hair loss

Hair loss: stop using “effective preparations”!

Which hair loss medications can be used depends on the type of hair loss and its causes. We present the concept against hair loss.

There are many remedies for hair loss. Few of them can be called “natural”. Also, very few of these drugs treat the real causes of hair loss. Natural remedies are different. They solve the problem at the root – in the true sense of the word.

But let’s start with the different types of hair loss. Because each type of hair loss has its specific causes, so each type of hair loss should be treated and taken seriously.

These are the types of hair loss

Hair loss is roughly divided into four different types of hair loss, with the fifth “type” being a special case:

  • Hereditary hair loss (also known as androgenic or hereditary hair loss)
  • Circular hair loss (Alopecia areata)
  • Diffuse hair loss
  • Hair loss with scars
  • Special case: hair loss during chemotherapy

Hereditary or androgenic hair loss

Hereditary or androgenic hair loss can affect women and men alike, and the vast majority of men are affected. This form of hair loss is called hereditary, because hereditary hypersensitivity of certain hair follicles to the hormone DHT.

DHT stands for 5-alpha dihydrotestosterone. It belongs to androgens, which belong to sex hormones. Androgens are responsible for male characteristics such as strong muscle development, beard growth, body hair and a deep voice.

DHT is made from testosterone by a specific enzyme (5-alpha reductase), and DHT is more active than two male hormones.

Androgenic hair loss in women

If women of reproductive age are affected by androgenic hair loss, the hair thins. Women also have elevated levels of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone, with PCOS, polycystic ovary syndrome, very often involved. It is the most common hormonal disorder in women of reproductive age.

Androgenic hair loss in men

In men, androgenic hair loss is not so easily influenced by natural measures. However, there are herbal remedies that can be used to gently affect the hormonal balance.

It is also now assumed that diet and lifestyle affect gene expression, so that a person is not always at the mercy of his genes for better or worse.

Therefore, a holistic approach is also very beneficial for androgenic hair loss, which – even if it could not reverse hair loss – can often lead to slowing down and moreover not only have a positive effect on hair and scalp health, but in any case general health. significantly improves mental performance and physical fitness.

Circular hair loss

Circular hair loss (alopecia ariata) occurs in rounded, completely bald areas on the head. In extreme cases, however, all the hair and hair can fall out, even the rest of the body.

Circular hair loss is currently considered an autoimmune disease, which means that the body’s own defense cells (so-called cytotoxic T cells) attack the hair follicle cells in places, believing that these are foreign structures that need to be fought. . Studies have found infiltration of cytotoxic T cells in the affected areas of the scalp.

Other autoimmune diseases are often present in circular hair loss. If so, the prognosis seems less good. After a few years, nail changes can occur in over 60 percent of patients (longitudinal grooves, fragility, rough surface, etc.).

Up to 50 percent of sufferers fully recover from circular hair loss during the year. At up to 25 percent, however, it increases to the point of complete loss of all hair on the head or even the entire body.

Diffuse hair loss

With diffuse hair loss, the hair becomes lighter. So there are no single bald spots. In most cases, women are affected.

Diffuse hair loss is usually of the late type, which means that the harmful effect interrupts the hair growth phase (see the next section “Three phases of the hair life cycle”) and the hair goes into a resting phase. It lasts up to 4 or even up to 6 months. Only then does the hair fall out, so in the case of diffuse hair loss, you should always think about what happened a few weeks or months ago, which could be a harmful factor, so that you can then take appropriate measures.

Possible harmful factors include:



high temperature,

Hemorrhage (excessive blood loss),

Diseases of internal organs (e.g. Liver, thyroid (usually insufficiently active thyroid) and other endocrine organs,

Severe diseases (cancer, tuberculosis, etc.),

strict diets or periods of starvation or generally chronic deficiencies of nutrients or vital substances (e.g. iron deficiency due to abundant

menstruation, zinc deficiency, vitamin D deficiency, etc.)

accident or operative trauma,

severe emotional stress and some medications (e.g., beta blockers, statins, thyroid medications, or blood thinners).

