Medicine in developed countries is not exclusively focused on the production of synthetic drugs and the research of synthetic compounds.
Teams of scientists around the world have discovered a very significant potential of natural preparations in the treatment of many serious diseases such as HIV, cancers, cardiovascular diseases, various types of bacteria, …
Many diseases have remained a mystery, although science has made great strides in discovering the factors that influence their occurrence. For that reason, scientists have directed their creativity in the direction of discovering the healing properties of already formed natural compounds. In the last 20 years, for that very reason, extensive medical studies and scientific research have been started with the aim of discovering the influence of natural compounds on our organism.
In the following texts, we will use information from these scientific studies for the purpose of finding a cure for various diseases.
All information is relevant and is collected from medical journals and professional medical literature or is the work of the authors of some medical research.

Vitamins and minerals for cancer

Exploring the link between nutrients, metabolism and genetic sensitivity in the etiology of cancer is an important focus from a scientific and public health point of view. Since the etiology of cancer is multifactorial, it is necessary to study whether nutritional therapy, especially vitamins and trace elements, have a positive (preventive) or negative (higher risk) impact.

On the other hand, the evidence points to the fact that calorie restriction can reduce the occurrence of cancer, as in the study of Tannenbaum, which reports that in rodents, calorie restriction is positive in relation to the process of carcinogenesis. Therefore, the connection between is emphasized overweight , sedentary lifestyle and increased risk of cancer, especially colorectal, endometrial and breast cancer, which is explained by the ratio of hyperinsulinemia, elevated growth factors, estrogen and endogenous androgens.

Cancer is characterized by a progressive accumulation of mutations in the genome of the cell, where homeostatic mechanisms that determine the balance between proliferation and cell death are affected. Chemical oxidation is defined as the loss of electrons, while reduction is the gain of electrons. Therefore, it is understood that substrate oxidation is always associated with electron receptor reduction. The oxide reduction potential is therefore the redox potential that measures the flow of electrons involved in oxidation processes.

In aerobic beings, multiple chemical reactions with oxygen represent the most efficient mechanism of energy production, since they can generate intermediates or oxygen-reactive substances that accept electrons, form free radicals, unstable and reactive compounds with one or more unpaired orbital electrons. The isoform of oxidonitric synthase during the chronic inflammatory process can induce carcinogenesis, participating in the angiogenesis of tumor progression. The response of the host to this activity leads to the activation of the immune system, and with it the anti-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha and oxidant molecules. The human antioxidant system depends on some key nutrients: water- and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as trace elements. Oxidative DNA lesions are a crucial process in carcinogenesis, because they generate damage to nitrogenous bases, highly mutagenic modifications, which produce genetic instability at the sites of cell replication.

Diet and cancer: a complex relationship

The relationship between nutritional status, progression and cancer prognosis is based on the fact that both in clinical practice and in several studies it has been observed that well-nourished patients have a better prognosis and quality of life, emphasizing that malnutrition can negatively affect morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. in response to treatment, due to the toxicity that various antineoplastic treatments can cause, among the effects: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, mucositis, xerophthalmia.

On the other hand, tumor products also act on the central and peripheral nervous system , causing psychogenic effects such as anorexia, depression and anxiety, tumor cachexia, metabolic changes, thinness, weakness, decreased protein synthesis, loss of functionality. Among the mechanical effects of tumors, obstruction and malabsorption are considered important, which can cause a lack of macro and microelements, and thus significant weight loss, regardless of sufficient intake.

Another important aspect to consider is the fact that specific antioxidants such as flavonoids, folate and vitamin D. may reduce the risk of developing cancer.

Hence the importance of the nutritionist, who must perform screening to measure risk and nutritional assessment to diagnose nutritional status, as well as food history to study the patient’s eating habits.

Research with vitamin C.

Wright and co-workers studied the genetic variants and their impact on the risk of gastric cancer, based on the strong biological evidence that ascorbic acid has in the stomach. The study found ascorbic acid in high concentrations in the juices and gastric mucosa in patients with chronic gastritis, while in patients with cancer the concentration was low. That describes that ascorbic acid neutralizes reactive oxygen and inhibits the formation of N-nitroso compounds. stomach, showing that ascorbic acid can inhibit cell proliferation and apoptosis in gastric cells;

It even seems that ascorbic acid can directly affect the growth of Helicobacter pylori. They conclude that common variants of the SLC23A2 gene directly regulate the active transport of ascorbic acid, which may have a positive effect on the risk of gastric cancer.

On the other hand, Legut et al. Presented results in which deficient levels of vitamin C and anacardiac acid significantly increased the cytotoxicity of the antineoplastic drug in melanoma compared with ammonium sulfate liposomes. Vitamin C and anacardiac acid protect normal cells from damage caused by antineoplastic drugs. The combined formulation of vitamin C, anacardiac acid and mitoxantrone shows favorable results in terms of cytotoxicity and cytoprotection.

Cherdintsev et al. Report that a nitrotriazole derivative called Sanazole, which is usually used in high doses to improve the effectiveness of radiotherapy, causes peripheral neuropathy in some patients, which is classified as neurotoxic. In view of this, they conducted an in vivo study in mice, in which they noticed that the use of ascorbic acid glucoside before the use of sanazole in cancer patients manages to protect the body from neurotoxic effects.

