Pineapple bromelain enzyme and its medicinal properties

bromelain enzyme pineapple

What is bromelain?

Bromelain is an enzyme that can be found in fresh pineapples. This fruit is represented in subtropical countries such as the Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Kenya, India and China. Although it is present in the whole plant, bromelain is most often obtained from the stem of a pineapple.  This enzyme performs the function of proteolysis or the function of destroying individual proteins and peptide .

This enzyme has been used since the 19th century and is a very important supplement to the diet due to its very healing properties. There is a large amount of information that confirms the very extensive use of bromelain as a medicinal extract in medicine, especially fibrinolytic use, anti-edematous and use against blood clots, as well as anti-inflammatory, which makes it very useful and curative. Currently, this proteolytic enzyme is extracted from pineapple using centrifugation, ultrafiltration and lyophilization techniques.


bromelain proteolytic enzyme

In fruit, extracted bromelain is also composed of two different compositions of prteolytic enzymes (which contain sulfhydryl groups) and several other minor ingredients. Bromelain  mainly suggests an extracted compound consisting of several thiol endopeptiases, phosphatases, gluxidases, peroxidases, cellulases, esherases and protease inhibitors.

Dosage information

Most bromelain products contain 2000 MCU per gram. The recommended daily dose of bromelain is 3000 MCU three times a day and so it should be taken for a few days and then reduced to 2000 MCU twice a day. The maximum strength of bromelain has not yet been established.

Use of bromelain

The anti-cancer potential of bromelain stems from its potential to enhance apoptosis and the death of rapidly growing cancer cells. This preparation also has the ability to change the key pathways that lead to malignancy. It also reduces the concentration of substances that keep cancer cells alive. In a study conducted on mice, bromelain caused apoptosis in papilloma skin cancer and reduced tumor volume and development.

Also, bromelain in another study conducted on glioblastoma cancer was able to reduce the invasiveness associated with cancer cells . Bromelain has shown cytotoxic potential against P-388 leukemia, sarcoma, Ehrlich ascetic tumor, Lewis lung cancer and DAC-755 milkweed adenocarcinoma .

Bromelain diabetes and heart problems

heart problems

Thanks to its fibrionolytic and trobolytic properties, bromelain prevents the development of agina pectoris and transient ischemic attacks, as well as many other cardiovascular disorders. The full range of preventable ischemic heart disease using bromelain includes stable and unstable angina and coronary heart disease . It successfully prevents the blockage of blood vessels that supply the heart and has a preventive effect on the formation of blood clots.

Bromelain is also used to relieve the symptoms of diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia.

It is a good anti-coagulant and thrombolytic, which makes it very useful in the prevention of thromboembolism.  These properties make it effective in the treatment of diseases such as deep vein thrombosis, portal thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, cardiac embolism.  As an anti-coagulant, bromelain prolongs prothrombin time and activates thromboplastin time. Bromelain achieves this by inhibiting fibrin formation from fibrinogen and improving fibrinolytic activity.

Bromelain allergies and respiratory diseases

It is used to prevent ischemia of reperfusion injuries in skeletal muscle.

Bromelain  helps treat asthma by causing a decrease in mucus. Mucus production and viscosity are increased in people who have asthma. Recent studies have also shown that bromelain reduces asthma symptoms by causing modifications in cell populations.  CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocytes, which also reduces allergy symptoms.

Preparations that contain bromelain accelerate the wound healing process. It is especially good for treating burns.

The anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of bromelain make it very useful in postoperative conditions.

By destroying certain food pathogens such as Vibro cholera and Escherichia coli, bromelain prevents diarrhea.

Bromelain is used in therapy, during treatment rheumatoid arthritis due to its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects.

It is extremely useful in relieving pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis (OA). In the study, 103 individuals received bromelain and compared the effects with diclofenac. After a period of 6 weeks, it was found that the effects were exactly the same. It is considered to be bromelain  very effective as an alternative to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of osteoarthritis. The analgesic action of bromelain successfully modulates the level of bradykinin that causes pain.

Side effects

An allergy to this may occur enzyme .

In people suffering from duodenal gastritis, bromelain extract can lead to worsening of the condition.

Interaction with other drugs

In patients on varafin therapy, bromelain should be avoided as both preparations have an additional effect that may lead to excessive anti-coagulation .

Further research has been conducted to find the full oncological potential and other effects of bromelain use  with the aim of fully understanding the mechanisms by which bromelain exerts its numerous effects. This compound has no taratogenic fetotoxic effect and is completely safe for use during pregnancy. Since it is a natural medicine, it is extremely effective and its use is on the rise due to minimal side effects.