The following possible causes can be added:

Improper hair care or coloring with chemical hair dyes as well as one

Pollution (eg heavy metals)



Chronic acidosis

Hair loss with scars

Hair loss with scars appears on bald spots that eventually become scars. This hair loss is often associated with irreversible damage to the hair follicles. Hair no longer grows in the relevant areas. Because strong inflammatory processes are present during this form of hair loss, conventional medicine treats corticoids (cortisone) to prevent inflammation and stop hair loss.

However, inflammation of hair loss with scars does not occur without other factors. Hair loss is associated with certain diseases, such as lupus erythematosus ,, psoriasis ,, Fungal Infections or certain tumors. Since these diseases are the real cause of hair loss, the focus of therapy should not be on hair loss, but on the disease that triggers it.

Special case: hair loss during chemotherapy

Chemotherapy damages all hair that is in the growth phase (see the next section for the three phases of the hair life cycle). The damage is so great that these hairs do not go into the resting phase, but break at the root immediately or within a few weeks. There is talk of hair loss (effluvium) of the early type.

For now, only those hairs remain that were already dormant during chemotherapy (ie, a maximum of 20 percent of the total hair), but which also fall out 87ztrde4w no later than 2 to 4 months.

Because hair follicle cells belong to those cells that divide very quickly, the follicles recover quickly, so that the first new hairs can be seen again only 4 weeks after the end of chemotherapy. Sometimes it takes a little longer (6 to 8 weeks).

Hair loss cannot be prevented here, but you can speed up and support the regeneration of the body with measures for detoxification and strengthening after chemotherapy (after consulting a doctor).

Three phases of the hair life cycle

Hair is subject to a certain developmental cycle. Three phases can be distinguished here. If you know this, you will better understand why hair does not always fall out immediately after the harmful effect, but maybe only after a few weeks.

Anagen = growth phase: 2 to 10 (usually 3 to 6) years, hair grows. The longer the anagen, the longer the hair becomes. Anyone who has hair that does not grow for a particularly long time has a shorter phase of anagen. In healthy people, 80 percent of hair is in anagen. If it is a harmful effect, then the hair turns into catagen, and then into telogen, so that weeks or months can pass after the harmful effect until hair loss is shown.

Catagen = transition phase: 2 weeks, during which time the hair follicles stop their metabolic activity, the hair is no longer delivered and also no longer grows.

Telogen = resting phase: 2 to 4 months, at the end of the telogen phase hair falls out. In this condition, it should be less than 20 percent of the hair.

Can Pfeiffer’s glandular fever cause or trigger hair loss?

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is currently thought to be responsible for Pfeiffer’s glandular fever, especially autoimmune diseases, which is why researchers at the University of Texas / Houston investigated a possible link to circular hair loss back in 2008.

Of the 1586 patients with circular hair loss who felt that external factors caused their hair loss, 12 people had EBV infection in the six months before hair loss, which is less than 1 percent, but still shows that EBV infection can be risk factor.

Causes that may be responsible for hair loss

Earlier in the introduction of different types of hair loss, we have already listed some of the causes. However, from a naturopathic point of view, we will also ask the question:

Why does androgenic hair loss lead to hair follicle hypersensitivity to DHT and why do women develop a hormonal disorder (PCOS)? People will ask themselves, how is it that an autoimmune disease develops and the body turns against itself? Why does the thyroid gland no longer work properly, so that an inactive thyroid gland is diagnosed?

In all these cases, there is an imbalance in the body. Certain influences prevent healthy reactions of the organism, lead to irritation, malfunctions, in the intestines, IBS, which could accelerate the development of autoimmune diseases. These negative impacts include:

  • poor nutrition (which nourishes the body and at the same time does not provide enough vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and nutrients)
  • overloaded liver
  • intestinal flora disorder or poor intestinal health
  • lack of stress management
  • too many stimulants (alcohol, cigarettes, sugar, caffeine)
  • too little sleep, too little fresh air, and too little exercise
  • unnatural hair and body care

All of these factors cause disorders in the system (in the immune system, in the hormonal system, etc.) and can eventually lead to hair loss. So, what to do in case of hair loss from a holistic point of view?

These drugs are used for hair loss

In naturopathy, individual drugs against this or that are rarely used. On the other hand, a holistic attitude is approached and the above problematic habits are corrected.