Glutathione system

The glutathione system is especially important for defending cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Reduced glutathione (GSH) reacts directly with radicals in a non-enzymatic reaction and is an electron donor in the reduction of glutathione peroxidase (GPk) catalyzed peroxides. medicine.

Mikirova et al., Meanwhile, point out that ascorbic acid has therapeutic potential when given intravenously (IV), because plasma ascorbate levels may mediate inflammation, which could increase healing in cancer patients, suggesting that this intravenous form is safe. and can be adjunctive therapy for clinical cancer care.

Study performed using 15 g IVC

The study was performed using 15 g of IVC ascorbic acid in a specific way in patients with different types of cancer, observing favorable results. for their part – point out that ascorbic acid has therapeutic potential when given intravenously (IV), because plasma ascorbate levels may mediate inflammation, which could increase discharge in cancer patients. that this intravenous form is safe and can serve as an adjunct therapy for clinical cancer care. The study was performed using 15 g of IVC ascorbic acid in a specific way in patients with different types of cancer, observing favorable results. which could increase discharge in cancer patients.

They suggest that this intravenous form is safe and can serve as adjunctive therapy to clinical cancer care. The study was performed using 15 g of IVC ascorbic acid in a specific way in patients with different types of cancer, observing favorable results. which could increase release in cancer patients They suggest that this intravenous form is safe and may serve as adjunctive therapy to clinical cancer care. The study was performed using 15 g of IVC ascorbic acid in a specific way in patients with different types of cancer, observing favorable results.

Mehdi et al. Presented important results showing that there is a significant increase in levels of advanced protein oxidation products (AOPP), malondialdehyde (MDA) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) in patients with multiple myeloma before treatment, compared to healthy subjects.

In contrast, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), α-tocopherol (vitamin E), and antioxidant enzymes were significantly reduced. Therefore, biochemical changes caused by this type of cancer are evident.

Research with vitamin zinc

Christudoss et al., In their research, suggest that aspirin, vitamin C, and zinc may be administered separately to obtain a chemoprotective effect against preoplastic colon and carcinogenic colon progression in dimethylhydrazine (DMH) -induced rats. Therefore, the inhibitory effect is associated with maintaining colon tissue essential from zinc and zinc enzyme levels as close to normal as possible.

Because the effect of high doses of vitamin C as a cancer treatment is controversial, several studies have shown that vitamin C at a concentration of 0.25 to 1.0 mM in plasma, induced by dose and time, can inhibit cell proliferation in acute myeloid leukemia. . Treatment of cells with high doses of vitamin C results in an immediate increase in the content of intracellular glutathione S-transferase and its activity, followed by cysteine consumption.

These results indicate a new role of vitamin C in high concentrations as a modulator of sulfur-containing intracellular components, such as glutathione and cysteine. On the other hand, a clinical study reports a significant reduction in L ascorbic acid alternating with supplements in the treatment of patients with acute myeloid leukemia or myeloid dysplasia syndrome.

During the supplementation phase, patients received intravenous vitamin C daily prior to therapy, observing the in vitro behavior and sensitivity of leukemia cells to vitamin C, indicating that cancer cells are sensitive to vitamin C.

They conclude that although they accurately postulate specific mechanisms, vitamin C is difficult, however, they relate to the identification of genes or proteins that are specifically regulated by vitamin C in certain cellular phenotypes and this could improve the efficacy of cancer therapies.

In vivo study of Kontek et al.

In vivo study of Kontek et al. shows that vitamin C can cause a weak effect on DNA damaged by hydrogen peroxide and a positive effect on DNA damaged in HT29 cells (reduction of approximately 30%). They note that DNA damage was effectively repaired within 120 minutes after incubation in test cells that had one of the highest types of oxidative damage.

For their part, Paiva et al investigated the effects of vitamins C and E on tumors in xenographic mice with the sarcoma model (S180) in vivo. The result of the experimental study suggests that doses of 100 mg / kg of vitamin C and 400 mg / kg of vitamin E create a significant inhibition in tumor behavior. The encapsulation of anticancer drugs in the structure of liposomes protects the drug during its circulation and increases the accumulation of the drug in cancerous tissue, as well as its antitumor activity, while reducing the toxicity of the drug. Dominic’s study. and co-workers, propose a new drug loading method based on the pH gradient of vitamin C / ion.

The formulations are characterized in terms of parameters such as optimal external pH, time and drug-lipid ratio to achieve in vitro stability. In the specific case of epirubicin (EPI), its coencapsulation increases anticancer activity through possible synergistic effects reported by different groups of drugs with vitamin C without encapsulation. The method has another advantage which consists in enabling faster release by destabilization of liposomes at the tumor site, thanks to the very good solubility of EPI in vitamin C salts, as is observed in cryogenic transmission. This affects the drug release process and increases the anticancer activity of the liposome formulation. The antitumor activity of the encapsulated drug was confirmed (it inhibited tumor growth by over 40%, while it was shown that the drug that was not encapsulated did not have anticancer activity).

