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Can hepatitis C be cured?

Hepatitis C is a virus that can attack and damage liver . It is one of the most serious hepatitis viruses. Hepatitis C can lead to several complications, including liver transplantation. In some cases, it can even cause death.

However, new treatments for hepatitis C make the virus much less resistant today than it was in the past. In most cases, hepatitis C is curable, so it is important to seek medical help as soon as possible if you have this virus.

Does everyone need treatment?

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that up to 1 in 4 people with hepatitis C virus will eventually cure this condition without treatment. For these people, hepatitis C will be a short-term acute condition that will go away without treatment.

For most people, acute hepatitis C will become a chronic condition that requires treatment. Since the virus often does not cause symptoms until liver damage occurs, it is important to get tested if you think you may be positive.

Are there any drugs to treat hepatitis C?

In the past, chronic hepatitis C has been treated with a combination of ribavirin and interferon. Instead of attacking the virus directly, these drugs boost the activity of your immune system. In this way, the immune system would kill the virus.

The goal of this treatment was to rid the body of the virus. These drugs had a variable cure rate and could have significant side effects.

However, since 2011. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved many antiviral drugs that fight hepatitis C more directly. These drugs have much better success rates than older treatments. Some of the most recommended treatments for different hepatitis C genotypes include:

  • ledipasvir-sofosbuvir (Harvoni)
  • elbasvir-grazoprevir (Zepatier)
  • ombitasvir-paritaprevir-ritonavir (Technique)
  • ombitasvir-paritaprevir-ritonavir and dasabuvir (Viekira Pak)
  • daklatasvir-sofosbuvir (Darvoni or Sovodak)
  • glecaprevir-pibrentasvir (Maviret)

All of these drug combinations are protease inhibitors. This means that they prevent the virus from getting the proteins it needs to reproduce. Over time, usually 8 to 24 weeks, the virus disappears and is removed from your system.

For all protease-preventing drugs, the goal of hepatitis C treatment is to achieve a sustained virological response (SVR). SVR means that the amount of hepatitis virus in your system is so small that it cannot be detected 12 weeks after the end of treatment.

If you achieve SVR after treatment, you can say that hepatitis C has been cured.

Can a transplant cure hepatitis C?

If you develop chronic hepatitis C and it causes liver cancer or liver failure, you may need a liver transplant. Hepatitis C is one of the most common reasons for liver transplantation.

Liver transplantation removes the damaged liver and replaces it with a healthy one. However, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases indicates that it is possible for hepatitis C to return, even after transplantation. The virus lives in your bloodstream, not in your liver. Removing the liver will not cure the disease.

If you have active hepatitis C, the damage to your new liver will most likely continue, but that would only happen if hepatitis C is not treated. However, if you achieved SVR before the transplant, you are not likely to develop another case of hepatitis C.

Are there alternative medicines?

Some people believe that certain forms of alternative medicine help treat hepatitis C. M

Milk thistle and silymarin are herbs that are usually recommended for the treatment of liver disease. In addition, artmisinin is mentioned as an antiviral agent that has been shown to be excellent in combination with hepatitis drugs. Artemisinin is an anti-malarial drug that has very pronounced anti-bacterial and anti-viral properties

Is there a way to avoid hepatitis C?

There is currently no vaccine that protects people from hepatitis C. However, there are vaccines for other hepatitis viruses, including hepatitis A and hepatitis B. According to the CDC, researchers are also working on developing a vaccine against hepatitis C.

If you have been diagnosed with hepatitis C, your doctor may advise you to get vaccinated against hepatitis A and B. This is because these viruses can also cause liver damage and complications during the treatment of hepatitis C.

Since hepatitis C cannot be avoided with the vaccine, the best prevention is to avoid exposure. Hepatitis C is a blood-borne pathogen, so you can limit your chances of exposure by practicing a healthy lifestyle.

Avoid sharing needles. Use the appropriate protocol if you will be exposed to body fluids, for example in first aid. Hepatitis C is not usually transmitted through sexual contact, but it is possible. Limit your exposure to condom use unless you and your partner are monogamous.

Because hepatitis C is transmitted through the blood, it can be obtained by transfusion. However, blood infusion testing has been available since 1992. It is recommended that you consult your doctor about testing for hepatitis C if you are a baby boomer (born between 1945 and 1965) or have received a transplant or blood transfusion before 1992. years.

What are the symptoms of hepatitis C?

All cases of hepatitis C begin as acute. They appear a few weeks after the exposure. For many people, this stage of the virus has no symptoms. If you do experience symptoms, they may begin weeks or months after exposure to the virus. Possible symptoms include:

  • fever
  • fatigue
  • disease
  • vomiting
  • dark urine
  • clay-colored chairs
  • joint pain
  • yellow skin

Most cases of acute hepatitis C will turn into a chronic condition. Chronic hepatitis C usually has no symptoms until it causes a large amount of scars on the liver (cirrhosis) and other liver damage. For many years, the virus attacks the liver and causes damage. This can lead to liver failure or even death.

Because hepatitis C does not always cause symptoms, the only way to make sure you have the virus is to get tested.

A simple screening test can tell your doctor if you have antibodies to hepatitis C in your blood. The presence of antibodies indicates that you have been exposed to hepatitis C. Another test for virus levels will tell your doctor if you have the disease.

What is the forecast?

It is definitely possible to have a positive response to the treatment of hepatitis C. A large number of people who are treated with protease inhibitors will achieve SVR and be cured.

According to a 2015 study. years, people who achieve SVR have a relapse rate of 1% to 2% and a very low chance of death caused by liver failure.

How to treat hepatitis with home remedies?

One of the best natural remedies for treating hepatitis is soy lecithin granules, which, thanks to the content of a substance called choline, help reduce inflammation of the liver. It is also a fairly simple home remedy to use, you should take only a few tablespoons of lecithin granules a day to improve liver function.

Milk thistle

Milk thistle is an excellent plant for the natural treatment of hepatitis and many other liver diseases. It improves the regeneration of liver cells and protects the liver from further damage. You can buy its leaves in natural product stores, make an infusion with them and drink three cups a day.

It is also possible to buy burdock milk in tablets and drops, to consume it by following the instructions on the package.

Artichoke

Plant artichokes is also popularly known for its properties to reduce liver inflammation and improve its condition. Several of its substances and acids protect the liver from further degeneration, and at the same time stimulate bile function.

To take it, mix two tablespoons of dried artichoke leaves in one liter of water and take a cup of this liquid before each meal. It is recommended to drink three cups a day.

Dandelion

Dandelion is a very popular medicinal plant. Dandelion is a powerful liver cleanser that helps remove toxins, also helps reduce inflammation and heal the liver. It is recommended to be taken as an infusion, taking three cups a day.

Natural treatments to treat hepatitis

Although these natural treatments can help you improve the condition of your liver, it is very important to understand that hepatitis is a very serious disease, so it is desirable that the progress is monitored by a doctor, respecting all indications of this disease.

