400 IU of vitamin E a day had a 10% higher risk of dying than those who did not take it. Today it is recommended to take 10 in a day. 

Beta carotene

avitaminosis vitamin a

Although considered an antioxidant, two recent studies show that people who took 20 mg or 30 mg of beta carotene a day for a longer period of time had a higher frequency of lung cancer those deaths than those who did not. (1st study: 28% more cancers, 17% more deaths, second: 18% more cancers, 8% more deaths). However, not all studies have yielded negative results. That’s how it was in 1993. Mr. a study was performed that resulted in a 21% reduction in gastric cancer mortality in people taking the combination beta carotene, vitamin E, and selenium.

Food or vitamin preparations

Although we do not call them medicines, vitamins in high doses act like medicines to cause side effects and harmful effects. For example, vitamin A in doses higher than 25,000 IU is known to cause severe liver damage, bone disease, and when taken by pregnant women, is teratogenic (causes fetal malformations).

Higher daily doses of vitamins are recommended for people with intensified physical activity (athletes, business people), people under stress, diet, and people recovering from illness or surgery. However, for taking megadoses of vitamins to improve health, there is still not enough evidence of the effectiveness of such a large intake of vitamins on human health.


This does not mean that vitamins should be discarded. On the contrary, given the pace of today’s life, poor quality, monotonous and irregular diet, vitamin deficiency has become a serious problem. Due to all the above, we recommend consuming as many fresh, unprocessed foods as a vitamin source and supplementing vitamin intake with adequate vitamin preparations, noting that although synthetic vitamins give satisfactory results, the benefits of natural vitamins far outweigh them at various levels. The recommendation goes in the direction of fresh fruits and vegetables. Because in addition to micronutrients (vitamins, minerals) discovered so far, it potentially contains other substances that have a beneficial effect or potentiate the action of already known vitamins.

Anti-Aging- 7 tips for younger and more beautiful skin

Once upon a time, only celebrities cared about looking younger while the rest of us got older and didn’t care at all!

Now there are 40 new 30s, and men and women care about their appearance. There is even a trend in society that discriminates against the older generation.

What can you do to stay younger? There is no magic Anti-Age drink that will erase wrinkles overnight, but with discipline and a good anti-aging skin routine, you will be well on your way to looking younger for as long as possible.

Many drastic anti-aging solutions help you look younger than traditional cosmetic face-lift by injecting chemicals such as Botox into the skin to provide a temporary effect of smooth wrinkles.

Not everyone is ready or financially able to go to those extremes.


By following the 7 steps below, you will be on your way to a younger look.

And remember that it is never too late (or too early!) To start a good anti-aging routine.

Seven tips on how to take care of your body and mind.


Most doctors recommend 7 to 10 glasses a day.

Water flushes out toxins, keeping your body and skin clean.

It will also make your skin look clearer and fuller if it is not dry.

This is definitely the first step to “anti-aging skincare” and a younger look.


Include some of all the major food groups in your diet each day.

Eat lots of fiber and fresh fruits and vegetables.


Fruits and vegetables contain many essential vitamins and minerals that help maintain and repair skin and cells.

Not only will your skin look younger, but your older body will be better, and you will be less prone to many classic diseases in old age.

Perfect “Anti-aging skincare solution.”

Also, avoid eating fatty and oily foods that increase your weight and not give you anything nutritious.

Overweight men generally look and feel much older than they really are.


If you are under stress, the body releases chemicals that may have helped you solve some past problems.

Since this is not the solution to most life problems these days, the chemicals will stay in your body and cause you to become mentally or physically ill.


Use techniques that help you relax – take a nice and warm bath, go for a massage or aromatherapy, these are just a few examples.

Remember, extreme stress will only cause you to get seated earlier, and your face will look tired.


Regular exercise will work wonders and help you look and feel much younger.

Make sure the exercise is vigorous enough to make you sweat fairly, and your skin will look younger as the toxins flush out. Remember to consult your doctor before drastically changing your exercise regimen.