Vitamin E

Fat-soluble vitamin E., called tocopherol: alpha, beta, gamma and delta. Considered the main antioxidant found in the body’s lipid membranes, it protects polyunsaturated fatty acids from cell membranes from their oxidation by blocking free radicals. In addition to preserving carotenoids and selenium in a reduced state, favoring their antioxidant properties.

Its deficiency is characterized by hemolytic anemia, neuronal degeneration and reduction of serum creatinine with excessive losses in urine. Prolonged deficiency of this micronutrient causes musculoskeletal injuries and liver disorders. On the other hand, vitamin E poisoning causes nausea, headache, fatigue, hypoglycemia.

As for its effect on cancer, vitamin E plays an important role in reducing the neurotoxic effects of ciplastin. Vitamin E supplementation with 400 mg / day reduces the frequency and severity of neurotoxicity, and evidence suggests that vitamin E is assigned an important role, along with vitamin C, carotenoids, and folate, in the prevention of pancreatic cancer. While in the study of alpha tocopherol, beta carotene from the Study Group for Cancer Prevention, it was noted that no reduction in the incidence of lung cancer was found among male smokers after 8 years of dietary supplementation with alpha tocopherol or beta carotene. In fact, these tests shed light on the possibility that these supplements may do more harm than good. They also identified an association between vitamin A supplements and breast cancer risk, reporting a statistically significant incidence. Regarding complex B, they reviewed several studies, but did not find a link that supports complex B supplementation with both niacin and breast cancer.

Vitamin A-Retinol or carotenes, carotenoids

Vitamin A -Retinol or carotenes, carotenoids, are a fat-soluble vitamin with a recognized antioxidant effect in vitro. Carotenoids are absorbed in the small intestine and depend on the adequate absorption of fats, bile salts and pancreatic stereos. Its absorption is close to 80%, and then it is transported through the lymphatic system as a part of lipoprotein chylomicrons in the liver.

Its deficiency (serum concentrations <0.35 mmol / l) is characterized by: night blindness, xerophthalmia, Bitot’s spots, among others. Intoxication includes irritability, headache, anorexia, diplopia, alopecia, joint pain, liver disorders, bleeding. Among the antioxidant functions are: regulation of epithelial cell differentiation, inhibition of cell proliferation, increased immune capacity, inhibition of mutagenesis caused by physical carcinogens, reduction of nuclear damage caused by chemical and biological carcinogens. The strongest evidence regarding beta-carotene supplementation and lung cancer currently relates to the fact that high doses of beta-carotene can cause lung cancer in tobacco smokers.

Vitamin D

There are two forms of vitamin D in the body: D2, ergo calciferol and D3 hole calciferol. Vitamin D2 present in vegetables and vitamin formulations, D3 is synthesized in the body by exposing the skin to ultraviolet rays. Due to its characteristics, it is considered a hormone, with different functions from other vitamins, in addition to the fact that the body synthesizes it thanks to the sun’s action. Its activation to calcitriol begins in the liver and ends in the kidneys. Involved in bone growth, bone mineralization, and cell differentiation (cells of the immune and hematopoietic systems), it also acts as a medium to link a family of nuclear receptors such as steroids in general. It is a unique and specific nuclear receptor with direct transcriptional activity related to the response elements to vitamin D.

Because of these global effects and the immune system, including cell differentiation and proliferation, vitamin D is credited with a role in carcinogenesis and genetic polymorphism. Vitamin D deficiency has an epidemic prevalence in India ranging between 70% – 100% of the population, as cultural and religious practices do not allow adequate sun exposure as well as dairy consumption, and as a result people suffer from subclinical vitamin D deficiency, which favors high prevalence of osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer.

Due to the fact that mRNA receptors for vitamin D are detected in the human esophagus, they are assigned a regulatory role in the cell cycle, contributing to inhibition and differentiation in apoptosis of normal and transformed cells, where 25 (OH) 2D3, which is the active form of vitamin D3, contributes by protecting cells from turning into carcinogens. Significant evidence supports the anticancer role of vitamin D3 against breast, prostate, skin, and colon cancers, both in vivo and in vitro experimental models, and the most recent are those supporting Vit D3 metabolites to inhibit the growth and differentiation of esophageal cancer cells in vitro.

However, the evidence does not clearly show a link between vitamin D3 and the risk of esophageal cancer. In a study by Gui-Ling Huang et al., There is evidence of an association between high serum vitamin D3 concentrations and beta-carotene with a low risk of esophageal cancer. On the other hand, in the Pankaj G study, they point out in their hypothesis that the use of chemotherapy in colon cancer can cause changes in diet, such as the removal or reduction of dairy products as part of chemotherapy management due to induced diarrhea.

In addition, it has been observed that patients treated with this treatment do not absorb vitamin D due to subclinical mucositis, which is why these patients may need large amounts of vitamin D over long periods of time to achieve an appropriate serum level of 25 (OH) D. found that an oral formulation of 8,000 IU of vitamin D daily for 8 weeks was a safe regimen to correct vitamin D deficiency in cancer patients.