You should also consider other recommendations if you want to reduce liver inflammation and guarantee the health of this organ:

You should drink plenty of water to encourage the elimination of toxins

Consumption of alcohol, soft drinks, caffeinated beverages or energy drinks is not recommended

It is also not recommended to take medication unless prescribed by a doctor.

Fried foods, grilled foods, processed sugars, high-fat foods, sausages, dairy products and their derivatives and eggs should be avoided

You should eat a healthy diet rich in fresh fruits and vegetables, fatty fish and cereals.

Before any major change in diet, you should consult a doctor or nutritionist.

IMMUNOTHERAPY WITH A.U.I.T autogenous urine immunotherapy

A.U.I.T. has a long-term history of benefit. Used for over 15 years by several physicians in the U.S.and taught in immunology courses at Johns Hopkins, it is primarily being done in clinics outside the U.S. now by William Hitt, M.D., Ph.D., retired Professor of Immunology from Johns Hopkins and LSU for over 13 years. He is not in private practice & “semi-retired” in Tijuana, primarily working with the WHO in Addictions research & Immunogenetics. The mechanism of action in this particular type of therapy is similar to Hannemann’s Homeopathic law of cure…Like Cures Like. He is one of our clinical consulting colleagues and a friend…

AUIT has been found clinically effective in the treatment of the following conditions:

ATOPIC DISEASES (reaction occurs in a distant area from contact region) HAYFEVER, GASTROENTERITIS, DERMATITIS, ECZEMA, RASHES FOOD ALLERGY / INTOLERANCE STOMACH ACHES, RASHES, HEADACHES, DIARRHEA, I.B.S., CROHNS, ASTHMA, ARTHRITIS, ETC. CHEMICAL SENSITIVITIES & INTOLERANCE HEADACHES, MIGRAINES, RASHES, ASTHMA, CROHN’S, IRRITABLE BOWEL, ARTHRITIS, ETC. AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE LUPUS, M.S., PARKINSONS, ARTHRITIS, SCLERODERMA, RAYNAUD’S SYNDROME, PSORIASIS, DIABETES, IMMUNE SUPPRESSION CANCER, HIV & RELATED SYNDROMES, ETC.

INFECTIOUS DISEASE

HIV, HERPES, HEP, HPV, MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS, ETC.


There is a multiplicity of complicated mechanisms involved. Indeed, urine contains many immunologically active substances, some antigen-specific, some antigen-independent. Both enhancer and suppressor substances are present. The term “immunomodulators” serves well to describe the mechanism of action with AUIT.

TYPE I Hypersensitivity

Many B-lymphocytes exhibit surface antibodies–IgG and IgM. These antibodies differ from circulating antibodies in 2 aspects: 1. They are smaller and in the case of IgM are monomers rather than pentamers. IgG is a suppressor, and IgM is an enhancer. IgG is controlled by two T-Cell suppressor factors (TSF & TSP2). When a B-Cell is stimulated–directed or indirectly–by the proper antigen, surface immunoglobulins multiply and polarize as switching occurs (surface Ig is replaced by specific Ig, which the B-Cell produces and, eventually is secreted by plasma cells), the B-Cell then sheds these surface Ig’s. They then circulate; some are metabolized, but a significant amount appear in the urine via glomerular filtration, where they are cross-linked and denatured (urea, proteases). When reinjected into the adipose tissue (fatty), they ABORT AN ALLERGENIC REACTION IN PROGRESS (i.e. asthma attack) and, as memory cells are produced by REPEATED INJECTIONS, (8-12 or more), a prolonged STATE OF NON-REACTIVITY (Tolerance) is produced. The mechanism of action is dual…One is the immediate stimulation of T-suppressor cells to produce TS1 and TS2. The second long-range action is the production of anti-idiotypes as well as suppressor factors to other antibody-dependent reactions, such as auto-immune disease or drug or transfusion or rejection responses.  

TYPE II AND TYPE III (delated sensitivity)

So-called intolerances to foods, chemicals, etc. are mostly antigen-dependent BUT NOT ANTIBODY DEPENDENT(although antibodies are often produced, they become mostly “innocent bystanders”.) We’re dealing here with the cellular immune system. Phagocytic cells and lymphokines play a very important role. Neutrophils, in particular, are affected by these reactions. NEUTROPHILS NOT ONLYPHAGOCYTISE LARGE SUBSTANCES (PROTEINS), BUT ALSO ABSORB FOREIGN CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES (insecticides, pesticides, mycotoxins, etc.). Neutrophils are under autonomous and/or outside control. T-Cell, macrophages, and cytokines sensitize neutrophils to the point where they become hypersensitive to a given substance(s) and over-react and eventually suffer damage or destruction. AUIT suppresses these reactions by regulating #1, autonomous reactions of the neutrophils and #2, suppressing the production of cytokines.  

VIRAL SYNDROMES

INTERFERON: The mode of action against viral infections is due to the antiviral effect of the interferons, Interferon Gamma (IFNg) is the most active one in this respect. Cells have IFN receptors on their surfaces. When IFNg attaches to them, it is internalized. Interferon-gamma then acts as an anti-replicator. Interferons also inhibit mitosis (division) of infected cells. INF receptors once internalized, DO NOT REPRODUCE. Usually, about 40% of receptors are left on the cell surface. INTERLUKINS: Another immunomodulator closely related to these activities is Interleukin-1 (IL-1). IL1 has to be renewed by the proper stimulant in order to cause its effects. Therefore, the clinical observation that AUIT controls but does not kill (cure) infected cells, is supported by immunological facts.  

CRITICISMS

Much has been said in the past by critics of AUIT–who, by the way, have no personal experience with this type of therapy–regarding the danger of producing glomerula basement membrane disease (Goodpasture’s disease). In some experimental models using animals, such a disease has been produced using the injection of urine, often in previously sensitized animals. However, in close to a million injections of urine in humans in both Texas and So. Calif. clinics, not a single case of Goodpasture’s disease, marked proteinuria or hematuria (all patients undergo a urinalysis prior to the injection of the urine) has been observed. Furthermore, in 5 cases of long-term (more than 1 year) of AUIT, no glomerular basement membrane antigen was found in the blood. The objection to the presence of the CBM antigen in the urine of many normal individuals can easily be overcome by the removal of this antigen by filtration. The antigen has an MW of 80,000 daltons, which is the limit of glomerular filtration.

Removing all substances heavier than MW 60,000 daltons would leave all the immunomodulators and remove the CBM antigen. The other criticism of AUIT is that the urine does not possess immunologically active substances. This statement is so patently false, that only someone alarmingly ignorant of even the basic facts of immunology can render it. It is suggested that in order to elevate AUIT to an “up-do-date” incontrovertible therapeutic modality, the following studies must be undertaken: 1. A double-blind, randomized, placebo, controlled study in cases of atopic disease 2. Measurement of IL, production of IL2, Receptor numbers, Interferon production before and after AUIT 3. Publication in journals and dissemination of the findings to the Medical and Lay communities…especially as it refers to AIDS.