Make sure you always have adequate sun protection for your skin type.

Buy moisturizers that contain UV protection for everyday use.

Using a quality high factor cream should be part of your daily routine. It may look nice, but soon you will get more and more wrinkles, and your skin will be very vulnerable to skin cancer.


Smoking will speed up the aging process. Nicotine chemicals speed up the aging process.

If you constantly sneak through the smoke, the dark circles will appear soon and stay where they are.

Alcoholic beverages contain many toxins that are harmful to your health.

Excessive consumption will mean that your liver no longer struggles with releasing these toxins from the body.


Those that contain the ingredients Vitamin C, retinol, and ceramides are very good.

Try different anti-aging skincare products to see what works best for you and moisturize it daily.

Remember, if you feel good, you will look good.

Vitamin D in food and how it is produced by the body

Vitamin D promotes the absorption of calcium from the gastrointestinal tract and bones’ hardening. It affects muscle strength, regulates calcium and phosphate metabolism, and is also involved in other body metabolic processes. In humans, vitamin D is produced in the skin under sunlight’s influence. Unlike the body’s own production, vitamin D in food makes up only a relatively small share of the vitamin D supply. The German Nutrition Society (DGE) claims that a daily dose of 20 micrograms of vitamin D is sufficient for children, adolescents, and adults.

It is not recommended to enrich foods with vitamin D. The focus is on the body’s own vitamin D production and thus on the recommendation for the production and storage of vitamin D by exposing the skin to sunlight. The body’s own production varies from person to person and depends on other factors, such as latitude and climatic conditions. It is recommended that you expose yourself to the sun for a total of about 5 to 25 minutes a day with your face uncovered and most of your arms and legs. Intake of vitamin D supplements is recommended only if the targeted improvement in supply, especially for risk groups, cannot be achieved either through diet or through creating the body’s own vitamin D during sun exposure.

Vitamin D, our body can produce if the skin gets enough sunlight. On the other hand, the need to satisfy vitamin D with food is relatively small: only a few foods contain significant amounts of vitamin D. The high content of vitamin D in cod liver oil is known to almost everyone.

Vitamin D – food on the menu

The estimated need for vitamin D in children aged one year, adolescents, and adults is 20 micrograms per day. This makes it possible to achieve a concentration of 25-OH-vitamin D (a form of vitamin D storage) in the blood that is considered optimal for healthy bones – namely at least 50 nmol / l (= 20 ng/ml).

With sufficient sun exposure, the recommended daily requirement of vitamin D (and consequently, the desired concentration of 25-OH vitamin D in the serum) can be largely covered by self-production: the body then produces 80 to 90 percent of the required amount of vitamin D in the skin. A significant amount of vitamin D (e.g., oily fish like herring and mackerel) makes up the (small) residue.

This process becomes problematic when the skin is not exposed to a sufficient amount of sun or when the sun is too weak for its own production of vitamins, e.g., in the winter months. The food usually on our menu does not contain a lot of vitamin D, about two to four micrograms a day (even less in children). This means: To get the recommended dose of 20 micrograms a day, you would have to, for example, eat two kilograms of Emmentaler.

In the summer months, we should not avoid going out regularly if we do not want to suffer from a lack of vitamin D. Those who sunbathe in the summer also have a full supply of vitamin D. 

Also, experts recommend regular consumption of foods with vitamin D – even if the diet is only a small part of the needs. But first, you need to know: Which foods contain vitamin D, and in what amounts?

Vitamin D in food but which one?

Cod liver oil was once considered a premium food rich in vitamin D. It is a fatty oil extracted from the liver and kidneys of this marine inhabitant. Cod liver oil contains a relatively large amount of sun vitamin, but it does not taste perfect.