The response to such supplementation leads to the return of suboptimal to optimal levels in patients with prostate and lung cancer (with initial levels of 20-32 ng / ml), as well as in patients with colon and pancreatic cancer whose baseline levels are usually lowest (below 20 ng / ml). The impact of improvement in patient serum levels of 25 (OH) D, survival and quality of life should be investigated.

Another finding by Pankaj and co-workers is the association of obese cancer patients with vitamin D deficiency, compared with normal-weight cancer patients. Some of the proposed mechanisms explain the association between obesity and hypovitaminosis D, which, in addition to involving a lack of sun exposure due to physical inactivity, also refers to the sequestration of vitamin D in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Recently, such studies have suggested determining whether restoring and maintaining adequate levels of vitamin D may affect tumor control and survival.

Folic acid

Folic acid is soluble in water and its sources are fruits, dark green vegetables and seeds. People are not able to synthesize this vitamin, so it must come from dietary sources. Its bioavailability is higher as folic acid than as folate, because it is not conjugated and therefore more stable. Multiple mechanisms suggest that it has a preventive role in carcinogenesis, including molecular mechanisms such as DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation.

Marinos et al., Point out that even a study by nurses (NHS) showed that a diet high in folate reduces the risk of colon cancer or adenomas, but not when folate comes from a supplement.

It has been suggested that folic acid supplementation may be associated with increased adenoma recurrence and may be detrimental to those patients with a history of colon cancer. Therefore, it is recommended that multivitamins containing folic acid do not exceed 400 μg. It is necessary to emphasize that folic acid has nutritional properties and chemical structures similar to folate and folacin; it is a coenzyme that participates in the synthesis of nucleic bases, purines and pyrimidines to form nucleic acids, along with vitamin B, and in protein metabolism. Folate is important in DNA synthesis, so it somehow plays a role in carcinogenesis. This role is considered important, as the folic acid pathway is a natural antifolate drug such as methotrexate.

Therefore, in the treatment of cancer, they are harmful for both cancer cells and normal cells, which is why they cause the well-known side effects of these drugs. Folic acid deficiency results in megaloblastic anemia, leukopenia, anorexia, diarrhea, glossitis, weight loss, dermatological disorders.

Folate is thought to help prevent cancer by participating in the synthesis, repair and function of DNA. Folate deficiency can result in DNA damage which can lead to cancer. In contrast, other studies suggest that excess folate may promote tumor activation. Folic acid is involved in the metabolism of amino acids and is necessary for the methylation of nucleic acid. It is important to consider that one of the drugs that interferes with folate metabolism is methotrexate, which is known to be used to treat cancer. Its direct interaction is that it inhibits the production of the active form, tetrahydrofolate. In addition, methotrexate may have a toxic effect such as inflammation of the digestive tract, which in turn would affect oral intake.

Folic acid, in turn, can help reverse the toxic effects of methotrexate. However, it is known that small doses of methotrexate can reduce folate stores causing deficiency. In contrast, diets high in folic acid, as well as its supplements, can help reduce the side effects of methotrexate without reducing its effectiveness. Compared to the doses indicated as a supplement, they found that there was an increased risk when doses of folic acid greater than 400 μg / day were added.

Calcium

Calcium, an important macroelement in the processes of blood coagulation, neuromuscular excitability, nerve transmission and muscle contraction. It also plays an important role in bone and tooth mineralization, enzyme activation and hormonal secretion. Responsible for the transport of vitamin B12 in the gastrointestinal tract and necessary for the maintenance and function of membrane cells. Hypocalcemia is associated with the secretion of calcitonin by tumor C cells of the thyroid gland, sometimes the thymus and parathyroid glands, by reducing the concentration of calcium and phosphate in the plasma and by inhibiting bone absorption. Hypercalcemia is associated with parathyroid tumors.

Zinc

The most common trace element after iron. The composition of metalloenzymes with great antioxidant power, with a relevant role in cell growth and replication, in full maturation, fertility and reproduction, also in phagocytic, immune and humoral functions, as well as in taste and appetite.

On the other hand, zinc deficiency can alter protein synthesis by reducing serum levels of transport proteins such as albumin, pre-albumin, transferrin, affecting the availability of micronutrients. Deficiency can be caused by low consumption or large intestinal losses (diarrhea, drainage, etc.)

With cisplastin and diuretic therapy, it also occurs during chemotherapy with agents that promote mucositis.

Even low Zn levels correlate with higher mortality in cancer patients receiving high doses of antineoplastic drugs in chemotherapy, as occurs with bone marrow transplantation.

Zinc study

Chistudoss and co-workers report that zinc deficiency or excess appears to be involved in the development or progression of some types of cancer. In their experimental model, it is suggested that plasma zinc deficiency in tissue reserves and zinc-dependent enzyme activity are associated with the development of pre-neoplastic lesions, because such biochemical parameters decrease in proportion to the progression of colon cancer. as happens with bone marrow transplants,

Selenium

Selenium, a trace element that acts through selenium proteins, some of which are enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase. Its functions include the promotion of body growth, prevention of pancreatic disorders, liver necrosis, degenerative diseases of the white muscle and the appearance of Keshan’s disease (juvenile cardiomyopathy).