References:

Auto-urine Therapy; 1984, Martin Krebs, M.D. Auto-urine Vaccine therapy for acute Hemorrhagic Nephritis, 1934, R. Tiberi, M.D. Urine Therapy, Prof. Lish. J. Plesch, M.D., 1947 English Medical Journal,l The Effects of Human Urine on Tubercule Bacilli, 1951, Sweden Bacterial Effects of URE, Tulane School of Medicine, 1961 Antibacterial Effects of Human Urine, 1968, Dr. Donald Kaye, Cornell Univ. Med. College Neutralizing Antibody to Polioviruses in Normal Urine, 1962, Lesner, Remington, Maxwell, Finland, Harvard Med. Serv. AntiNeoplaston in Cancer Therapy, Stanislaw R. Burzynski The Use of Injected and Subligual Urine in Allergy Therapy, 1981, Nancy Dunne, M.D. Immuno-Tollerance, Physicians Handbook, 1982 edition Autoimmuno-therapy Against Human Allergenic Disease, a physiological self-defense factor, 1983, C.W.M. Wilson, & A. Lend, M.D. Bactericidal Properties of Urine for Neisseric Gonurrhuae, 1987, Robert Noble, M.D. & M.Darekh, M.S., Univ. Kentucky The Role of Lymphokines in Allergy & Immune Diseases, DeWeck, A.L., Immun.Pract., 357:15 ; Sept. 1985 Specific Immunologic Unresponsiveness, Linscott, W.D.; Basic & Clinical Immunol. 3rd Ed; Lange Med. Pub., Palto Alto, CA, 1981 Proceedings of the 3rd Int’l. Lymphokine Workship; Oppenheimer, J.; Academic Press, 1983 Interlukins & Interferons in Basic & Clinical Immunology, G.H. Edition; Ruscotti, F.W.; Faltyner, C.R., Appleton & Lange, Los Altos, CA 1987

Ginseng can prevent and treat the flu

Ginseng According to the World Health Organization, seasonal flu is a serious respiratory disease that causes epidemics worldwide, resulting in about 5 million cases of extremely severe conditions in the respiratory system, affecting the spread of respiratory sinus virus infects the lungs. Patients and between 250,000 and 500,000 deaths.

In the latest issue of the International Journal of Molecular Medicine Sang – Moo Kang reports on the beneficial effects of Ginseng, a well-known herbal medicine on human health.
Kang’s primary research focuses on designing and developing effective vaccines against viral diseases such as flu. He has partnered with university researchers at universities in South Korea whose goal is to demonstrate and study in some of the international projects the positive effects of ginseng on improving health and disease protection for potential benefits in the fight against many viruses. Ginseng has been found to have anticancer effects and improve the immune system’s state.

Seasonal flu can spread quickly, and new forms of pandemic flu also appear at any time and in any place, mutating into other forms of the disease. The H1N1 flu virus, a new species known as swine flu, appeared in 2009 and is very fast. expanded to 74 countries. There are challenges with existing influenza vaccines, such as the annual update against the pandemic strain and all bird and swine flu types.

Nevertheless, there are no vaccines against RSV that directly affect millions and are the leading cause of inflammatory bronchitis, pneumonia, and death in infants and even some adults.
In his study of nutrients, Kang investigated whether Ginseng has a preventive effect on the influenza virus. It has been found that ginseng extract improves lung epithelial cells’ survival with the influenza virus. Also, treatment with Red Ginseng extract reduces the expression of genes that cause inflammation.

Multiple immune effects, such as stimulating the production of antiviral proteins that are an important response to less inflamed cells of the bronchial walls, have been found in mice infected with influenza and receiving ginseng extract orally. The study shows the beneficial effects of red ginseng extract in preventing the spread of the influenza A virus.
Kang also proved that ginseng extract prevents the fungus virus from being inhibited and replicated or that the virus multiplies in the body at all. Also, treatment with Red Korean Ginseng suppressed the expression of RSV-induced inflammatory genes and the formation of chemically reactive oxygen-containing molecules that play a role in destroying epithelium in the body.

He also proved that mice given ginseng have a lower level of influenza virus in the body than those that did not get it, which, together with the previous facts, shows many combined modified effects of this preparation as an antiviral drug of the future.

Antiviral effects of Artemisinin and Artesunata

Artemisinin is a natural compound obtained from the plant Artemisia annua. The ancient writings of Greek medicine speak of the use of Artemisinin because of its incredible therapeutic properties. Chinese medicine shows us the rich history of the use of Artemisinin through the centuries for the treatment of numerous diseases. Many other researchers have discovered and disclosed the extraordinary healing effects of this miraculous drug in recent years.
Artemisinin is basically a sesquiterpene lactone obtained from extracts of the plant Artemisia annua. Artesunate is a semi-synthetic derivative of water-soluble Artemisinin. In terms of chemical composition, Artesunate is a succinate esterified dihydroartemisinin. Other Artemisinin derivatives include Artemeter and Dihydroartemisinin (DHA). These compounds have been shown, through rigorous clinical trials, to possess innumerable medicinal properties. These properties include antimalarial, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, antiallergic, and anticancer effects.

The antiviral properties of Artemisinin and Artesun are very well known. The earliest records are available in Chinese medicine, which speaks of the anti-viral effects of Artesunate in the fight against type A influenza virus (flu). These antiviral effects are broader and more potent in Artesunate than other Artemisinin derivatives. It has the potential to act against a wide range of viruses, including members of the Herpesviride family of viruses such as herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human cytomegalovirus (CMV), hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), and bovine viral diarrhea virus. The range of action of Artesunate includes both DNA and RNA viruses.

Studies antiviral effects of artemisinin

One of the first studies related to the antiviral effects of Artemisinin presented its effectiveness against Cytomegalovirus (CMV). It is known to inhibit CMV replication in the body. The mechanism of this action of Artesunate has been shown to inhibit the regulatory mechanisms of cells inhibited by CMV and therefore interfere with the metabolic needs of the virus and prevent its further multiplication. All drugs currently used against CMV are associated with numerous levels of toxicity and a major drawback related to the emergence of resistance of viral arrays against them, such as ganciclovir. Artesunate is a new drug that has overcome the virus resistance drug.

Artemisinin and Artesunate also show a wide range of effects against all subtypes of the human herpes virus, especially Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human-type 6A herpes virus as herpes simplex type 1 virus (HSV-1). Artesunate has been clinically proven to be more effective in controlling the herpes virus than the parent compound Artemisinin.
As part of a study conducted by Milbrat, Jens, and others in 2009. years, the mechanism of antiviral action of Artesunate against Herpesvirus types was investigated. Numerous human cells were taken, and sequences of human herpesvirus type 6 (XXV-6) were made to enter these cells. This was done to assess the extent to which Artesunate can inhibit virus replication using immunofluorescent techniques. It was observed that when the cells were treated with Artesunate, the drug caused inhibition of the protein synthesis phase of the virus and thus caused apoptosis and later necrosis in the cells. It has been noticed that increasing the drug’s amount increases the antiviral effect. In this way, the antiviral effect of

Artesunat against the herpes virus has been proven, and it has been announced that it is an effective remedy for XXV infections.
Against the Hepadnaviride family of viruses, Artemisinin and its compound Artesunat are particularly effective. This family contains the infamous Hepatitis B virus (HBV). It is essential to check HBV because it eventually leads to malignancy development in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The lack of an effective drug against this virus makes the role of Artemisinin and Artesunan extremely important. They cause inhibition of HBV DNA replication. A significant fact has been noted, namely the absence of toxic potential for normal and healthy liver cells, which reflects a sharp contrast to other drugs available for the treatment of HBV because they tend to damage normal health in addition to destroying the virus itself. Liver cells, too.