Even holistic concepts for autoimmune diseases (including circular hair loss or causative diseases due to hair loss scars) now consist of the same measures listed below that have been recommended in naturopathy for decades for diseases of all kinds (see “Treating Autoimmune Diseases Successfully” by Dr. Susan Blum):

Healthy diet

Strengthen the liver

Intestinal health rehabilitation

Proper stress management

Optimization of individual supply of vital substances (acidification, mineralization and elimination of vitamin deficiency)

Detox the body if needed

Quality sleep, fresh air and lots of exercise

Natural body and hair care products

Targeted dietary supplements adapted to the individual situation

If there is diffuse hair loss, most of the possible causes of diffuse hair loss can also be automatically eliminated by this concept.

Naturopathic anti-hair loss medications do not only treat the scalp, hormonal system or immune system. Instead, they provide the body with everything it needs to find a healthy and harmonious balance, and hair loss can often be stopped and new hair growth can begin.

In addition, of course, means can be used that have a specific effect on harmonizing and strengthening the health of the scalp and thus prevent hair loss directly on the spot and ensure new hair growth, e.g. B. natural hair lotions, hair tonics, hair conditioners, etc.

However, these drugs should be seen only as additional measures, because the real correction of hair loss always comes from within, ie. when the organism regains strength and can solve the problem independently thanks to its re-self-regulation.

Only in the case of genetic hair loss, individual drugs are needed that specifically affect the hormonal system and thus reduce the harmful effects of high levels of DHT on hair follicles:

In case you want the help of a professional in treating the problem of hair loss, contact us

    Three drugs for androgenic / genetic hair loss

    According to initial studies, the following three natural substances can lower DHT levels, ie. Prevent the conversion of testosterone to DHT. These three drugs include:

    • Sulforaphane – a secondary herbal substance that is especially found in broccoli and broccoli sprouts and is known for its strong antioxidant effects in the fight against cancer and anti-inflammatory effects.
    • Pumpkin seed oil
    • Palmetto saw extract

    Sulforaphane for genetic hair loss

    We wrote a lot about sulforaphane – it works as a substance against cancer and arthritis, on how it gives hope to people with autism, it helps with respiratory diseases.

    Sulforaphane is one of the so-called isothiocyanates, which are sometimes called mustard oil glycosides. Sulforaphane is found in especially large quantities in broccoli, but – in smaller quantities – in all other cabbage vegetables such as cauliflower and kohlrabi, horseradish, rocket, cress, radish and many other vegetables from the cruciferous family.

    Sulforaphane has been studied in a Japanese study because of its effects on genetic hair loss. Researchers in March 2016. wrote that sulforaphane apparently managed to reduce DHT levels.

    According to the researchers, sulforaphane increases the expression of the enzyme that breaks down DHT. It is the enzyme 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3a-HSD).

    Researchers have not yet given specific dosage recommendations to combat hair loss for use in humans. However, the University Hospital in Heidelberg recommends 0.36 mg of sulforaphane per kilogram of body weight for cancer therapy, which can be a guide for dosing and use.

    If you take sulforaphane as a dietary supplement, then a daily meal – depending on the product – provides 50 to 100 mg of sulforaphane.

    One broccoli (500 g) contains about 50 mg of sulforaphane – always depending on the season, variety and freshness. Broccoli sprouts provide up to 100 times more sulforaphane, so a tablespoon of sprouts can contain as much sulforaphane as a head of broccoli.

    So, if you eat a lot of broccoli or vegetables mentioned above, as well as broccoli sprouts, in addition to dietary supplements, you could achieve an effective dose very quickly.

    Pumpkin seed oil for genetic hair loss

    Another natural remedy for genetic hair loss may be pumpkin oil. The oil inhibited the enzyme 5-alpha reductase in a randomized placebo-controlled study from 2014. years. This enzyme enables the conversion of testosterone to DHT. If inhibited, DHT levels do not rise as much.

    In a Korean study, 76 men with genetic hair loss received 400 mg of pumpkin oil or placebo daily for six months. At the end of the study, it was determined that the pumpkin seed oil group had fuller hair than the placebo group. Hair increased by 40 percent. No side effects were found.

    In case of genetic hair loss, you can take a spoonful of pumpkin oil every day or simply prepare a daily salad with pumpkin oil dressing.

