Peptides and their use in treatment

Peptides are the building blocks of an organism, and they are made up of different amino acids that have a covalent bond.

Peptides are molecules formed from a mixture of amino acids linked by peptide bonds through dehydration and condensation. Peptides are specifically obtained:

As an outcome of proteolysis

Precise production of the organism

Synthetic production

Peptides as cancer therapy

peptide chains

In many innovative therapies, peptides are used for the treatment of malignancy. Due to these techniques, it has been concluded that peptides are of great importance due to their low molecular weight, ability to accurately label tumor cells, reduce the harmfulness of tumors in certain tissues, and the repairs they make in DNA arrays that are damaged due to the action of some external or internal factor. When the amount of amino acids is less than 50, they are called peptides. If larger structures are involved, these molecules are called proteins.

Peptides exist in every living cell and contain a certain range of biochemical compounds. Peptides occur in the following forms of compounds:





While used as a therapy for malignancies, peptides are based chemotherapy can be classified into three categories:

Peptide treatment alone – this treatment can be stimulating immune system reaction organisms to eradicate tumor cells.

Peptide-based serums – this protocol is used in highly developed malignancies to repair the patient’s overall condition.

A mixture of peptides and nanomaterials – This mixture has increased the peptides’ ability and an improved effect on various types of malignancy, which achieves increased drug distribution and increases malignant cells’ susceptibility.

Peptides and proteins

Peptides play a vital role in the basic physiological and biochemical processes that keep the organism alive. They can perform various tasks in the body. Several different peptides can control hormones. Your body also has the ability to break bonds in peptides and break them down into amino acids and thus destroy them.

The difference between proteins and peptides is not strictly defined. Proteins are much longer than peptides, and most proteins are composite structures with the ability to provide binding of all amino acids. Generally speaking, if more than 50 amino acids are linked, the component is characterized as a protein, while smaller chains are called peptides.

Combining peptides with other therapies

radiotherapy and peptides

The influence of peptides as a weapon for targeting exclusively malignant cells is an alternative to the current classical chemotherapy transport methods in which malignant and other healthy cells are targeted.

Peptides can be used as carriers of radioactive isotopes for the precise destruction and targeting of exclusively malignant cells. Hormone therapies with peptides are widely used to manage breast and prostate malignancy. From clinical trials, it can be concluded that peptides may play a significant role in developing a malignancy vaccine.

The current trend in newer medical therapies is the use of combined treatments to achieve better effects of certain parts of therapy to have a better effect on malignant diseases. Combining immunological treatments with conventional treatments (radiotherapy and chemotherapy) or combining anticancer peptides with non-peptides, i.e., anti-cancer drugs, is a real example of the above.


Paul Ehrlich, a German doctor and a Nobel Prize winner, was a pioneer who propagated the magic bullet idea. Since then, scientists have continued to hunt for targeted drugs that search for and label malignant cells while leaving the condition of healthy cells unchanged.

American scientist Linda Makas and her group discussed using peptides to target certain malignant diseases innovatively. In the report Molecular Pharmacology, these academics produced peptides that exclusively performed individual malignant cells’ targeting tasks.

Peptides and DNA

dnk modern image

The protein, labeled PCNA, performs the classic DNA replication role when they separate. This protein organizes numerous proteins and enzymes associated with DNA replication and enables them to perform certain tasks during this process.

In malignant cells, the role of PCNA is transformed and is not the same as in normal cells. The scientific team of Linda Makas managed to make a peptide copy of this protein, which normally performed the classic PCNA protein’s mutated function in malignant cells.

Dr. Malkas’ team has published speculation that a copy of PCNA in malignant cells will make double DNA, which will obstruct malignant cells’ capacity and worsen their functions where they eventually die.

Moreover, this peptide is exclusively associated with and reacts with transformed PCNA in malignant cells and should limit its activities exclusively to cancer cells and have a mild and imperceptible effect on the organism’s healthy cells.

Using this treatment for breast malignancy in the laboratory, these researchers concluded that they were right when using their peptides. This artificially produced peptide is harmful. For malignant cells, while its effect on health is fragile.

Peptides targeted chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is currently one of the most prominent methods for destroying malignancy, acting on malignant and healthy cells. The center of orthodox chemotherapy is the failure to maintain the exact amount of medicine needed to destroy cancer cells while keeping healthy cells intact. Various other problems are as follows:

Long life of decomposition of matter


Opposition drug

Chemotherapy and drug distribution modus operandi appear as authoritative methods to avoid these difficulties.  In that case, a careful operative adaptation of drugs to pre-determined targets is needed through the definition of receptors and malignancies, which, along the way, limits the entry of these drugs into normal cells.