Fortunately, there are alternatives – though not many. First of all, foods of animal origin contain the appropriate vitamin D. But some plant-based foods contain vitamin D, as you can see in the table below:

FOODVitamin D content in micrograms per 100 grams
Dairy products
Sir gouda1.3
Drinking milk, 3.5% fat0.1
Vegetable cream cheese0.6
Quark (20/40% fat in dry matter)0,1 / 0,2
Goat’s milk0,3
Processed cheese (45% fat in dry matter)3.1
Fish, sea animals
Baltic herring7.8
Chicken liver1.3
Lamb liver2
Beef liver1.7
Mushroom, raw1.9
Fox, raw2.1
Edible snout, porcini, cheese3.1
Dietary margarine2.5

How do you make a meal to get about 20 micrograms of vitamin D a day?

Here is an example after a meal:

100 grams of eel

80 to 90 grams of herring

4 egg yolks (like an omelet)

Anyone who eats food of animal origin can cover their needs. Vegans, who completely give up animal products, find it difficult to achieve a sufficient vitamin D dose through their diet. Fruits and vegetables contain minimal amounts of this vitamin. Besides, plant foods contain only vitamin D2 – less effective than vitamin D3. Sometimes, it can also help vegans take a vitamin D supplement (in consultation with a doctor).

Vitamin D: Instructions for food storage and preparation

vitamin du food 2

Vitamin D is relatively thermally stable and is retained even during cooking at temperatures up to 180 degrees Celsius.

Are Vitamin D Supplements Necessary and Useful?

As mentioned above, there is almost no food with a lot of vitamin D. Therefore, and it is difficult to meet the requirements only with foods containing vitamin D if there is not enough sunlight. In this case, it is often useful to add vitamin D through supplements.

However, high doses of vitamin D can sometimes lead to serious health side effects. Therefore, it is advisable for the doctor to first check the supply of vitamin D (measuring 25-OH vitamin D in the blood) before resorting to vitamin D supplements. If you really have a deficiency, your doctor will recommend an appropriate vitamin D dose depending on the degree of deficiency.

Questions and answers about vitamin D.

What is vitamin D and why does the body need vitamin D?

Vitamin D has a special position among vitamins. Unlike other vitamins, vitamin D can be formed by itself from precursors present in the body. The body’s own production occurs when the skin is exposed to sunlight (exposure to UVB light) and, compared to the intake of vitamin D through food, makes a significantly greater contribution to the supply of this vitamin to humans. Vitamin D regulates calcium and phosphate metabolism and thus accelerates bone hardening. Vitamin D is also involved in other metabolic processes in the body and affects muscle strength.

How much vitamin D does a person need and how can the amount of vitamin D be determined?

The reference value for vitamin D intake is 20 micrograms a day if it does not produce it naturally. This estimated value, derived from the DGE study, applies to all age groups. If you regularly stay outdoors, under normal living conditions, the body’s own (endogenous) formation in the skin contributes to 80 to 90 percent of the vitamin D supply.

In contrast, vitamin D intake through a regular diet makes up only a relatively small percentage (10 to 20 percent) of the vitamin D supply. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration is used as a marker to assess supply because it reflects vitamin D supply through diet and own production of vitamin D in the body. Vitamin D deficiency is reported at serum concentrations of the marker 25-hydroxyvitamin-D below 30 nanomoles per liter of serum (30 nmol / l). This corresponds to 12 nanograms per milliliter of serum (12 ng / ml). A good supply of vitamin D is when the concentration of this blood marker is at least 50 nanomoles per liter of serum. This corresponds to 20 nanograms per milliliter. If the body does not produce its own vitamin D, this concentration is achieved by ingesting 20 micrograms of vitamin D per day.

What is the storage capacity of vitamin D in the body?

Vitamin D is mainly stored in the human body’s fat and muscle tissue, and smaller amounts are also found in the liver. Overall, the storage capacity is relatively large and contributes to the supply of vitamin D in winter.

What are the consequences of vitamin D deficiency?