It is important for neutrophilic and polymorphonuclear cytotoxicity. An important biological role is its recognized antioxidant power, which is secondary to selenoenzymes (glutathione peroxidase, selenoprotein P, thioredoxin peroxidase, immunomodulatory iodothyronine deiodinase: optimization of cellular and humoral immune response by improving the phenomenon of lymphocyte proliferation and phagocytosis.

During the state of hypercatabolism, a deficit in the nutritional status of selenium is created. Reactant in the acute phase. In critical illness (characterized by an inflammatory condition with oxidative stress), serum selenium levels fall early, with an inverse relationship between these events and mortality.

Manzanares suggests a selenium supplement of 450 ug / day for 14 consecutive days. For their part, Heiland and colleagues suggest a selenium intake of 100 μg / day in critical patients, while in large burns it should be 375 μg / day. They state that the dose of selenium is associated with a reduction in mortality in critically ill patients from 500 to 1000 mg / day.

Scientific opinion regarding the relationship between selenium and cancer risk is very mixed. It was initially seen as a possible carcinogenic system during the 1940s, and then as a possible protective agent between the 1960s and 2000s. More recently, controlled studies have found no effect on cancer risk, but suggest low dermatological dose and endocrine toxicity; in animals they indicate both carcinogenic and preventive effects.

Epidemiologically, the evidence reports that there are no cancer-related preventive effects in increasing selenium doses in healthy individuals, but if the risk of causing disorders and diseases of another nature, the form of organic or inorganic presentation may be dramatically different from these biological effects. Selenium deficiency is associated with cancer risk; it is even considered mineral chemotherapy.

Selenium testing

336 patients (black and white race) with Se supplementation and placebo group were examined. After supplementation with Se, a direct association between Se and GSH in the blood was observed, resulting in a higher in whites than in blacks with p <0.01. (44). Se can be effective in preventing lung cancer, especially in people with low Se levels, however it should not be used as a general strategy. It reduces the level of toxicity in chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the same way.

Conclusion

Because cancer treatment and the type of cancer diagnosed affect the patient’s nutritional status, the nutritionist plays a key role in its progression and treatment. Antineoplastic treatments can produce micronutrient deficiencies, hence the importance of nutritional therapy, especially the studied micronutrients, in order to reduce the toxicity of such treatments in a timely manner and thus improve tolerance to them and the quality of the patient’s oncological life.

Biological therapies for cancer application research

Biological therapy uses living organisms, substances from living organisms or synthetic versions of such substances to treat cancer.

Some types of biological therapy use the natural ability of the immune system to detect and destroy cancer cells, while other types directly target cancer cells.

Biological therapies include monoclonal antibodies, cytokines, therapeutic vaccines, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin bacteria, viruses that kill cancer cells, gene therapy, and adopted T lymphocyte transmission.

Side effects of biological therapies can vary depending on the type of treatment, but reactions at the site of application are quite common with these treatments.

What is biological therapy?

Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms or laboratory-produced versions of such substances for the treatment of disease. Some biological cancer therapies stimulate the body’s immune system to act against cancer cells. These types of biological therapies, sometimes collectively referred to as “immunotherapy,” do not directly attack cancer cells. Other biological therapies, such as antibodies, attack directly cancer cells . Biological therapies that interfere with certain molecules involved in tumor growth and evolution are also called targeted therapies.

For cancer patients, biologic therapies can be used to treat the cancer itself or the side effects of other cancer treatments. Although many forms of biological therapy have already been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), others are still experimental and available to cancer patients primarily through participation in clinical trials (research studies involving humans).

What is the immune system?

Immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, organs and matter that they produce. It helps the body fight infections and other diseases.

White blood cells or leukocytes are primarily involved in the responses of the immune system. These cells perform many tasks necessary to protect the body from microbes and abnormal cells that cause disease.

Some types of leukocytes roam the circulatory system in search of foreign invaders and diseased, damaged or dead cells. These white blood cells provide a general – or non-specific – type of immune protection.

Other types of white blood cells, known as lymphocytes, provide targeted protection against certain threats, either from a specific microbe or from a diseased or abnormal cell. The most important groups of lymphocytes responsible for these specific immune responses are B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes.

B cells produce antibodies, which are large secreted proteins that bind to foreign intruders or abnormal cells and help destroy them.

Other types of lymphocytes and leukocytes have supporting functions to ensure that B cells and cytotoxic T cells do their job efficiently. These support cells include helper T lymphocytes and dendritic cells, which help activate both B lymphocytes and cytotoxic T lymphocytes and facilitate their response to specific microbial threats or diseased or abnormal cells.

Antigens are substances in the body that accompany their own cells and microbes that can be recognized by the immune system as harmful to our body. Normal cells in the body have antigens that identify them as “themselves”. Self antigens tell the immune system that normal cells do not pose a threat and should be ignored. In contrast, the immune system recognizes microbes as a possible threat that must be destroyed because they carry foreign antigens or they are not theirs. Cancer cells also often contain antigens, called tumor antigens, that are not present (or are present in lower concentrations) in normal cells.

Can the immune system attack cancer?