HIV research

Artemisinin and Artesunate are also useful against the Flaviviridae family members, the most important of which is Hepacivirus (HCV). This is another common risk factor for HCC to develop. Currently, available drugs for HCV are also not as effective as Artesunate. The drug is known to inhibit DNA polymerase and prevent virus replication (Efferth et al.;, 2011). Against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS, Artesunate has been shown to inhibit several viruses and prevent their reproduction partially. The conducted Meta-analysis established the efficacy of Artesunate in the fight against BK and JC types of human polyomavirus.

Further antiviral research shows that Artesunate and its parent compound, Artemisinin, act on DNA and RNA viruses. This effect is quantitative, which means that a slight increase in the drug dose increases its effect. Chain replication studies (PCR) have also confirmed these effects. Artesunate has been shown to inhibit many DNA sequences, especially those in the viral genome’s primary regions. This is the main antiviral role of Artesunate. It has also been confirmed that these antiviral effects are irreversible and cannot be overcome. No cases of resistance of viral arrays against Artemisinin and Artesunate have been reported so far, making these drugs extremely effective in treating many types of viral infections.

In vitro and In vivo antiviral effects and the compassionate and special nature of Artemisinin and Artesunate in the fight against specific types of viruses have been the subject of extensive research. Further research is on the way to discover the full pharmacological attributes of Artemisinin and Artesunate and other derivatives to find and establish the full spectrum of viruses that are susceptible to injury by these compounds. The day is not far when Artemisinin and its compounds will become the main choice of medicine to treat viral infections.

Hidden cases of Ebola in Europe

Rome, Italy – If you were surprised to hear that a United Nations worker died in Berlin on Tuesday from the deadly Ebola virus, you might be even more surprised to know how many other Ebola patients there are across Europe.

The World Health Organization confirms that there are eight deaths caused by Ebola in Europe caused by the current epidemic: two dead missionaries in Spain, one dead doctor in Germany, one cured man and one doctor in Germany, two doctors for tropical diseases the Netherlands. And Spanish nurse Teresa Romero Ramos on treatment in Spain. Remero Ramos got the virus from a dead Spanish missionary. There are also a dozen or more suspicious cases scattered in European hospitals that can prove that the Ebola epidemic really started in Europe.

Spain is the first country to accept important patients in Europe. It is also the first country to receive the first case of Ebola outside West Africa. At least one quarantined nurse in Germany treated one of the deceased doctors. If he were infected, she would now be the fourth non-West African health worker infected with the deadly disease alongside Teresa Romero and Nina Pharm, who contracted the disease from Thomas Eric Duncan, who died in Dallas last week. On Wednesday, another health worker who treated Duncan tested positive for a deadly virus.

Perhaps less surprising than the actual number of Ebola patients carved across Europe is the number of false alarms and suspicious cases in Europe and the capitals. Since Wednesday, there have been many suspicious cases reported in hospitals in Cyprus, Rome, Brussels, Peris, and London. Died in Macedonia by plane transported to Frankfurt for Ebola testing. More than 100 people who have been in contact with the Spanish sister are being monitored. They are also being tested for temperature twice a day.16 people are in quarantine, including her beautician and caretaker.

Cases of racism related to the virus have also become more frequent. Ghanaian football player Michael Essien, who plays for Milan, has been the subject of incitement directly related to the fear of this virus. The Italian sports paper published rumors from his teammates that he was Ebola positive and said they were nervous about it when they played on the field with him. He wrote on his Twitter account: “The Ebola virus is a severe problem. People would not know they should have joked with him. “
In Rome’s Portuense, home to the main infectious disease hospital called Spallazani, residents are extremely cautious and cautious. “I’m sure they have everything they need,” Maria Cristina Galo told Deily Best as she pushed. She also mentioned her two-year-old granddaughter in a wheelchair through this street: “What if a person infected with Ebola asks a resident or me how to find a hospital? What happens to that person before he enters an” isolated “environment? We are all in danger. “

Galina’s concern has increased with daily newspaper reports. In the last 48 hours, 5 suspected Ebola cases have appeared in Italy. These people have been in West Africa in the last two weeks. These cases are being checked in many emergency centers across Italy. One man had epilepsy. One had nosebleeds while one had symptoms such as African malaria, one man was diagnosed with flu symptoms.

It is only in Europe. Similar scenes have been observed throughout Europe. In each of these cases, the suspected patients were isolated in quarantine, where they are currently tested for the virus, even when they have no Ebola symptoms. “It is difficult to curb the panic.” Flavio Tuzi is the general secretary of the police union. “We are not ready. Our staff has numerous calls for infectious disease control, but we do not have biological suits to protect themselves.”

A plane flying from Istanbul to Pisa was forcibly landed on Tuesday afternoon, and Italy was sent for a test regarding the control of the Ebola epidemic. According to information directly from the airport, passengers from Bangladesh, mother and daughter started showing Ebola symptoms. They were in West Africa, an alarm was set off, and the flight was diverted. They were removed from the plane accompanied by staff trained in protective suits against biological danger. The plane was landed in Rome, and they were transported to the Spallanzani specialist hospital for control. Other passengers were checked for the deadly virus. They are also tested for fever and other symptoms of Ebola.
Ebola panic also gripped the airport in Glasgow, where a Dutch passenger on a KLM flight fell ill. After the emergency intervention of security workers who hurried to provide space and examine the passengers, it was determined that he had only the common flu.

Passengers traveling from the most endangered areas are all examined before entering and at many European airports and leaving the plane. Airports in larger cities have all the necessary measures and methods ready to stop the spread of this disease and even special clinics inside the airport. Temperature is useless if the carrier shows no symptoms.
Part of the panic stems from various information coming from many media. In Italy and Spain, for example, transparency is not a part of the national psyche, so information tends to spread from sources that are not relevant.

New fears arise from every false alarm. In this very subtle way, panic enters the population while the whole of Europe waits and wonders what will happen next.

