The nervous system enables a person to get to know the outside world and, at the same time, to get acquainted with the events in the organism itself. This system gives motor strength to all muscles, controls all glands’ work, and enables the expression of will, feelings, and other mental actions. The nervous system is divided into central (middle), peripheral and autonomic systems.
The central nervous system (CNS) comprises central organs: cerebellum and cerebellum, medulla oblongata, and spinal cord.
The peripheral nervous system consists of 12 pairs of cerebral and 31 pairs of spinal nerves.
The autonomic nervous system consists of a sympathetic and a parasympathetic part.
The nervous system has billions of nerve cells. The basic unit is a nerve cell – neuron. It consists of the body and its extensions (nerve fibers). Irritation of the nerve fiber at the site results in a physicochemical change that is rapidly transmitted through the nerve fiber. This process is similar to an electrical phenomenon called a nerve impulse. The organs work when a nerve impulse reaches them, e.g., muscles contract, glands secrete, etc. Nerve cell – the neuron is very sensitive and feeds through the blood. If a neuron runs out of blood for a few minutes, it collapses.
Nerves (nerves) are ribbon-shaped formations that consist of many nerve fibers. They connect the brain and spinal cord with other parts of the body.
The spinal cord is a part of the CNS located in the spinal canal. It is a ribbon (rope) about 50cm long and about 10mm thick. It originates from 31 pairs of spinal or spinal nerves. Its role is to conduct impulses from the brain to the periphery of the body to enable certain reflex orders (which are performed without the will: emptying the bladder, small intestine, and some actions of the genitals). The medulla oblongata is the brain that extends from the spinal cord to the bridge. It is located in the spinal canal and cranial cavity. It has the shape of a fringed cup. It is only 2.5 cm long. It contains centers for managing the process of breathing, heartbeat, coughing, swallowing, vomiting, etc. It is sensitive to pressure, and strong pressure on the elongated brain can cause death.
The brainstem includes the midbrain, midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata.
The bridge is an extension of the brain above the medulla oblongata. The cerebellum is located in the cranial cavity, behind the bridge, and the medulla oblongata. The cerebellum maintains balance, distributes impulses in the muscles, and automatically regulates voluntary and semi-voluntary actions. The midbrain is located above the bridge. It houses the centers for hearing and sight.
The midbrain is located between the left and right hemispheres of the cerebrum and above the midbrain. Two egg formations – the thalamus, represent the lateral parts of the midbrain. The lower part is the hypothalamus, which contains the centers for regulating metabolism and blood pressure, and sexual functions.
The cerebrum is the most developed part of the CNS, weighing about 1350 g, divided into two parts (hemispheres): the left and right hemispheres. The surface of the hemisphere is wrinkled – cerebral gyri.
In terms of material, there are gray and white masses. The gray mass is made up of nerve cell bodies, and the white mass is made up of nerve cell extensions. Each hemisphere is surrounded by three membranes (meninges): the first is soft and twists blood vessels, the second is thin (arachnoid), and the third is firm (hard membrane). All three membranes descend into the spinal canal and envelop the spinal cord in the same way.
All brain chambers and the space between the soft and arachnoid membranes are filled with a clear liquid – the cerebrospinal fluid. The total amount of cerebrospinal fluid is 60-150 ml. It has the role of a water cushion that protects the brain and spinal cord from hard bone parts and the role of preventing the entry of harmful substances into the nervous tissue.
There are areas with certain functions in the cerebral cortex. These are the centers: motor – which allows the performance of voluntary movements and actions; sensitive – allows you to feel touch, pain, temperature; -sensory (sensory) nerves – in the cortex of the temporal lobe, there are centers for hearing, smell and taste. The center of vision is in the cortex of the occipital lobe. Injury to each lobe results in cessation of center function.
The basal ganglia (tail and lenticular nucleus) and other gray matter masses of the brain are a functional unit – the extrapyramidal system – which regulates automatic movements and muscle tone. Inflammation of the basal ganglia is known as Parkinson’s disease.
Peripheral nervous system
The peripheral nervous system consists of the cerebral and spinal nerves. From the brain come 12 pairs of nerves intended for the head and neck muscles and organs. From the spinal cord come 31 pairs of nerves for muscles, neck, trunk, and extremities.
Autonomic or vegetative nervous system
The autonomic or vegetative nervous system is the part of the nervous system that manages those functions of the human organism that are important for life and do not take place under our will’s influence. It consists of two parts:
Sympathetic nervous system (sympathetic)
The sympathetic nervous system (sympathetic nervous system) increases blood pressure, speeds up the heart’s work, increases metabolism, increases the level of sugar in the blood, dilates the pupils, and inhibits the work of the abdominal organs.
Parasympathetic nervous system (Parasympathetic)
Parasympathetic (parasympathetic nervous system) dilates blood vessels, lowers blood pressure, slows down the heart, improves the abdominal organs’ work, and slows down the metabolism. The sympathetic nervous system is stimulated by adrenaline produced by the adrenal gland and the parasympathetic nervous system by acetylcholine.
Damage to the nervous system results in damage to the organs whose work they manage. But there are also such brain damages that disrupt mental functions, the consequence of which is the appearance of mental illness.
The most common diseases of the nervous system are:
• Stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases
• Alzheimer’s disease
• Parkinson’s disease
• Headaches (migraine and other forms of headache)
• Multiple sclerosis
• Neuropathic pain
Medicinal herbs in the treatment of diseases of the nervous system
Medicinal herbs that have an impact on the functioning of the nervous system are odoljen, hops, lemon balm, mint, Oregano, selenium, mustard, St. John’s wort, lavender, rosemary, etc.
Recipe 1. Against insomnia
Mix 50 g of oleander and hops. Steam three tablespoons with 400 g of boiling water. Leave covered for 2 hours. Strain and drink 200 ml in the morning and 200 ml in the evening before bedtime.
Recipe 2. Nervous pain (neuralgia)
Mix 1 tablespoon of basil, marigold flowers, and two tablespoons of resisted roots. Pour in 600 ml of boiling water and leave covered for 2 hours. Strain and drink 200 ml before breakfast, lunch, and dinner.
Recipe 3. Wrap for sore spots
5 tablespoons finely grated horseradish root and 1 tablespoon finely chopped hot peppers, St. John’s wort, rosemary, and soap. Mix everything well and apply to the sore spot. Keep the dressings for 2 hours. Before applying the dressing, it is necessary to lubricate the sore spot with olive oil. After removing the coating, wipe the place with lukewarm water and coat it with olive oil.
For good sleep: One large spoon of honey taken before bed calms the nerves and speeds up sleep. It is also recommended to eat 1 apple before bed.
Recipe 4. Against headaches
Take 3 tablespoons of lemon balm and 1 tablespoon of goodies, dandelion root, and primrose leaf. Pour 1 liter of boiling water over everything. Leave covered for 2 hours. Strain and drink 200 ml of tea 3-4 times a day.