Mushrooms and mushrooms are special both for food and for their healing properties.
In his book on plants, the German botanist Adameus Lonicerius (1528 – 1586) gave the following definition of fungi:
“Mushrooms are not leafy plants, nor roots, nor flowers, nor seeds. They are formed from excess moisture in the soil, trees, leaves and other decomposing materials, so their life is short: they grow and die in seven days. They grow especially strange when it thunders. “
History and mushrooms
We find the first descriptions of mushrooms in the works of the Greek philosopher Aristotle, and further throughout history we find that the Romans called them the food of the gods, and Pliny in his book History of Nature for the first time divides them into poisonous and edible.
Mushrooms are mentioned in the works of the most famous writers and artists of the old world, and the death by poisoning of the French King Charles VI and Pope Clement VII is also recorded.
Insufficient knowledge about mushroom growing until the 19th century contributed to the veil of mystery and the creation of cults of sacred mushrooms, as well as their use in the rituals of certain peoples.
How to choose the right mushroom and why you should be careful
However, mushrooms grow today as they did many centuries ago, a little poisonous, very poisonous, medicinal, edible more or less, so you have a wide range of possibilities to use them as you wish. Depending on the species, tastes and smells are different, so they can remind you of a plant, fish, flower or corpse. Basically, provided you know what you are looking for, mushroom growing is a useful and rewarding job, not to mention all those wonderful specialties that can be prepared from these forest beauties.
But to always have mushrooms ready to use, there are several ways to make your own mycological biospice.
First, decide which mushrooms you want in your kitchen and then get them fresh. They can mostly be bought at city markets or markets, and determine the amount according to your culinary habits. The most common are mushrooms, oyster mushrooms, porcini mushrooms, chanterelles, eelgrass, shiitake and less often truffles.
You know not to use decayed, softened, moldy or old mushrooms that can cause nausea, vomiting and other inconveniences. In case this happens, you should return everything you ate and drink as much lukewarm water or lukewarm coffee as possible.
If you personally brought them from the forest, seek medical help because you are more likely to have picked the wrong species, so there may have been poisoning.
There are many types of edible mushrooms, and some of them only once says a wise saying.
Well, when you bring your fragrant package home, it is advisable to start preparing immediately. What you do with it depends on the type you bought.
The easiest way to store it, which applies to almost all species, is as follows: all mushrooms can be frozen.
Freezing mushrooms will not lose their valuable ingredients, so in this way, households can be supplied with this delicacy for a long time. Once frozen mushrooms do not freeze again, as well as dishes from them. Heating any food is considered harmful to the body, and the research that has been done has proven that.
So, before freezing, clean the mushrooms, separate the larger ones from the smaller ones, and if necessary, put them under a stream of cold water for a short time. Then you have to blanch them by dipping them in boiling water for 3 minutes (smaller pieces) and 5 minutes bigger, and then cool them sharply under a stream of cold water. It is then drained, dried with a napkin and prepared in frieze containers. They are stored at a temperature of -18C.
One of the safest ways to store it is to dry it. Since the flesh of the mushroom contains almost 95% of water that evaporates when dried, for 1 kg of dry you will need about 8-9 kg of fresh fruit, depending on the type. Mushrooms, porcini mushrooms, oyster mushrooms, sunflowers, shiitake, black trumpets, spruces, apple trees, rabbits and foxes are most often dried. Before drying, the mushrooms must be thoroughly cleaned of soil, sand, substrate or other impurities, preferably with a soft brush.
Then they are cut into thin sheets up to 5 mm thick and dried in the oven. Do not stack them on top of each other, but neatly arrange so that warm air can flow between them. The optimal temperature should be 30-60C, drying takes about 2 hours, and the oven door should remain open.
For drying outside, a wooden base or sheet is usually prepared, so the leaves of the mushrooms are dried in a thin layer in strong sunlight (a day or two) or in the shade with enough air flow. Such drying lasts up to five days, with more frequent turning and mixing, and in the evening it is covered with gauze and brought into the house for protection from moisture and insects.
Dried mushrooms are stored in hollow paper or light gauze bags, in a dry, cool and dark place.
Periodically check them for worms or mold.
Before use, all dried mushrooms must be soaked in lukewarm water for an hour or two to soften.
You do not have to pay dearly for marinated mushrooms in the store (they are most often prepared this way), when you can prepare them yourself very easily. Buy small and fresh fruits, clean or wash them, and then lower them into boiling water. Cook them for up to seven minutes maximum, remove with a slotted spoon and pour over cold water.