An extract from the root of the plant is a cure for AIDS

An extract from the roots of the South African geranium plant can inactivate the most widespread type of HIV and prevent the deadly virus from attacking human cells, according to the latest research. -And.
Research shows that the root of a medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides (PS) contains substances that attack HIV-1 particles and prevent the virus from multiplying. A team of scientists led by Dr. Markus Helfer and Professor Ruth Brack-Werner conducted a detailed study on the effect of PS extract on HIV infection in human cells. They have proven that the extract protects the blood and immune cells from HIV-1 infection, the most common type of HIV virus. They also found that PS extract manages to block the binding of the virus to host cells and thus successfully prevents the spread of disease. .
Chemical analysis has shown that this antiviral effect is caused by the presence of polyphenols. Polyphenols isolated from PS extract have high anti HIV activity and are also less toxic to the body than crude extract. “The effectiveness of this new discovery in medicine can be confirmed with certainty. in terms of action in relation to other previous anti-HIV drugs that are in clinical use “- said the leader of the research team Brack-Werner.
“This discovery as an alternative method will become a valuable addition to any known anti-HIV treatment in the future. The results of research to date show that PS extract is certainly a great success in the fight against HIV and that the next step is testing on infected people.” Said Brack-Werner.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 35 million people in the world are infected with HIV, and most with HIV-1 type. Without adequate treatment, HIV destroys the immune system and causes immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which is deadly in most cases. HIV / AIDS is one of the 10 leading causes of death worldwide.
This research and study was published in the journal PloS ONE.

An African plant cures cancer and AIDS

Cancer is a terrible disease, and its presence has become more frequent lately. When detected, it causes anxiety in the patient’s patient and resistance to do anything. Every part of our body is susceptible to cancer, and the probability of getting it depends on genetic inheritance, external and internal factors. Still, it does not depend on gender, age, and social status. Cancer is an anomaly that takes the form of infection around the world. For many reasons, one part of the cells begins to multiply with certain errors that lead to mutated growths in the human body called tumors. These deformed cells tend to move to other parts of the body and spread throughout the body. One plant from Africa has captured the world’s attention because of its very healing properties that help people with cancer.

Alternative Cancer Treatments – Wikipedia

Aloe vera, a plant from Africa, the finished product T-UP is unreasonably advertised to cancer work. Amygdalin, better known under the market name Laetrile, as advertised …

Sutherlandia Frutescens is a South African plant used in conventional medicine to remedy various types of diseases. It is a shrub with very fragrant flowers and leaves. Orange flowers appear in spring and last until mid-summer. This herb is used to treat diabetes, smallpox, and rapid wound healing and as a remedy against malignancy. Laboratory research has shown that Sutherlandia Frutescens can fight microbes and destroy cancer with its anti-cancer effects.
It has been proven that this plant from Africa may reduce lethargy in patients with a cancerous disease. This plant is also used as a medicine for HIV and AIDS on the African continent.
There is irrefutable recorded evidence of the ancient traditional use of the Cancer Shrub as the African Change in Cancer Treatment calls it. The crab bush is very widespread in South Africa. Old-fashioned naturopaths claim that this plant can cure cancer completely. Because of these values, scientific research was initiated. It was discovered that Sutherlandia, a plant from Africa, has anti-cancer properties and stimulates the immune system of the affected person with certain compounds. The crab bush is rich in a variety of ones that have the ability to stop the spread and destroy malignant cells, and the most important of these are L-canavanine and Pinitol. Cancer shrub can have long-term use in controlling malignancy’s numerous side effects. This plant from Africa also affects weight loss; it increases body strength and strengthens the immune system.

In addition to cancer, this cures subcutaneous ulcers, abscesses, and other skin diseases.

It is generally known that most people who have cancer generally succumb to the degenerative symptoms that accompany cancer rather than the size of the tumor itself. Cancer shrub increases the patient’s level of vitality and increases the perception of the person who uses it.
This plant is one of the most powerful medicinal plants in South Africa, and its spectrum of treatment includes various forms of malignancy, viral diseases, and inflammatory disorders. The use of fresh herbs increases the concentration of cytotoxins in cancer cells, while the extract achieves several times stronger and faster results.

Sutherlandia, a medicinal plant from Africa, can also help people suffering from any serious illness by increasing their energy and improving the patient’s quality of life. Athletes who drink the extract of this plant achieve incredible results in competitions because certain compounds naturally increase muscle mass and endurance, reducing lactic acid production.

Cancer shrub pills are used as an operative remedy for various melancholy types. The crucial composites in this plant that affect melancholy are GABA, L-asparagine, L-canavanine.

Each of these composites has shown outstanding results in acting on individual disorders.

The minimum prescribed amount of Cancer bush that will affect the patient is one tablet of 300 mg extract, taken twice a day after consuming a meal. This preparation can be used without fear for a very long time. Cancer patients take 600 mg and two to three times a day. This treatment usually lasts for a long period of time.

Precautions should also be taken when using Sutherlandia. This plant should never be used during pregnancy because it can make fetus changes. People with HIV should talk to their doctor before using this product. This herb should not be used by breastfeeding mothers. This herb should not be used by people who drink cytochrome P450 SA4 because this medicine’s side effects may increase. Cancer bush should not be used by people who drink P-glycoprotein because side effects are possible.

HIV and AIDS treatment – Chinese traditional medicine

AIDS is an incurable disease. HIV treatment is very complicated and expensive. With the latest advances in the pharmaceutical industry, it is now possible to slow the disease’s progression but not completely cure and stop it. Once the virus enters the body, it stays there permanently. AIDS damages the immune system, making the body weak and susceptible to other infections. For this reason, people infected with HIV tend to get sick more often. Diarrhea, candidiasis, and bacterial infections are common in people living with HIV.

HIV treatment in China

In 1985, the first case of an HIV-infected person was recorded in China. Infected farmers in some regions of the country sold infected plasma and thus accelerated the disease’s spread. The government has formed a national team to fight HIV to tackle the problem.

Initially, about a hundred patients were treated in the program, but about 82,540 patients were treated after the expanded diagnosis. Some recent data confirm that about 740,000 Chinese are infected with HIV.

HIV treatment way

HIV treatment

HIV treatment in China can be divided into three basic categories.

The first is highly active antiretroviral therapy or HAART. This treatment is effective in slowing the development of the disease. However, the drugs used are very toxic and create many side effects.  These include nerve, liver, and kidney damage.

The second type of treatment is called Buiao, and it includes teas, medicinal plants, and various types of tonics. This treatment is also used in Western countries.

The third type is traditional Chinese medicine. This method is used together with HAART to improve HIV-infected people’s immunity and reduce the side effects of drugs.

Traditional Chinese medicine or TCM is guided by the principle that the disease occurs due to an imbalance in the body. When this imbalance is treated, the body moves in the healing direction. This therapy treats the body as a whole. This method of treatment has been practiced for several thousand years.

For this reason, a study was conducted to determine the benefits of TCM in HIV-infected patients. 257 subjects were included in this study. The selection of these parameters was rigorous, and over time this number was reduced to only 11. These 11 subjects included 11 different traditional Chinese medicines tested on 998 HIV-infected patients. The results were as follows:

Traditional Chinese medical preparations

1 – IGM – 31:

This formulation consists of 31 different plants, and it was tested on 30 people over a period of 12 weeks. It has been noticed that the condition of HIV-infected patients has improved. CD4 cells did not recover, and also the number of virus concentrations remained the same.

2 – 35-Herb:

This formulation included 35 plants for the treatment of HIV and was tested on 68 patients within 6 months. Many of these plants were the same as in IGM-31.  Patients had a CD4 count below 500 / mm3. The analysis proved that these plants are not toxic.