The discovery of numerous protein/peptide receptors and peptides associated with tumors and proteins generates a new wave of more successful cytotoxic drugs.

Any treatment that uses the human body’s natural abilities is one of the possibilities that can be used against malignancies, and the use of peptides, proteins, and monoclonal antibodies may be considered. Peptides contain many advantages, such as small size, ease of production, infiltrate tumors, and good biocompatibility.

Use of peptides in the treatment of diseases

In the last decade, peptides have been used in diabetes mellitus, circulatory problems, and malignancies.

Peptides can be used in several different ways to eliminate malignancies and can be used as drugs in the following cases:

As inhibitors of angiogenesis

As mediators that target the tumor and transmit ANT malignant drugs and the radioactive isotope (targeted chemotherapy and radiotherapy)



Thanks to its ability to adapt to various receptors and become part of numerous biochemical processes, peptides represent many problems related to biomarkers and the spread of malignancy. Besides, peptides play a significant role in diagnosing malignancy, treatment of malignancy, and prediction of further development of malignancy.

Peptides as a vaccine


Unlike other elements, peptides are their ability to be selected in certain processes. Later, peptide treatment against malignancy, peptide vaccines, were recognized as a potential weapon from the moment the peptide vaccine for the prostate tumor was recognized in America. Many tests for many other types of malignancies, such as breast cancer, colon cancer, melanoma, glioblastoma, and others, have also been increased. 

This discovery has increased the innovative approach to the whole issue to link nanomaterials and chemotherapy with individual peptides. Through scientific tests, it has been proven that some deadly diseases reduce their progression and slow the development of the disease.

Diagnosis of malignancy

At this point, peptides play a significant role in diagnoses of malignancy colon, which leads to an improved perspective of disease outcomes. Also, modern clinical studies have shown that there is an increased concentration of neutrophil peptides 1-3 in the colon tissue during raspberry changes. Also, it was found that the increased intensity of serum C peptide specifies an above-average risk of adenoma. These statistics have shown that peptides can be used as biomarkers to identify colorectal malignancy. In addition to their function in detecting colorectal malignancy, peptides have also shown their ability to eliminate colorectal malignancy.

In modern medicine, peptides have also been shown to identify lung cancer. With the advancement of nanotechnology, peptides that can be combined with nanomaterial have shown high potential in treating various types of malignancies, including lung cancer.

Peptides play a key role in identifying breast malignancy, which leads to a reduction in the mortality of women suffering from this vicious disease.


As you can see from this text, the role of peptides is huge and extensive, so that we can reduce it to these few pages, but it is obvious that their application is increasing in modern medicine. Extensive research is needed to find all the optimal properties of peptides and their proper use in treating many diseases.

Artemisinin derivative of sweet wormwood and its growing importance in medicine

Artemisinin is obtained from the sweet wormwood extract and has so far been found to be excellent for the treatment of malaria, including highly resistant strains of this parasite. Its effectiveness has also been shown in parasitic infections such as schistosomiasis. Sweet wormwood has shown great influence, and broad properties in carcinogenic diseases and tests have been performed on animals and humans.

Progress in defining the role has been seen in many ways and from various angles artemisinin in medicine, with a special focus on its mechanisms and mode of action. This safe and inexpensive drug that saves the lives of people infected with malaria can also have significant potential in oncology.

Artemisinin’s introduction

The story of Fr. I will discover sweet wormwood and its active ingredient artemisinin by Chinese scientists, which is one of the greatest discoveries in medicine in the second half of the 20th century. This project is called 523. They were discovered on that occasion dihydroartemisinin, artemether, acrylic acid, or artemisinin, which is now making incredible strides in the treatment of malaria. Malaria is so prevalent that we have about 500 million new cases each year. This drug differs in many properties from the classic quinoline anti-malarial drugs and is extremely effective when combined with them.

Structure of artemisinin derivative of sweet wormwood:

(AND) Artemisinin isolated in crystal 1973 from the plant Artemisia annua or sweet wormwood, (B) dihydroartemisinin, (C) arthemer, (D) artesunate, (F) arter were first found by Chinese scientists in 1970. (  E) Artemison is a representative of a new class of artemisinin known as amino-artemisinin. Its characteristics are low toxicity. (G) Artelinate is prepared as a product in Walter’s Red Army Institute for research but was rejected, and the research was discontinued due to its high toxicity. (H) Deoxyarthemisinin.