    Palmetto saw for genetic hair loss

    Preparations made from the fruits of the saw palmetto (palmetto saw extract) are known for their positive effect on benign prostate enlargement (benign prostatic hyperplasia / BPH). Already in 1996. In the review, it was found that palmette extract (160 mg twice daily for 1 to 3 months) can achieve equally good results in BPH as finasteride 5 mg.

    Although the specific cause of BPH is still unknown, DHT is believed to be involved. On the one hand, there may be high levels of DHT, on the other hand, it is suspected that the cause is the dominance of estrogen (the level of estrogen increases in relation to the level of testosterone).

    Palmetto saw extract now seems to be able to reduce DHT levels. This increases testosterone levels – an effect that is especially evident when palmetto saw extract is combined with astaxanthin, as we have described here: treating testosterone deficiency

    A drop in DHT levels would also be helpful in the case of genetically induced hair loss. The less DHT in the blood, the less DHT around the hair roots and the less hair will fall out.

    Therefore, in 2012. the researchers examined the effects of saw palmetto extract on genetically induced hair loss (compared to the effects of finasteride) in the study. They reported their new findings in the International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology:

    The study involved 100 male patients diagnosed with genetic hair loss. One group took 320 mg of palmette extract daily for six months, while the other took 1 mg of finasteride daily.

    Although finasteride as a whole was more successful, many men (38 percent) who took sawdust palmetto extract also showed higher hair growth. Palmetto saw extract was especially effective in the crown area, ie. Less in the area of the front head.

    How to combine three drugs against genetic hair loss

    If you prefer to try natural remedies for genetic hair loss, you can very well combine the three described measures:

    Palmetto saw extract and sulforaphane are taken as dietary supplements. We recommend this palmetto saw extract in high doses against hair loss  i  100 mg sulforaphane daily.

    In addition, broccoli, broccoli sprouts and pumpkin seed oil (and pumpkin seeds as well) are often included in the menu. We recommend that you grow broccoli sprouts yourself.

    How can probiotics help against hair loss?

    Poor intestinal health and diseased intestinal flora (dysbiosis) are now considered the main causes of many chronic diseases. Therefore, probiotics are often recommended to regulate the intestinal flora. These are preparations with beneficial intestinal bacteria that renew the intestinal mucosa, have anti-inflammatory and detoxifying effects, expel harmful bacteria, have a positive effect on the immune system and can even alleviate stress reactions.

    It is these properties that are needed for hair loss. Since hair loss is often associated with inflammatory processes in hair follicles, it can also be associated with stress  and in the case of circular hair loss, it may actually be the result of dysbiosis. Therefore, it is suspected that taking probiotics can help with hair loss, as several studies with mice have already shown. Animals receiving probiotics always had good hair growth and shiny hair, which was not the case in the control groups.

    In the study at Massachusetts Institute of Technology probiotics were found to lead to an enormous increase in active hair follicles in mice. Thus, there was much more hair in the active growth anagen phase than in animals that were not given probiotics. Overall, it could even be observed that the probiotic mice as a whole were in a condition that is usually typical of much younger mice. Probiotic bacteria also had a rejuvenating effect on animals.

    In traditional Chinese medicine, hair loss and unhealthy-looking hair are also signs of indigestion. Because in the case of digestive disorders, nutrients are no longer absorbed and used so well, so even with hair problems, rehabilitation of the intestinal flora is an important measure so that the hair can be fully nourished again.

    In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study from 2013. It was also found in over 120 participants that using only probiotics (with L. reuteri) for 9 weeks could increase vitamin D levels by 25 percent – and there Healthy levels vitamin D. is also important for hair growth, probiotics they can also help here by a detour towards a faster goal and results.

    Vitamin deficiency in hair loss

    Deficiencies of vital substances can damage the hair structure and lead to diffuse hair loss, but they can also weaken the body, so other forms of hair loss are favored. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are by no means common only in poor countries, which we would like to believe.

    In particular, hair follicles are among the most metabolically active areas in the body and are therefore particularly dependent on a sufficient amount of nutrients. A good supply of vital substances is therefore part of the concept of treating every type of hair loss.

    It would be ideal to first clarify which vitamins and / or minerals are actually lacking so that they can be targetedly added to the diet. If you simply take the preparations at random, you risk that the doses contained in them will not be enough to eliminate the possible deficiency. Most skin and hair supplements are insufficient.

