Bromelain is an enzyme that can be found in fresh pineapples. This fruit is represented in subtropical countries such as the Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Kenya, India, and China. Although it is present in the whole plant, bromelain is most often obtained from the stem of a pineapple. This enzyme performs the function of proteolysis or destroys individual proteins and peptides.
This enzyme has been used since the 19th century and is an important supplement to the diet due to its very healing properties. There is a large amount of information that confirms the pervasive use of bromelain as a medicinal extract in medicine, especially fibrinolytic use, anti-edematous, and use against blood clots anti-inflammatory, which makes it very useful and curative. Currently, this proteolytic enzyme is extracted from pineapple using centrifugation, ultrafiltration, and lyophilization techniques.
The fruit and extracted bromelain are composed of two different compositions of proteolytic enzymes (which contain sulfhydryl groups) and several other minor ingredients. Bromelain mainly suggests an extracted compound consisting of several thiol endopeptidases, phosphatases, glucosidases, peroxidases, cellulases, esherases, and protease inhibitors.
Most bromelain products contain 2000 MCU per gram. The recommended daily dose of bromelain is 3000 MCU three times a day, and so it should be taken for a few days and then reduced to 2000 MCU twice a day. The maximum strength of bromelain has not yet been established.
The anti-cancer potential of bromelain stems from its potential to enhance apoptosis and rapidly growing cancer cells’ death. This preparation also has the ability to change the key pathways that lead to malignancy. It also reduces the concentration of substances that keep cancer cells alive. In a study conducted on mice, bromelain caused apoptosis in papilloma skin cancer and reduced tumor volume and development.
In another study conducted on glioblastoma cancer, bromelain reduced the invasiveness associated with cancer cells. Bromelain has shown cytotoxic potential against P-388 leukemia, sarcoma, Ehrlich ascetic tumor, Lewis lung cancer, and DAC-755 milk adenocarcinoma.
Thanks to its fibrinolytic and thrombolytic properties, bromelain prevents the development of angina pectoris and transient ischemic attacks, as well as many other cardiovascular disorders. The full range of ischemic heart disease that bromelain can prevent includes stable and unstable angina and coronary heart disease. It successfully prevents the blockage of blood vessels that supply the heart and has a preventive effect on blood clots’ formation.
Bromelain is also used to relieve diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia.
It is a good anti-coagulant and thrombolytic, which makes it very useful in preventing thromboembolism. These properties make it effective in treating diseases such as deep vein thrombosis, portal thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, cardiac embolism. As an anti-coagulant, bromelain prolongs prothrombin time and activates thromboplastin time. Bromelain achieves this by inhibiting fibrin formation from fibrinogen and improving fibrinolytic activity.
It is used to prevent ischemia of reperfusion injuries in skeletal muscle.
Bromelain helps treat asthma by causing a decrease in mucus. Mucus production and viscosity are increased in people who have asthma. Recent studies have also shown that bromelain reduces asthma symptoms by causing cell population modifications. CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocytes, which also reduces allergy symptoms.
Preparations that contain bromelain accelerate the wound healing process. It is perfect for treating burns.
The anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of bromelain make it very useful in postoperative conditions.
By destroying certain food pathogens such as Vibro cholera and Escherichia coli, bromelain prevents diarrhea.
Bromelain is used in therapy during rheumatoid arthritis treatment due to its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects.
It is instrumental in relieving pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis (OA). In the study, 103 individuals received bromelain and compared diclofenac effects. After a period of 6 weeks, it was found that the effects were the same. It is considered bromelain very effective as an alternative to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to treat osteoarthritis. The bromelain’s analgesic action successfully modulates the level of bradykinin that causes pain.
An allergy to this enzyme may occur.
In people suffering from duodenal gastritis, bromelain extract can worsen the condition.
In patients on paraffin therapy, you should avoid bromelain as both preparations have an additional effect that may lead to excessive anticoagulation.
Further research has been conducted to find the full oncological potential and other effects of bromelain use to fully understand the mechanisms by which bromelain exerts its numerous effects. This compound has no teratogenic fetotoxic effect and is completely safe for use during pregnancy. Since it is a natural medicine, it is extremely effective, and its use is on the rise due to minimal side effects.