The system of the digestive organs – digestive – digestive or gastrointestinal tract has the task of taking food into the human body, processing the obtained food by the action of its juices, and expelling undigested parts of food from the organism into the external environment.
This system consists of a large number of organs that are interconnected. It can be imagined as a long unbroken pipe whose individual parts continue on top of each other.
The digestive system consists of:
- Lip cavity
- Small intestine
The pharynx is a hollow organ in the shape of a gutter, about 15 cm long, located at the intersection of the digestive tract and the respiratory tract. The digestive tract leads from the oral cavity through the pharynx to the esophagus and the respiratory tract from the nasal cavity through the pharynx to the larynx and further into the trachea. The wall of the pharynx contains transverse striated muscles that contract when swallowed. The digestive tract leads from the oral cavity through the pharynx into the esophagus.
Acute pharyngitis (pharyngitis acute) rarely occurs in isolation, on its own, but as part of inflammatory diseases of the nasal and sinus mucosa, oral cavity, and tonsils, most often as accompanying symptoms in most infectious diseases.
The causative agents are viruses (adenovirus, rhinoviruses) and bacteria (streptococcus, pneumococcus, Hemophilus). It is more common in cold, humid weather and weakened immunity.
The etiology of chronic pharyngitis (pharyngitis Chronica) is complex and involves: viruses (usual adenoviruses), bacteria, streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci) and fungi and the cause can be both organic and inorganic dust, chemical fumes in the workplace, smog, smoking, spicy foods and spirits, cold drinks (from the refrigerator) and hot drinks (tea, soup), as well as general diseases: diabetes, liver cirrhosis, nephritis, avitaminosis, and others.
The clinical rule says, “The pharynx is the mirror of the nose.” When the nose is blocked, the patient breathes through the mouth and often keeps it open, which affects the increase of inflammatory processes in the pharyngeal mucosa.
Sore throat is a disease that often affects the youngest, and then they have difficulty swallowing food. Children refuse food and give the impression of being seriously ill.
Inside, the pharynx is lined with mucous membranes, under which there is a pharyngeal or “third” tonsil on the roof of the pharynx. It is most developed in children between 2-10 years of age. Later it decreases and disappears.
In elderly patients, the cause of frequent pharyngitis can be decayed teeth, inadequate bridges on the teeth, and partial dentures under which food remains.
The esophagus is a tubular organ about 25 cm long, which connects the pharynx with the stomach, and thus belongs to the system of digestive organs. It starts from the pharynx, passes through the neck, chest cavity, and diaphragm, and ends in the abdominal cavity on the stomach’s upper part. There are three parts of the esophagus: neck, chest, and abdomen. The largest is thoracic, and the smallest is abdominal. The upper part of the esophagus is located behind the trachea. The esophagus wall is made up mainly of muscle fibers, and the inside is covered with mucous membranes.
The esophagus’s task is to carry a swallowed bite of food from the throat to the stomach, and the contraction of its muscle fibers achieves this.
Inflammation of the esophageal mucosa – esophagitis can be caused by various causes:
Infectious agents: bacteria (gram-positive bacilli, scarlet fever, erysipelas, diphtheria, typhoid fever, cholera, etc.), viruses (herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus, herpes zoster), fungi (in patients with reduced body defenses during various diseases such as diabetes, postoperative periods, malignant diseases, AIDS ) and parasitic-chemical and mechanical, as well as peptic.
Chemical agents: strong acids (sulfuric, nitric, acetic, hydrochloric) and bases (baking soda)
Peptic causes: internal gastric secretions, pancreatic juice
Mechanical causes: the action of foreign bodies
Physical causes: the effect of overheated and too cold drinks and meals.
The mucous membrane of the esophagus is susceptible to substances with corrosive action (acids and bases), and they can lead to damage to the mucous membrane. The consequence is the impossibility of the bite passing through the esophagus. You should pay special attention to removing such substances because their use can often harm children.
STOMACH (VENTRICULUS OR GASTER)
The stomach is the widest part of the digestive tract. It is located in the upper part of the abdominal cavity, below the diaphragm, between the liver and the spleen.
The stomach’s entrance part is where the esophagus flows into it, and it is professionally called cardia. This mouth is closed by a single clamping muscle that opens just to let food in when swallowed. The stomach’s exit part is the place where the stomach continues to the initial part of the small intestine – the duodenum.
The wall of the stomach contains a muscular layer inside. The stomach walls are covered with a mucous membrane that contains a huge number of glands. These glands secrete gastric juice. It is a clear, colorless liquid with a sour taste that consists of hydrochloric acid and enzymes.
Digestion of food means its decomposition into simpler ingredients to be used in a more suitable body form.
Inflammation of the gastric mucosa – gastritis is most often caused by infection and irritation. Infections can be bacterial or viral. Irritation can be caused by drugs (such as an andole, aspirin), alcohol, chronic vomiting, stress, eating, or consuming corrosive substances (poisons).