    The exceptions are hair vitamins that are needed for optimal hair growth and good hair health, e.g. iron, zinc, selenium, vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin B complex, vitamin C, biotin, millet extract, L-cysteine, etc.

    With vitamin A, care must be taken not to take an overdose, e.g. with offal, cod liver oil or other supplements, because too much vitamin A can cause hair loss!

    Zinc for hair loss

    Zinc deficiency can often be seen in patients with hair loss, which is why you should always check the status of zinc stores in case of hair loss. 2013 study confirmed frequent zinc deficiency in hair loss, while copper levels were normal.

    In 2013 It was determined that out of 312 patients with hair loss (circular hair loss, hereditary hair loss, diffuse hair loss), ALL had lower levels of zinc than the control group, which did not have hair loss.

    If hair loss is caused by zinc deficiency, it can be easily remedied by taking zinc supplements, as a small study from 2012 found. years. Even circular hair loss often improves significantly if there is a zinc deficiency, and then 50 mg of zinc is taken over a 12-week period, according to a 2009 study.

    It is not clear whether hair loss can be improved by giving zinc even if there was no previous zinc deficiency. The study showed that after zinc intake, hair loss can be reduced, even if a proven zinc deficiency cannot be determined.

    If you need zinc preparations with a higher dose and easily tolerated with zinc deficiency, we recommend chelated zinc , which provides 30 mg of zinc per capsule.

    Hair loss: iron, vitamin C and L-lysine

    Iron deficiency is a common cause of diffuse hair loss, especially in women, so iron levels (ferritin for iron storage) should be checked in any case, which you can do yourself with a home test for iron values.

    If you are looking for a well-tolerated iron supplement, purely herbal and without a prescription, here is a choice: 

    Iron from curry leaves (15 mg of iron per day) with vitamin C from acerola extract or

    chelated iron

    However, sometimes iron supplements simply do not work and it is difficult to raise the level of iron. The amino acid L-lysine can be used here as a support, because it helps in the absorption of iron and zinc.

    If you take L-lysine together with iron, the level of ferritin can increase more easily in this way, as shown by a study with patients with hair loss who did not react on their own to iron supplements.

    In order to improve the absorption of iron from plant foods, it is also important to optimize the supply of vitamin C, because vitamin C can greatly stimulate the absorption of iron, so vitamin C alone can often improve iron deficiency without the need for additional iron.

    Reach for fruits and vegetables rich in vitamin C or choose a natural vitamin C supplement  organic acerola powder which provides over 130 mg of vitamin C per gram.


    Another important amino acid in hair loss is L-cysteine. The amino acid that contains sulfur is needed to build keratin, the main component of our hair. L-cysteine provides resistance and strength of keratin and therefore can repair damaged hair structure, and can also be helpful in case of diffuse hair loss. The recommended minimum dose is 1400 mg of L-cysteine per day. 

    L-cysteine is contained in relatively small amounts in food, the steak gives only 240 mg of L-cysteine per 100 g. Rice protein also contains only about 200 mg per serving, hemp protein approximately 100 mg, so pure L-cysteine products would have to be used if you want to improve the disrupted keratin production with this amino acid.

    Is there a vitamin D deficiency in case of hair loss?

    In the case of existing hair loss (either circular, diffuse or similar), it should also be clarified whether there is a lack of vitamin D, because it can also encourage hair loss.

    2013. Researchers from the University of Cairo showed that women with diffuse hair loss have much lower levels of vitamin D (about 11 to 12 ng / ml) than women without hair loss. It was also noticed that the level of vitamin D was lower the more pronounced the hair loss and the longer this condition lasted.

    Do omega-3 fatty acids help with hair loss?

    The supply of essential fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6) should be able to inhibit 5-alpha-reductase (an enzyme that converts testosterone to DHT), which would be significant given genetic hair loss.

    Gamma-linolenic acid is especially found in borage seed oil or black currant seed oil, which can be taken as a dietary supplement. Gamma-linolenic acid can also be produced by the body itself from linoleic acid (omega 6, eg in sunflower oil, safflower oil, etc.).

    Balance with omega-3 fatty acids is also important, because they are taken too little compared to omega-6 fatty acids.