The natural ability of the immune system to detect and destroy abnormal cells probably prevents or suppresses the formation of many cancers. Immune cells can sometimes be found in or near tumors. These cells, called lymphocytes that infiltrate the tumor or TIL, are an indication that the immune system is responding to mutated cells. The presence of TIL in a patient’s tumor is often associated with a better patient treatment outcome.

However, cancer cells have a number of ways to avoid detection and destruction by the immune system. For example, cancer cells can:

They undergo genetic changes that reduce the expression of tumor antigens on their surface, making them less “visible” to the immune system.

They have proteins on their surface that inactivate immune cells.

They induce normal cells around the tumor (i.e. in the microenvironment of the tumor) to release substances that suppress the immune response and that promote cell proliferation and tumor survival.

Immunotherapy uses several methods to strengthen the immune system and / or help to overcome cancer defense against the immune system. The goal is to improve the ability of the immune system to detect and destroy cancer.

What types of biological therapies are used to treat cancer?

Several types of biological therapies, especially immunotherapy, are used or formulated to treat cancer. These therapies fight cancer in different ways.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors

How do they work? This type of immunotherapy releases the “brake” of the immune system, which usually prevents excessively strong immune reactions that could damage normal cells as well as abnormal cells. This brake involves proteins on the surface of T lymphocytes called immune checkpoint proteins. When immune checkpoint proteins recognize specific accompanying proteins in other cells, a shutdown signal is sent telling T lymphocytes not to trigger an immune response against those cells.

Two proteins that have been studied very extensively are PD-1 and CTLA-4. Some tumor cells express high concentrations of the accompanying PD-1 protein PD-L1, which causes T lymphocytes to “shut down” and help cancer cells avoid immune destruction. Also, interactions between B7 protein on cell antigen and CTLA-4 are expressed in T cells to prevent other T cells from destroying cells, including cancer cells.

Drugs called immune checkpoints (or modulators of immune checkpoints) prevent the interaction between immune checkpoint proteins and their accompanying proteins, facilitating a strong immune response. The current targets of checkpoint inhibitors are PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4.

How to use:

immune checkpoint inhibitors are approved for the treatment of various types of cancer, including skin cancer, non – lung cancer, small cell lung cancer, bladder cancer, head and neck cancer, liver cancer, Hodgkin ‘s lymphoma, renal cell carcinoma (kidney cancer type) and gastric cancer. An immune checkpoint inhibitor, pembrolizumab (Keitruda®), is used to treat any solid tumor that has high microsatellite instability or cannot be removed surgically. Another immune checkpoint inhibitor, nivolumab (Opdivo®), is used to treat repair abnormalities and major microsatellite instability and metastatic colon cancer that has progressed after treatment with fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan.

Immune cell therapy (also called adopted cell therapy or adopted immunotherapy)

How does it work? This method allows the patient’s own immune cells to attack tumors. There are two methods of cell therapy used to treat cancer. Both involve collecting the patient’s immune cells, multiplying a large number of these cells in the laboratory, and bringing the cells back into the patient.

Lymphocytes that infiltrate the tumor (or TIL). This method uses T lymphocytes that are naturally found in the patient’s tumor, called tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). TILs that best recognize a patient’s tumor cells in laboratory tests are selected, and these cells are grown in large numbers in the laboratory. The cells are then activated by treatment with signaling proteins of the immune system called cytokines and injected into the patient’s bloodstream.

The idea behind this method is that TILs have already shown the ability to target tumor cells, but there may not be enough of them in the tumor microenvironment to destroy the tumor or overcome the suppressive immune signals that the tumor emits. The introduction of huge amounts of activated TILs can help overcome these barriers.

T and CAR cell therapy

This method is similar, but the patient’s T cells are genetically modified in the laboratory to express a protein known as a chimeric antigen receptor or CAR, before being grown and injected into the patient. CARs are modified forms of a protein called the T-cell receptor, which is expressed on the surface of T-cells. CARs are designed to allow T cells to adhere to certain proteins on the surface of a patient’s cancer cells, which improves his ability to attack cancer cells.

Before receiving expanded T cells, patients also undergo a procedure called lymphatic depletion, which consists of a round of chemotherapy and, in some cases, whole-body radiation. Lymphatic depletion kills other immune cells that can interfere with the efficiency of incoming T cells.

How to use? The adopted T cell transfer was first studied for the treatment of metastatic melanoma because melanomas often cause a significant immune response, with many TILs. The use of activated TILs has been effective for some patients with melanoma and has given encouraging positive results in other cancers (e.g., cervical squamous cell carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma).

Two T and CAR lymphocyte therapies were approved. Tisagenlecleucel (Kimriah ™) is approved for the treatment of some adults and children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who do not respond to other treatments and for the treatment of adults with some types of non-Hodgkin’s B-cell lymphoma who have not responded or relapsed in at least two other treatments. In clinical studies, many cancer patients have completely disappeared, and several of these patients have been without cancer for a long time. Ciloleucel akicabtagene (Iescarta () is approved for patients with certain types of non-Hodgkin B cells who have not responded or have relapsed after at least two other treatments. Both therapies involve modifying the patient’s own immune cells.