3 – SH mixture:

This mixture of 5 herbs for the treatment of HIV was given to 60 patients. This mixture was given with the conventional anti-HIV drug zidovudine. It was found that patients who took this mixture had fewer side effects and that they tolerated treatment with this drug better.

4 – Qiankunning:

This preparation was obtained by the extraction of 14 different plants. The interrogation was performed on 70 people. It has been determined that people who received this traditional medicine have a large drop in HIV levels in the body after 7 months of consuming this mixture.

5 – Zongyan-4:

This preparation for the treatment of HIV was prepared by scientists from the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. 72 patients were enrolled in the study. People who took this mixture were found to increase CD4 cells. ZY-4 has been shown to boost the immune system in people with HIV.

6 – Aining Granules:

This plant has been tested in patients who have already received HAART. Half of them received AG, while the other half received a placebo. The half who received AG had a smaller decrease in CD4 cells than those who received placebo. The negative effects were smaller in the AG group. This shows that when HAART and AG are combined, the results are much better. Virus concentration was not reduced in any group.

7 – Xiaomi Granules:

This herb for the treatment of AIDS was given to patients who had oral candidiasis. These patients were already receiving Nystatin. The research was conducted within 2 weeks. People who have received this herbal mixture have been found to have improved symptoms.

8 – Jiagyuankang capsules:

116 patients were included in this study. These patients suffered from a reduction in white blood cells and have already used some anti-HIV drugs. After using this herbal mixture, the white blood cells’ level increased in all subjects without side effects.

9 – Xielikang capsules:

In this study, 158 patients suffering from chronic diarrhea took KCS capsules. In all respondents stool improvement .

10 – Aikang capsules:

This mixture was tested on a sample of 102 patients. No progress in the treatment of HIV has been demonstrated in this study.

11 – Tangkao tablets:

176 patients were included in this study. These patients had a CD4 cell count greater than 200 / mm3. People who took this herbal mixture experienced an increase in CD4 cells. Also reducing is the number of viruses in the body.

There were negative effects, but researchers believe that they are present due to the disease’s effects. Also, no toxicity of this herbal mixture has been proven.

Summary

Current TCM studies on HIV are not sufficient to draw any firm conclusions. In each of the above studies, the sample size was not large enough to extract definitive information.

Current research shows that using TCM can address some of the symptoms, as was the case with candidiasis and HIV-induced diarrhea. However, at the number of CD4 cells and the number of viruses, the results cannot be confirmed.

A larger number of samples is needed for safer conclusions to more accurately determine the effects of TCM in people with HIV and AIDS.

 

Microbes and cancer is there a connection?

For modern independent cancer researchers, the only mystery left is how the microorganism got into the cell, that is, whether it was created in it (under anaerobic conditions) or entered through a weakened cell membrane. But the fact is that you can find it in a cancer cell and that many scientists have seen it from the world’s most eminent clinics.

Roman oncologist Dr. Tulio Simoncini discovered the candida fungus, and he even claims that it is necessarily present in cancer patients. Fungi are often ingested by smoking. 

What happens in the cancer cell in this case is vividly described by R. Webster Kerr

bacterial microorganisms

Once in the cell, the microbe begins to intercept glucose that enters the cell and feeds on it, thus depriving the cell of food. The microbes then secrete micro toxins, actually dangerous hormones, and dirt is created inside the cell in cell fungus. Mycotoxins are very acidic, and the inside of the cell becomes more acidic. And that is exactly the characteristic of a cancer cell – the longer the cell is cancerous, the more acidic it is.

Because the microorganism hijacks glucose molecules, tiny amounts of food remain available to the cells (glucose in the cell needs to be converted to pyruvate to enter the mitochondria). Due to the large amount of “dung” in the cell, it cannot produce enough ATP molecules to start the “battery” filling of the mitochondria. Thus, the mitochondria are located at the bottom of a muddy pond in which they cannot “breathe.” The energy level of mitochondria decreases because the number of ATP molecules decreases.

Signals are sent to insulin receptors and glucose receptors on the cell membrane, and more glucose is required. The body of a cancer patient, therefore, wants to eat sweets. As much as 15 times more glucose enters the cancer cell, the microbe still intercepts these molecules and feeds and multiplies abundantly. Thus, the microbe becomes healthy and nourished, and the cell becomes sick and hungry it simply “chokes” in the mud from dangerous hormones and mycotoxins.

There is probably a biological limit here, Kerr notes, as much as the receptors can place glucose on the cell, and when that limit is met, there is no other way for the mitochondria to get enough energy. Due to the small number of ATP molecules, the energy level decreases, and the cell becomes anaerobic. And that suits the microorganism perfectly.

The other side of the coin – the medical establishment

doctors

“The medical establishment, through its media, usually places the story that DNA has been damaged the cause of cancer. While in rare cases, someone’s normal DNA can give the immune system a predisposition to get cancer, DNA damage has never been the cause of any cancer. Cancer only occurs when the Krebs cycle and the “electron transport chain” (ETC) are interrupted from within the mitochondria. “DNA damage cannot interrupt the Krebs cycle, and thus cancer cannot occur,” Kerr claims.

The medical establishment wants to deceive the public and many scientists with this claim for two reasons. This gives people the impression that cancer research is very complex and has to be done for a long time, and it will take a long time for the cure, so a lot of money is needed. In the meantime, research is being done for military purposes.

Based on the research of Ron Gdanski, which is  As for DNA damage, is damage to the DNA of a microbe that is inside the cell and which is the cause of the DNA damage of the cancer cell. So the DNA of a damaged cell is not the cause of cancer, but it is subsequently damaged due to microbes in it.

Medicine thus uses viruses injected into cells with defective DNA to use them to repair the DNA of cells. This is called “gene therapy” because it is known that the microbial DNA (called “vectors”) inside a human cell can affect the DNA inside the cell itself. 
(So, if this doesn’t cure cancer, then we can only imagine what kind of genetic experiments are being done and for what purpose).

Cancer treatment

When we know all this, there are four ways to treat cancer:

1. By killing cancer cells; 
2. By killing microbes inside the cancer cell;
3. By strengthening the immune system so that he kills the cancer cell (he puts it on apoptosis ); 
4. By transforming the microbe inside the cell into a microbe “in hibernation.”

Forbidden vitamin b17

The biggest problem with most of the alternative therapies we’ve already listed is that when a cancer cell is killed, it’s done gradually to eventually induce the immune system to induce the cell to apoptosis.

During that period, during the treatment, an inflammatory process occurs in the tumor itself, and swelling is created, so the mass of the tumor increases in the first weeks of therapy. When there is a surge of electricity in it, if it is a brain or lung tumor, this can be very inconvenient, so adequate therapy is required for each tumor.

Killing  cyanide cells from vitamin B17 does not have this problem but 
this therapy is banned in the United States and is now performed mostly in a private clinic in Mexico.