    Vegan algae oil capsules  or fish oil capsules are recommended as a dietary supplement with omega-3 fatty acids.
    Due to the anti-inflammatory properties of omega-3 fatty acids that improve blood flow, such a dietary supplement also has an extremely positive effect on many other chronic ailments.

    Biotin for hair loss and loss

    Biotin is often taken for hair loss, and also for brittle nails. However, according to critics, biotin deficiency is rare because the intestinal flora can produce enough biotin. But it can only do so if it is in good condition, which is often no longer the case today, because there are too many harmful influences that affect the intestinal flora (antibiotics, other drugs, poor nutrition, chemicals from the environment, etc.).

    2017 Review He examined the literature on the effects of biotin on hair and nail growth. In all 18 cases in which patients received a dietary supplement with biotin, previously poor hair growth or previously poor nail quality improved. However, many subjects suffered from a deficiency of the enzyme that leads to biotin deficiency.

    Biotin participates in the good health of hair and scalp, but since many other vital substances are decisive, if there are other deficiencies, a dietary supplement with biotin alone will not help much, so you should always think about all the necessary vital substances.

    When buying a biotin supplement, pay attention to the dosage. Often only very small amounts of biotin are found.

    Silicon (silicon dioxide) is very important

    Unfortunately, silicon is a trace element to which too little attention is paid. In the body, it is mainly found in the bones, but also in the hair, nails, tendons and ligaments. In smaller quantities in soft tissue.

    If there is a tendency for hair loss, a lack of silicon stores can lead to more intense hair loss. Silicon is especially found in oats or brown millet, and also in nettles, but only in small amounts in other foods, so today’s common diet provides little silicon.

    Several studies have already indicated that silicon has a positive effect on hair health. For example, German scientists from the University Clinic in Hamburg-Eppendorf in 2007. published the results of research that daily intake of silicon significantly increased hair volume.

    The study participants were healthy women who complained of particularly thin hair. Since silicon is said to have a strong effect on hair structure, subjects should take 15 ml (1 tablespoon) of silicone gel daily for 6 months.

    After this time, it was found that not only did the hair volume increase, but that the health of the hair also benefited from the intake of silicon, which was reflected in the new shine and vitality of the hair.

    Three years later, researchers from the Karlsruhe city hospital reported similar results. Here, too, it has been proven that silicon (when taken 350 mg three times a day for 6 months) with previously reduced hair quality (brittle and dry hair) leads to clearly healthier, more beautiful and also thicker hair.

    The 2016 study presented two further studies that also found a significant improvement in hair and nail quality after taking silicon (10 mg daily for 9 months), which was not the case in the respective placebo groups. .

    Silicon can therefore be included in therapy in case of existing hair loss. The trace element can be used not only internally, but also externally.

    Internally, it is ideal without acids, and thus the basic colloidal silicone gel from GeoSilica.

    On the outside, hair growth concentrates containing silicon are applied to the scalp, which mineralize the skin, activate it and at the same time – if there is irritation – soothe it.

    Classical medicine and hair loss

    Conventional medicine also tries to discover the cause of hair loss, but in some cases several experts must be consulted: a dermatologist, an endocrinologist and sometimes a gynecologist.

    Finasteride is commonly used, especially in the case of genetically induced hair loss. It inhibits 5-alpha reductase, which would otherwise convert testosterone to DHT, thus reducing DHT levels.

    Side effects include decreased libido, erectile dysfunction to impotence and depression, which do not even disappear in any case after stopping the drug. Infertility, dry eyes and visual disturbances can also occur as side effects of taking finasteride.

    In addition, finasteride must be taken permanently, if you stop using the product, the hair will fall out again within a few weeks.

    Finasteride is not approved for women. Therefore, in case of androgenic hair loss, they are advised to use certain hormonal preparations or to use minoxidil, a solution that is applied to the scalp and which should show results after 6 months at the latest. Men can also massage them into the scalp twice a day in case of hair loss, but not if the scalp is reddened or otherwise irritated.

    However, it is these symptoms that are possible side effects of Minoxidil. It can dry out the skin, causing itching, redness and irritation, and also leads to rashes.

    Although a 2 percent solution of minoxidil is usually recommended for women, men take a five percent solution. Women should not take the latter, as they can lead to unwanted hair growth on other parts of the body (chest, legs, chin).

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