Therapeutic antibodies

How do they work? Therapeutic antibodies are laboratory-made antibodies that are designed to kill cancer cells. They are a type of cancer-targeted therapy – drugs specifically designed to interact with a specific molecule (or “molecular target”) necessary for cancer cell growth.

Therapeutic antibodies work in many different ways:

They can interfere with a key signaling process that promotes cancer growth and alerts the immune system to destroy cancer cells to which antibodies bind. An example is trastuzumab (Herceptin), which binds to a protein in cancer cells called HER2.

Adherence to the target protein can directly lead to the transition of cancer cells to apoptosis. Examples of this type of therapeutic antibody are rituximab (Ritukan®) and ofatumumab (Arzerra®), which attack a protein on the surface of B lymphocytes called CD20. Similarly, alemtuzumab (Campath®) binds to a protein on the surface of mature lymphocytes called CD52.

They can be bound to a toxic substance that kills the cancer cells to which the antibody binds. A toxic substance can be a poison, such as a bacterial toxin; small molecule drug; a light-sensitive chemical compound (used in photoimmunotherapy); or a radioactive compound used in radioimmunotherapy). Antibodies of this type are sometimes called antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs). Examples of ADCs used for cancer are ado-trastuzumab emtansine, ado-trastuzumab emtasine (Kadcila®), which is taken and destroyed by cancer cells that express HER2 on their surface, and brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris®), which are absorbed by lymphoma cells that surfaces express CD30 and destroy them.

They can bring activated T lymphocytes closer to cancer cells. For example, the therapeutic antibody blinatumomab (Blincito®) binds both to CD19, a tumor-associated antigen that is overexpressed on the surface of leukemia cells, and to CD3, a glycoprotein on the surface of T cells that is part of the T lymphocyte receptor. Blinatumomab contacts leukemia cells with T lymphocytes, resulting in activation of T lymphocytes and cytotoxic T lymphocytes against CD19-expressing leukemia cells.

Other immunotherapies combine other molecules of the immune system (which are not antibodies) and substances that destroy cancer. For example, denileucine diphthytox (ONTAK®) contains interleukin-2 (IL-2) bound to a toxin produced by the bacterium Corinebacterium diphtheria, which causes diphtheria. Denileukin diphtheria uses its share of IL-2 to attack cancer cells that have IL-2 receptors on their surface, allowing the diphtheria toxin to destroy them.

How are they used? Many therapeutic antibodies are approved for the treatment of a wide range of cancers.

Therapeutic vaccines

How do they work? Cancer vaccines are designed to treat existing cancers by strengthening the body’s natural defenses against cancer. The purpose is to slow or stop the growth of cancer cells; to shrink the tumor; stopping the recurrence of cancer; destruction of cancer cells that are not killed by other forms of treatment.

The purpose of cancer vaccines is to introduce one or more cancer antigens into the body that cause an immune response that eventually destroys the cancer cells.

Vaccines for the treatment of cancer can be made from the patient’s own cells (that is, they are modified in such a way as to create an immune response to characteristics that are unique to the patient’s specific tumor) or from substances (antigens) produced by certain types of tumors. , they generate an immune response in each patient whose tumor produces antigen).

The first FDA-approved cancer vaccine, sipuleucel-T (Provenge®), is tailored for each patient. It is designed to stimulate the immune response to prostate acid phosphatase (PAP), an antigen found in most prostate cancer cells. The vaccine is made by isolating immune cells called dendritic cells, which are a type of antigen-presenting cell (APC), from a patient’s blood. These cells are sent to a vaccine manufacturer, where they are grown together with a protein called PAP-GM-CSF. . This protein consists of PAPs associated with a protein called granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), which stimulates the immune system and improves antigen presentation.

Cells representing antigens cultured PAP-GM-CSF are the active component of sipuleucel-T. These cells are injected into the patient. Although the exact mechanism of action of sipuleucel-T is not known, APC cells that have occupied PAP-GM-CSF appear to stimulate T lymphocytes of the immune system to kill PAP-expressing tumor cells.

The first FDA-approved oncolytic viral therapy, talimogen laherparepvec (T-VEC or Imligic®), is also considered a type of vaccine. It is based on the herpes simplex virus type 1 and includes a gene that encodes GM-CSF. Although this oncolytic virus can infect both cancer cells and normal cells, normal cells have mechanisms to destroy the virus, while cancer cells do not. T-ECV is injected directly into the tumor. As the virus replicates, it causes the cancer cells to explode and die. Dying cells release new viruses, GM-CSF and various tumor-specific antigens. They can stimulate an immune response against cancer cells throughout the body.

How are they used? Sipuleucel-T is used to treat prostate cancer that has metastasized in men who have few or no symptoms and whose cancer is hormone resistant (does not respond to hormonal treatment). ECV-T is used to treat some patients with metastatic melanoma that cannot be removed surgically.

Substances that modulate the immune system

How do they work? Substances that modulate immunity strengthen the body’s immune response against cancer. These substances include proteins that usually help regulate or modulate the activity of the immune system, microbes and drugs.

Cytokines These signaling proteins are naturally produced by white blood cells. They help mediate and fine-tune immune responses, inflammation and hematopoiesis (formation of new blood cells). There are two types of cytokines used to treat cancer patients: Interferon Interferons (INF) and Interleukins (IL). The third type, called hematopoietic growth factor, is used to control some of the side effects of some chemotherapy regimens.

