Heart transplantation

A heart transplant is a transplant of a complete human heart. Heart failure (or congestive heart failure) is a condition in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet other bodily organs’ needs. People with heart failure should not strain because they are short of breath and tired. They can also have life-threatening irregular […]

Coronary heart disease and its treatment

What causes coronary heart disease? Coronary heart disease occurs due to the deposition of fatty substances, such as cholesterol, in the wall of a coronary blood vessel. These fatty deposits in the coronary blood vessels are called atherosclerotic plaques or lesions. As deposition progresses over time, the vessel’s inner wall thickens, the blood vessel narrows, […]


Angiography is a test that makes the arteries easily visible to X-rays with the help of an injection of fluid injected into the bloodstream. When is angiography used? Until recently, an angiogram was used to determine blood vessels’ condition. Today, non-invasive techniques provide the same information with less inconvenience and risk to the patient. These […]

Abdominal aorta

Most of the arteries that supply the posterior abdominal wall come from the abdominal aorta. The subcostal arteries separate from the thoracic part of the aorta and are distributed below the twelfth rib. The abdominal aorta is approximately 13 cm long. It begins at the diaphragm’s aortic hiatus at the level of the T12 vertebra […]