In a special bowl, make sure it is not damaged if it is enameled, make a marinade (now depends on the amount in question, housewives know how much liquid to prepare for filling jars), but 50ml of water goes 50ml of alcoholic vinegar (9%, which is used in the household), half a teaspoon of salt, the same amount of sugar, and a sprig of rosemary, bay leaf or peppercorns can be added. Bring everything to a boil, then add the mushrooms and cook for another five minutes.
Transfer the mushrooms to pre-cooked jars, pour over the marinade, close well with a lid or cellophane, and leave to cool naturally wrapped in blankets. In this way, winter was prepared in our people. I still remember a bottle of tomato that my grandmother put in a bed that is not used for sleeping after filling and covered it with feather quinces and pillows, then left it to cool for 2-3 days.
In olive oil
Choose small fruits or cut larger specimens into cubes. Again, everything depends on the amount of prepared mass, but on 1 liter of vinegar in which you need to cook mushrooms, porcini mushrooms or whatever you want, add a spoonful of salt and let it boil. Cook the cleaned or washed fruits on a low heat for 10 to 15 minutes, then remove everything to cool. Drain and dry the mushrooms on a napkin or cloth, then arrange in sterile jars.
Season them with a teaspoon of peppercorns, a sprig of rosemary or a bay leaf. It is desirable to cover them with natural cold-pressed olive oil and then cover well with cellophane and a lid. They are kept cool and can survive for a long time. They are usually used after 40 days, while all the ingredients and aromas are even. They are used for salads together with the oil that is used for dressing.
Brine is in fact a saline solution that keeps food for a longer period of time from decay. The mushrooms are first blanched as described above, cooled, drained and placed in jars or containers, then poured with a 15% salt solution and water a few centimeters above the surface of the stacked mushrooms.
To improve the taste, peppercorns and laurel or rosemary are added. Before connecting and closing the jar, a little oil can be added to the surface of the salt, but it is not obligatory. The fruits will be extremely salty, but certainly suitable for gourmets.
Chemical composition of fungi
Fungi are low-calorie organisms with a high protein content and minimal fat.
They contain the necessary essential amino acids, enzymes, proteins, polysaccharides, carbohydrates, minerals, B complex vitamins, B1, B2, B6, B12, D2, C, b-carotene, aromatic components.
Of the minerals, Sodium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium, Iron, Manganese, Copper, Magnesium, Zinc are represented.
Shi take -Lentinula edodes-Strengthens immunity, antiviral effect, antibacterial, ingredient in preparations for the treatment of HIV, tuberculosis, herpes, hepatitis-B, viral encephalitis
Oyster mushroom – Pleurotus ostreatus -Antioxidant, lowers cholesterol and triglycerides, antitumor effect, against lumbago and poor circulation
A fox – Cantharellus cibarius – against eye inflammation, night blindness, dry skin, infections and sarcoma growth
Judas’ ear – Auricularia auricula – judae – Immunotonic, against all types of bleeding, hemorrhoids, dysentery, cholesterol and triglycerides, ANTIDOTIC in mushroom poisoning, radioactivity, to improve mental abilities and blood vessels
Big blower – Langermania gigantea-Antibiotic, antiseptic
Cressive leprosy, Labor -Fomes fomentarius – Antitumor effect, antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic
Recipes in cooking
Mushrooms with thyme
-600gr.young, beautiful mushrooms
-a piece of butter
-1 connection of primrose leaves
-3 cloves of garlic
-2 waists of chopped thyme
-200 g of cheese
-to the tip of an oregano knife
-a little prezle
Separate the stalks from the hats and wipe them. Place the hats in a fireproof dish, previously coated with butter, and fill with a mixture of finely chopped parsley, garlic, oregano, thyme and grated cheese.
Add salt and pepper, sprinkle with crumbs and pour over oil.
Preheat the oven to 210C and bake until soft, adding water as needed. Serve with boiled rice.
Oyster salad with celery
-250 g of oyster mushrooms cut into leaves
-200g celery grated
-60 g of spinach cut into noodles
-1 small onion chop
-1 clove of garlic
-Half a spoon of apple cider vinegar
-50 ml of olive oil
-so and pepper
Mix the ingredients carefully and serve on fresh salad leaves.
Mushroom salad with li munom
-300 g of cheese
-3 celery leaves
-1 sprig of chopped thyme
-juice of one lemon
-a little olive oil
Cut the mushroom caps thinly into leaves, add finely chopped ones celery leaves , thyme, grated cheese, salt, pepper and olive oil.
Mix all ingredients carefully, sprinkle with lemon juice, cool and serve.