With a lack of vitamin D during breastfeeding and early childhood, the bones are insufficiently mineralized, remain soft, and deformed (rickets). Disorders of bone metabolism can also occur in adulthood. Demineralization can make bone soft (osteomalacia). Vitamin D deficiency can contribute to osteoporosis development, especially in old age. It would help if you distinguished the actual vitamin D deficiency with clinical symptoms from a condition of inadequate vitamin D supply. The preventive potential of this vitamin for bone health is not sufficiently exploited.

What are the risk groups for vitamin D deficiency?

Risk groups include people who find it difficult or impossible to be outdoors or – for example, for cultural or religious reasons – to go outside with their bodies completely covered. Also, people with dark skin (high melanin content) are at risk because they can produce less vitamin D than people with fair skin. The elderly are another important risk group because vitamin D production decreases significantly with age. There are also chronic patients with limited mobility, chronic patients who need care, and who are hardly or not at all outdoors. Also, babies are among the risk groups due to vitamin D deficiency because vitamin D in breast milk is deficient. On the other hand, babies should not be exposed to direct sunlight.

Is the body’s own production of vitamin D sufficient in old age?

With age, the skin’s ability to produce vitamin D decreases significantly and can be reduced to less than half compared to younger people. If also, less time is spent outdoors in old age, and if the skin’s exposure to sunlight is limited, the production of its own vitamin D in the body is reduced. This is especially the case with the elderly with limited mobility, the chronically ill, and those in need of care (residents of nursing homes, geriatric patients). They are often diagnosed with vitamin D deficiency. This generally does not apply to (older) people who spend a lot of time outdoors.

Do you need to go to the solarium to improve your vitamin D supply?

There is no point in going to the solarium to improve your vitamin D supply.
According to the recommendation of the Federal Institute for Radiation Protection, especially children and young people should not go to the solarium. According to the Federal Institute for Radiation Protection, visits to solariums can increase skin cancer risk.

Is an excessive amount of vitamin D possible by one’s own synthesis in the body?

Vitamin D overdose and related side effects are possible only with excessive oral intake (permanently> 100 micrograms per day) and not excessive sun exposure.

What to look for in case of frequent sun exposure?

Too much sun increases the risk of developing skin cancer. Therefore, frequent and intense sun exposure in summer is not recommended during lunch. A recommendation to avoid the sun is not helpful or necessary. Therefore, outdoor physical activity is highly recommended, but sunburn should definitely be avoided by taking appropriate measures.

Is it necessary to use foods enriched with vitamin D?

Enriching food with vitamin D is not recommended. The focus is on the body’s own vitamin D production, and therefore on the recommendation for vitamin D production by exposing the skin to the sun. Intake of vitamin D supplements is recommended only if the insufficient supply has been proven. If there is a targeted improvement in supply and if neither diet nor own protein production in the body can achieve a sufficient concentration of vitamin D.

Does an excessive amount of vitamin D have health consequences?

Vitamin D overdose and the consequent possible side effects are not possible with excessive sun exposure, but only with excessive oral intake.
In case of additional intake of vitamin D through vitamin D preparations, it must be taken into account that the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has an acceptable total daily intake of 100 micrograms of vitamin D for adults and children 11 years and older and for children up to 10 years. Of life obtained from 50 micrograms of vitamin D., These tolerable total daily intakes refer to vitamin D intake from food (including vitamin D supplements and fortified foods).

Regular daily intake of more than 100 micrograms of vitamin D, which is currently possible with normal eating habits only with excessive vitamin D supplements, can cause side effects such as kidney stones or kidney calcification. However, for medical reasons, higher amounts of vitamin D may be medically indicated.

D mannose is a natural remedy for cystitis

D mannose is a type of sugar associated with glucose but is difficult to metabolize in the body. Instead, D mannose is excreted in the urine. On its way through the bladder, D mannose binds to bacteria that cause urinary tract infections and bladder infections. D mannose helps against urinary tract and bladder infections and replaces antibiotics.

D mannose against urinary tract infections

Urinary tract infections and cystitis are very unpleasant. When urinating, the bladder hurts a lot – but it often hurts at rest. The feeling of a full bladder does not stop, although you can urinate only a few drops, with severe pain.