Electric cancer treatment

Therefore,  an almost perfect way to kill the cause of cancer is to kill the microbes in the cell to be killed by the immune system when the Krebs cycle resumes.

And Royal Rife did that successfully by precisely calculating the frequencies with which the microbe in the cancer cell oscillated. But you destroyed all his works. And probably no one knows that exact frequency for now. However, many try to do it with approximate frequencies.

When in 1990. Dr. Stephen Cali and William Lyman researching AIDS, published their discovery that a small amount of alternating current (50 to 100 millionths of an ampere) destroys a microbial enzyme, and physicist Robert Bob Beck, who has been practicing electromedicine for thirty years, became interested in this. Eminent clinics and scientific research centers were not interested in discovering Kali and Liman further perfected.

You can guess why. This discovery actually meant that you could prevent the microbe from being coiled or “hooked” cells (e.g., for white blood cells). This would definitely turn the pharmaceutical business black.

Bob Beck research

Bob Beck
Dr. Bob Beck

In order not to be struck by the fate of Royal Rife, Dr. Beck had to be careful, so he did most of the research outside the United States, and the microbial killer he assembled was never offered to anyone as a whole, but it is still sold in parts. . Those who want to be treated for cancer with this most effective method so far, must  to assemble it themselves at home according to the instructions and with the precise protocol of Dr. Bob Beck.  And don’t be surprised because the time we live in is worse than the time of the medieval Inquisition.

The laws in our country as well as in Western countries are such that the right to apply medical treatments (which does not mean to treat) have only those who have been approved by the state.  Otherwise, you are a fraud and a quack doctor, no matter how much knowledge and success you have in treatment. And even some educated doctors in Serbia have already felt that on their skin. Because of the scam called chemotherapy and radiation, no one has gone to prison yet, although many people are already like this  poisoned and killed.

Pneumonia infection

Pneumonia is an infection of the pulmonary alveoli or walls of the alveolar sacs. The diagnosis of pneumonia is quite obvious; however, as many organisms can cause pneumonia, determining the cause in a particular case can be very difficult.

Numerous microorganisms can cause pneumonia, but they most commonly cause its bacteria. Common causes depend on the patient’s immune status, the location where the patient developed pneumonia, the patient’s age, and the type of pneumonia the patient exhibits (e.g., typical of interstitial pneumonia). Clinical and epidemiological factors are used to determine the most likely cause of each particular pneumonia case.

pneumonia pneumonia table 1
pneumonia 2

Manifestations of pneumonia

Many patients diagnosed with pneumonia mention that they have previously had similar symptoms, flu, or upper respiratory tract infection. A patient with pneumonia will often continue to have an upper respiratory tract infection and develop respiratory symptoms that indicate a lower respiratory tract infection – cough, dyspnea, sputum production, and tachycardia. A pneumonia diagnosis is more likely if the patient also has a fever (except neonatal diagnosed with afebrile Chlamydia trachomatis pneumonia) and auscultatory findings that include abnormal breathing sounds, abnormal percussion findings, and crepitations.

Chest X-ray of a patient with Q fever. The arrow indicates the consolidation of the lower right part of the lung and the thickened pericardium.

Pneumonia can be classified depending on the rate of pneumonia development. Pneumonia with an acute onset develops within 24-48 hands is common in typical pneumonia patients. The patient’s only complaint may be an infection of the upper respiratory tract. Still, the manifestations of typical pneumonia develop rapidly – high fever, shivering, dyspnea, tachycardia, productive cough with purulent sputum, and lung consolidation as seen on X-ray.

Interstitial pneumonia (atypical pneumonia) has a subacute onset; it may take several days to a week before the patient develops signs and symptoms of pneumonia – lower-grade fever, shivering, paroxysmal cough with or without mucoid sputum production, and pulmonary infiltrates seen on chest X-ray.

Chronic pneumonia takes weeks to months to develop full symptoms. Patients usually present a history of night sweats, low-grade fever, significant weight loss, productive cough with purulent sputum, dyspnea;  Ghon hotspots can be seen on an X-ray of the lungs.

The symptoms of aspiration pneumonia are similar to other acute-onset pneumonia, except that patients experience recurrent rigor rather than cold-induced rigor. The consolidation of lung segments is seen on X-ray. About half of patients with aspiration pneumonia will have unpleasant-smelling sputum.

Some causes of pneumonia that give unique signs and symptoms:

  • Legionnaires’ disease caused by Legionella sp . may result in pneumonia with relative bradycardia, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, hematuria, mental confusion, abnormal liver, kidney test results, and increased serum creatinine phosphokinase levels.
  • Psittacosis cause by Chlamydophilae psittaci  (formerly known as Chlamydia psittaci ) may result in pneumonia with relative bradycardia, epistaxis,  Horder points, splenomegaly, or normal or low white blood cell counts. The disease is associated with people who care for parrots.
  • Q fever caused by Coxiellae burnetti can cause pneumonia with relative bradycardia, hepatomegaly, endocarditis, and abnormal liver function tests. Q fever is associated with farmers who have recently given birth to animals.
  • Erythema nodosum and hilar adenopathy can be seen in patients with pneumonia due to fungi like  Histoplasma capsulatum and  Coccidioides immitis.
  • Fungal pneumonia most commonly causes Blastomyces dermatitidis. It can also produce rough verrucous skin lesions.

Epidemiology of pneumonia

  • In the United States alone, two to three million pneumonia cases are reported annually.
  • In the U.S. alone, pneumonia patients are responsible for over 10 million doctor visits, half a million hospitalizations, and 45,000 deaths a year. Expensive influenza and pneumonia are the seventh leading cause of death in the United States.
  • A patient with pneumonia usually had a previous viral infection of the upper respiratory tract.
  • Inhalation and aspiration are the two most common ways of acquiring infectious pneumonia.
  • Pneumonia is more common in the winter months and in people over 65.
  • Elderly patients are more likely to be hospitalized and have a higher mortality rate after the onset of pneumonia.
  • Aspiration pneumonia is an endogenous infection.
  • The following conditions predispose a person to aspiration pneumonia: altered level of consciousness, alcoholism, seizures, anesthesia, central nervous system disorders, trauma, dysphagia, esophageal disorders, and nasogastric probes.

Pathogenesis of pneumonia

Bacteria are not present in the lower respiratory tract of patients with pneumonia. Organisms that enter the alveoli are eliminated through alveolar macrophages, which are considered to be the most important pathway for the elimination of organisms that manage to escape the defense mechanisms in the upper respiratory system.

  • When a microorganism enters the alveoli, IgG can be opsonized in the fluid lining the alveoli and then digested. Macrophage via the Fc receptor.
  • If no specific antibody to the organism is present, the macrophage can still phagocytose the microorganism using C-reactive protein or complement receptors or via receptors for pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Mannan, lipopolysaccharides, lipoteichoic acid, N-formylated methionine-containing peptides, muramyl peptides, and peptidoglycans are examples PAMPs that alveolar macrophages can use to phagocytose bacteria.
  • When a microorganism phagocytoses, macrophages destroy the microorganism, if possible, and present microbial antigens on the surface for B and T lymphocytes.
  • When activated, B and T lymphocytes can produce more antibodies and activate macrophages. Macrophages simultaneously release factors that help carry polymorphonuclear leukocytes out of the bloodstream and initiate an inflammatory response. Polymorphonuclear cells, antibodies, and complement components are useful in destroying microorganisms.