Artemisinin is the subject of many studies aimed at researching and improving this drug class. Artemisinin is also active against other parasitic species, including protozoa, a phylogenetic species of parasite associated with malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites. Artemisinin derivative of sweet wormwood also acts against the metazoan parasite Schistosomes. Their healing effect also includes a strong anticancer effect. Many reports from medical studies show artemisinin as an anticancer agent. Recently, a clinical study was published in patients with lung cancer. During the short-term use of this cheap preparation, it was determined that there are valid reasons to include this drug in an integral part of anti-cancer therapy.

Use of artemisinin to treat malaria

The use of semi-synthetic derivative artesunate from sweet wormwood to treat severe malaria has been highlighted in recent publications. Artesunate is very effective compared to quinine and has fewer side effects than quinine, the only drug used to treat malaria.

Mortality in adults with artesunate is lower than in quinine. The intractable treatment has been extensively studied in adults and children with malaria symptoms very far from health facilities. New results from these studies will be available soon. Safety and efficacy are paramount in these studies. However, one child treated with very high doses of artesunate 88 mg / 1kg compared to the permitted 10-20 mg / 1kg died during treatment from this drug’s toxicity.

It should be emphasized that artesunate is much more toxic than artemisinin, but it acts faster. Interestingly, oral artemether and DHA are commonly used in multidose formulations instead of artesunate. Artesunate may have positive properties, both in terms of stability and ease of action compared to DHA and in negative effects in animals compared to artemether. New semi-synthetic artemisinins such as artemisinin are safe and improve efficacy, and have an improved effect against malaria models that have acquired artemisinin resistance.

Anticancer properties of artemisinin – sweet wormwood

Artemisinin’s anti-cancer properties have been tested since the late 1980s. After detailed studies, artemisinin was active against many tumor lines, including the most common types such as colon, breast cancer, lung cancer and leukemia, and pancreatic cancer. Studies have also identified general mechanisms in normalizing certain metabolic processes in the body that cause artemisinin.

Other mechanisms of anticancer activity include inhibition of enhanced tumor-associated angiogenesis. Artemisinin inhibits the proliferation, migration, and formation of tubes from the human umbilical vein of endothelial cells inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor. In cancer cells, artemisinin reduces VEGF receptors’ expression and slows the growth of human ovarian cancer.

It has also been shown that in some cancerous diseases, delivering larger amounts of iron increases artemisinin’s efficiency. Should artemisinin remain one of the few compounds that have not been sufficiently researched and have interesting properties in the treatment of cancerous diseases? Of course not, and there are many reasons for that. First, artemisinin is inexpensive, safe, and easily taken orally as a bioavailable compound that targets many cancer types.

Animals have been tested, and it has been proven that artemisinin has antitumor activity and reduces the risk of developing liver metastasis. Besides, clinical trials of individual cases recently published in lung cancer studies prove that artemisinin, in this case, is extremely effective in antitumor intervention, and this is especially pronounced in colorectal cancers and leukemia.

Other potentially useful properties of artemisinin and its compounds

In new studies, it has been found in several groups that artemisinin also has antiviral properties. Artemisinin reduces the replication rate of hepatitis B and C, herpes, HIV-1, influenza A virus, and bovine viral diarrhea. Artemisinin effectively reduces human herpesvirus 5 when used 300 mg daily, orally for 30 days. Artemisinin also has some antifungal properties against pneumocystis customs. There are several other positive effects on rheumatoid arthritis, renal syndrome, pancreatitis.

Artemisinin is firmly established as a cure for malaria in combination therapies. Its great potential now lies in diseases that are a challenge for all of humanity, such as many cancers, and for which currently only expensive treatments are effective. The issues are, of course, the dosing regimen, the safety of long-term use, and the possibility of indications with combination therapies. These are needs that need to be urgently investigated in clinical studies for a past and future drug called artemisinin.


Medical tourism in Cuba and treatment

Most of us are familiar with the use of vaccines to fight certain diseases such as the flu, chicken pox or measles. However, the use of therapeutic cancer vaccines may not be a common term. Advances in research and improved diagnostics enable the development of a new generation of drugs for the treatment of tumors. Among these new anti-cancer drugs, immunotherapy-based treatments offer very promising results.