Sometimes you can’t even sit anymore. The feeling in your abdomen is very uncomfortable. Then it would help if you went to the doctor. In the vast majority of all cases, people resort to antibiotics. Otherwise, there is a risk of kidney inflammation if the bacteria spread in the kidneys’ direction.

A natural alternative to cystitis

inflammation of the bladder cystitis

But there are other – more bearable – options because many urinary tract infections and cystitis disappear with holistic measures shown here!

The great advantage of naturopathic treatment methods is that they are as effective as antibiotics when consistently administered. The big difference that naturopathic measures do not have negative side effects. At the same time, they strengthen the immune system and contribute to healing.

On the other hand, after antibiotic therapy, there is a risk that the immune system will weaken due to the damaged intestinal flora, fungal infections (intestinal and/or vaginal fungus), and not infrequently recurrent cystitis.

D mannose acts like an antibiotic – only without side effects

In addition to the natural ways to fight cystitis mentioned above, there is another method that reliably helps with urinary tract infections: D mannose.

D mannose acts like antibiotics, has no side effects, and can even be used preventively so that cystitis does not return at all.

D-mannose is – just like glucose (grape sugar) or fructose (fruit sugar) – simple sugar. D-mannose also occurs naturally in food but much smaller amounts than the well-known simple sugars glucose and fructose.

D-mannose is absorbed very slowly, about eight times slower than glucose compared to glucose. Only a small fraction of D-mannose is metabolized. Most mannose is excreted unchanged in the urine. And that is exactly the great advantage of D-mannose. D-mannose now flows with the blood directly into the kidney and from there into the bladder.

Here it binds to those bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli) responsible for most urinary tract infections. Bound to D-mannose, the bacteria can no longer stick to the bladder wall. The bad guys have no choice but to let their urine into the toilet bowl. There will soon be no bacteria during the urinary tract and bladder during D-mannose therapy, and they can finally recover.

D mannose – safe prophylaxis

d mannose

D mannose’s excellent preventive effect has already been confirmed in a clinical study in Croatia. Doctors performed the examination in Zabok General hospital in Zabok and at the Clinical Hospital Center in Zagreb:

308 women with acute cystitis were made available. All women have had urinary tract infections multiple times in the past. After the usual antibiotic treatment, the women were divided into three groups.

Group 1 received 2 grams of D mannose mixed in 200 ml of water daily for six months. Group 2 received 50 mg of nitrofurantoin (antibiotic) daily during the same period. Group 3 did not take any preventive measures and therefore served as a control group.

A total of 98 women suffered from another cystitis during the study period. 62 of them belonged to the control group. Eventually, 21 women from the antibiotic group got another cystitis and only 15 women from group D mannose.

Nearly 18 percent of patients in groups 1 and 2 complained of side effects, but much more in the group with antibiotics than in the group with D mannose.

The researchers concluded the study by saying that D mannose is very suitable for preventing urinary tract infections and cystitis – especially for people who suffer from recurrent cystitis.

Of course, the use of D mannose is not limited to prophylaxis. D mannose can also accompany acute or chronic cystitis treatment and be integrated into a holistic program.

D-mannose for a rare inherited disease: CDG syndrome type 1

D-mannose may also be an effective treatment for the rare metabolic disease CDG type 1 syndrome. CDG stands for Congenital Glycoprotein Disorders. Those affected by this hereditary glycosylation disease suffer from very different symptoms so that a unique clinical picture cannot be concluded. Several organs or just one can be affected.

D mannose can be used as a dietary supplement in patients with type 1 CDG syndrome and appears to compensate for the inability of fibroblasts (connective tissue cells) to glycosylate.

D-mannose: safe and effective for urinary tract infections and cystitis

The main areas of application are urinary tract and bladder infections, and people with frequent urinary tract infections should therefore use the safe and effective option and use D-mannose and end the cystitis recurrence cycle once and for all.