Stomach ulcer (Ulcus gaster) is a prevalent disease and damages the gastric mucosa. Today, it is considered that the cause of this disease is a bacterial infection and sometimes long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as acetylsalicylic acid, ibuprofen, diclofenac, etc. The disease is most commonly caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori).
Recent clinical trials show that this bacterium is the cause of almost all peptic ulcers, 80% of gastric and over 90% of those in the duodenum. However, if you are infected with H. pylori, it does not mean you have an ulcer. It depends on the patient’s characteristics, the type of H. pylori, and some other unknown factors.
THIN HOSE (INTESTINUM TENUE)
The small intestine is the most important part of the digestive system. It extends from the stomach to the colon. It is divided into three parts: the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum. The length of the small intestine is about 6 meters. The most important part of food digestion and absorption (resorption) is the small intestine. Its own intestinal juice, bile, and the pancreatic juice are expelled into the small intestine (duodenum). These fluids break down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates, to the simplest ingredients, which are resorbed through the intestinal mucosa, reach the blood, and are used in the body.
COLON (INTESTINUM GRASSUM)
The large intestine is the final part of the digestive tract, 1.5 – 2 m long, and extends from the small intestine to the anus. It has three parts: the cecum, the colon, and the rectum.
The large intestine is similar in structure to the small intestine. The large intestine’s role is to create feces from the undigested parts of food and expel it outside (the process of defecation).
Infection and inflammation of the mucous membranes of the stomach and intestines – gastroenteritis is the most common disease of the stomach and intestines, which is manifested by vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps.
The pancreas is a gland with external and internal secretion, which belongs to the digestive system. It is located behind the stomach, attached horizontally to the posterior abdominal wall. It has the shape of an elongated leaf on which we distinguish the head, trunk, and tail. Gland’s weight is 70-90g. through the pancreas passes a canal that flows into the duodenum. Through this channel, the pancreatic juice is poured out, secreted by special cells collected in sacs. Between the sacs are cells arranged in the shape of islets of Langerhans, whose task is to secrete insulin.
As a gland with external secretion, the pancreas produces pancreatic juice, a clear colorless fluid that contains enzymes that participate in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids.
As a gland with internal secretion, it produces insulin in Langerhans’ islets, which is directly injected into the blood and regulates the level of sugar in the blood. This function disorder results in the appearance of diabetes (Diabetes mellitus).
The pancreas (pancreas) produces enzymes for food processing and secretes two important hormones to control metabolism – glucagon and insulin.
Diseases of the pancreas
The disease of the pancreas is called pancreatitis and can occur in chronic and acute forms. Acute disease is very severe and serious. The disease is more common in the chronic form as
MEDICINAL HERBS IN THE THERAPY OF DIGESTIVE SYSTEM DISEASES
Many aromatic plants are used against bloating and gas in the stomach, among which chamomile takes the first place. In addition to chamomile, the following herbs are used: cumin, sea buckthorn, mint, coriander, lemon balm, despair and thyme, anise.
Kim is a well-known remedy against bloating and gas. It is given alone or in a mixture with sea buckthorn and anise.
Recipe: Mix 25g of cumin, anise, and sea buckthorn and then grind. Pour three tablespoons of ground fruit with 500 ml of boiling water, leave covered for 2-3 hours—strain and drink 150ml of tea before meals.
Against inflammation of the esophagus
In the seizure of this organ, various plants containing mucus are used, such as quince seeds, flax seeds, marshmallows, and other herbs: mint, chamomile, lemon balm.
Recipe: 100g of quince seeds are poured with 2l of boiled and cooled water. Leave to stand for 12 hours, occasionally stirring every 1-2 hours. Strain and drink 1 tablespoon every hour.
Recipe: Mix 25 g of hajduk grass, watercress, walnut leaf, and thyme. Pour three tablespoons of the herb mixture with 500ml of boiling water. Leave covered for 2 hours. Strain and drink during the day instead of water.
In digestive disorders – dyspepsia
Recipe: Mix 30g Yarrow, Acorus, thyme, and 10g of cumin. Finely chop everything, and grind with cumin. Pour three tablespoons of the obtained mixture of herbs with 500 ml of cold water. Leave to stand for 3 hours, then heat to boiling, cook for 5 minutes. Strain and drink the obtained tea three times a day for half an hour before a meal of 50 ml (a small cup of coffee).
In inflammation of the small intestine – enteritis
Recipe: Mix 30g of mint leaves, nettle, walnut leaves, and ragweed. Pour three tablespoons of this mixture of herbs with 1 liter of boiling water. Leave to stand for half an hour. Strain and drink instead of water several times during the day.
In inflammation of the colon – colitis
Recipe: Mix 3 g of flax and quince seeds and black comfrey root, and 10 g of cane. Pour three tablespoons of a well-chopped mixture of herbs with 500 ml of cold water, leave it to stand for 3 hours, stirring occasionally. Bring to a boil, leave to cool, strain, and drink half an hour before meals three to four times a day for 50ml (a small cup of coffee).