Bacterial survival in areoles

Many bacteria that cause pneumonia can initially survive in the alveoli due to the following self-defense mechanisms:

  • Capsules (e.g., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae ) prevents phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages.
  • Viruses and  Chlamydia invade the host cell before alveolar macrophages can phagocytose them.
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis can survive in alveolar macrophages even after macrophages phagocytose them.

If organisms survive in the alveoli, microbial growth can cause tissue injury, stimulating the host to amplify the inflammatory response. Tissue injury can also occur due to exotoxins produced by bacteria, cell lysis caused by viruses, or the death of alveolar macrophages and the release of their lysosomal contents into the alveoli due to the growth of microorganisms in phagocytes.

Vascular permeability increases and polymorphonuclear cells arrive in the area with many serum components, trying to retain and eliminate microorganisms. While microorganisms damage the alveoli, other alveolar macrophages are recruited into the area of inflammation. Lung-associated lymphoid tissue (mediastinal lymph nodes) becomes enlarged after B and T lymphocytes’ activation. Chest X-ray may show enlargement of mediastinal lymph nodes in patients with pneumonia.

Typical or lobar pneumonia

Accumulation of microorganisms, immune system cells, and serum components can cause alveolar filling. This inflammatory response is called opacity or consolidation on chest X-ray and is commonly seen in patients with pneumonia caused by S.pneumoniae. This type of pneumonia is called typical or lobar pneumonia. The inflammatory response to infection produces factors that allow microorganisms to leave the lungs and cause systemic effects such as fever. Examples of microbial factors that may have systemic effects include gram-negative bacterial endotoxin that causes fever and septic shock and gram-positive bacterial cell wall components that can lead to fever and septic shock.

Organisms like Mycoplasma pneumoniae and influenza virus do not initially cause the accumulation of large amounts of fluid in the alveoli. However, after infection with these organisms, inflammation in the interstitial spaces (alveolar walls) occurs, resulting in interstitial or atypical pneumonia. Thoracic X-ray in patients with this type of pneumonia shows fine granular diffuse infiltrates.

Other organisms like Staphylococcus aureus, gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria, and anaerobic bacteria from abscesses or microabscesses. In these infections, the immune system can isolate itself from organisms and create localized abscesses or microabscesses that usually show a well-localized circular lesion with necrotic translucent centers on chest X-ray.

Diagnosing pneumonia

Patients with pneumonia may present with chest discomfort, cough (productive or unproductive paroxysmal cough), rigore (patients with typical pneumonia), or feeling cold (patients with interstitial pneumonia), dyspnea, and fever. Physical examination may reveal increased respiratory rate and mucus on percussion over the affected regions of the lungs.

rtg snimak dijagnozaChest X-rays show new consolidations or infiltrations and help diagnose pneumonia. When the alveolar sacs are filled with inflammatory cells and fluid, chest X-rays show consolidated well-defined density areas – unilateral (inhalation or aspiration pneumonia), bilateral (hematogenous spread to the lungs), localized, or uniform. When a chest X-ray shows inflammation and thickening of the alveolar septa surrounding the alveoli, rather than filling the alveolar sacs with inflammatory material, a diagnosis of interstitial pneumonia is more likely.

Some organisms form abscesses in the lungs (e.g., S.aureus, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and anaerobic organisms); in such cases, a chest X-ray is useful for detecting abscesses. If present, certain radiological samples may have diagnostic value, e.g.:

A sign of a convex fissure as seen in Klebsiella pneumoniae infection (but also in other infections such as S. pneumoniae, P.aeruginosa, S.aureus, Legionella, and sometimes bronchoalveolar carcinoma.

  • Infection Klebsiella pneumoniae causes consolidation of the upper lobes, resulting in a “bulging fissure sign,” i.e., by dilating the affected part of the lung.
  • S.aureus  lung infections can cause multiple bilateral nodular infiltrates with central cavitation. In children, chest X-rays may show thin cavities (pneumatocele), bronchopleural fistulas, and empyema.
  • P.aeruginosa  infections can result in microabscesses that can merge into large abscesses.
  • Infections with gram-negative rods (e.g., Klebsiella, Proteus, E.coli ) often cause lung necrosis.
  • Consolidation of individual lung segments may indicate aspiration pneumonia.

Pathogen identification

To identify the specific pathogen that causes pneumonia, clinical and epidemiological data must be considered to limit the number of possible causes of pneumonia.

Gram staining of sputum in a patient with pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Gram-positive diplococci are seen in the sputum, and many polymorphonuclear leukocytes are present.

Gram staining of sputum of a patient with suspected pneumonia can help identify the cause of pneumonia. Some pathogens are poorly Gram-stained or not stained at all; other colors can be ordered: Dieterle silver color ( Legionella sp .), acid-fast Mycobacteria ), Gomori methenamine silver staining (fungi and Pneumocystis ).

Laboratory tests at diagnosis

Additional laboratory tests that can help establish a definitive diagnosis:

  • Sputum culture,
  • culture of blood samples for bacteria, fungi, or viruses,
  • serology for the detection of antibodies against pathogens (e.g., cold agglutination for M.pneumoniae; detection of antibodies to the capsule S.pneumoniae ),
  • antigenic tests to detect certain antigens produced by pathogens (e.g., polysaccharides for S.pneumoniae  and H.influenzae ),
  • skin tests to detect delayed hypersensitivity to certain pathogens (e.g., Mantoux test for M.tuberculosis, B.dermatitis, H.capsulatum, C.immitis).
  • PCR (polymerase chain reaction) for sputum samples and rapid determination of pathogens,
  • Urinalysis for  Legionella  antigens.

Treatment and prevention of pneumonia

Since bacteria cause most pneumonia cases, treatment usually involves antibiotic therapy. The tables list empirical treatments for patients with pneumonia. In about half of the patients, the etiological agent can be determined, and if it is known, more precise therapy can be started.

Two vaccines can be given to adults to help prevent pneumonia. The S.pneumoniae vaccine contains 23 types of capsular antigens and is used in people over 65 years of age. The influenza vaccine can be given annually to all people over the age of 50 to help prevent viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia that can occur after an influenza virus infection. Chemoprophylaxis to prevent influenza infections is useful in preventing secondary bacterial pneumonia.

Conjugated heptavalent S.pneumoniae  The vaccine is important in preventing these infections in younger children. The conjugated H.influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine prevents H.influenzae infections in childhood. Premature neutropenic infants can prevent respiratory syncytial virus infections or infants with different predispositions to infection by periodic injections of immune globulin for respiratory syncytial virus or humanized murine monoclonal antibody (palivizumab). Annual immunization of children with influenza vaccine prevents infections in vaccinated children and appears to prevent the virus’s spread by close contact.