The researchers found that one type of interferon, interferon-α, can improve a patient’s immune response to cancer cells by activating some white blood cells, such as natural killer cells and dendritic cells. Interferon-α can also inhibit the growth of cancer cells or accelerate their death.

Researchers have identified more than a dozen different interleukins, including interleukin-2, also called T-cell growth factor. Interleukin-2 is naturally produced by activated T cells. It increases the proliferation of white blood cells, including cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells, resulting in a better immune response against cancer. Interleukin-2 also facilitates the production of antibodies by B lymphocytes for further attack on cancer cells.

Hematopoietic growth factors are a special class of natural cytokines. They promote the growth of different populations of blood cells that are depleted by chemotherapy. Erythropoietin stimulates the production of red blood cells, and interleukin-11 increases platelet production. Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) stimulate lymphocyte growth, reducing the risk of infection.

Granulocyte colony stimulating factor and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor may also enhance specific anticancer responses of the immune system by increasing the number of cancer-fighting T lymphocytes.

Bacillus of Calmette-Guerin (BCG). The weakened form of live TB bacteria does not cause disease in humans. It was first used in medicine as a vaccine against tuberculosis. When inserted directly into the bladder with a catheter, the Calmette-Guerin bacillus stimulates a general immune response that is directed not only at the foreign bacteria themselves but also at the bladder cancer cells. The exact mechanism of this anticancer effect is not well understood, but treatment is effective.

Immunomodulatory drugs (also called biological response modifiers). These drugs are powerful modulators of the body’s immune system. They include thalidomide (Thalomid®); lenalidomide (Revlimid®) and pomalidomide (Pomalist®), thalidomide derivatives having a similar structure and function; and imiquimod (Aldara®, Ziclara®).

It is not entirely clear how thalidomide and its two derivatives stimulate the immune system, but they promote the secretion of IL-2 from cells and inhibit the ability of tumors to form new blood vessels that support their growth (a process called angiogenesis). Imiquimod is a cream that is applied to the skin. It causes cells to release cytokines, especially INF-α, IL-6 and TNF-α (a molecule that participates in inflammation).

How are they used? Most substances that modulate the immune system are used to treat advanced cancer. Some are used as part of a support scheme. For example, recombinant and biologically similar forms of GM-CSF and G-CSF are used in combination with other immunotherapies to boost the immune response against cancer by stimulating white blood cell growth.

What are the side effects of biological therapies?

The side effects of biologic therapies generally reflect immune system stimulation and may vary according to the type of therapy and the way individual patients respond to it.

However, pain, inflammation, irritation, redness of the skin, itching and rash at the site of infusion or injection are quite common with these treatments. They can also cause a variety of flu-like symptoms, including fever, chills, weakness, dizziness, nausea or vomiting, muscle or joint pain, fatigue, headaches, occasional shortness of breath, and high or low blood pressure. Some immunotherapies that trigger an immune system reaction also cause a risk of hypersensitivity reactions (allergies), even fatal ones.

Long-term side effects (especially immune checkpoint inhibitors) include autoimmune syndromes and acute onset diabetes.

Possible serious side effects of immunotherapy are:

Immune checkpoint inhibitors

Reactions that damage organs caused by immune activity and include the digestive system, liver, skin, nervous system, heart and glands that produce hormones. These reactions can cause pneumonitis, colitis, hepatitis, nephritis and renal failure, myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle), hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

Immune cell therapy

Cytokine release syndrome (CAR and T cell therapy)

Capillary leak syndrome (TIL therapy)

Therapeutic antibodies and other immune system molecules

Cytokine release syndrome (blinatumomab)

Infusion reactions, capillary leakage syndrome and poor visual acuity (denileucine diphthotox)

Therapeutic vaccines

Flu-like symptoms

Severe allergic reaction

Stroke (sipuleucel-T)

Tumor lysis syndrome, herpes viral infection (T-VEC)

Immune system modulators

Flu-like symptoms, severe allergic reaction, low blood counts, changes in blood chemistry, organ damage (cytokines)

Flu-like symptoms, severe allergic reaction, urinary side effects (BCG)

Serious birth defects if taken during pregnancy, blood clots, venous embolism, neuropathy (thalidomide, lenalidomide, pomalidomide)

Skin reactions (imiquimod)

What are the current research on cancer immunotherapy?

Researchers are focusing on several important fields to improve the effectiveness of cancer immunotherapy, including:

Methods for overcoming resistance to cancer immunotherapy. Researchers are testing combinations of different immune checkpoint inhibitors, as well as immune checkpoint inhibitors in combination with a wide range of other immunotherapies, molecularly targeted cancer therapies and radiation, as ways to overcome therapeutic drug resistance. Tumors on immunotherapy.

Identification of biomarkers that predict response to immunotherapy. Not everyone receiving immunotherapy will respond to treatment. Identification of biomarkers that predict the response is the main field of research.

Identification of new cancer-related antigens – so-called neoantigens – that may be more effective in stimulating immune responses than known antigens.

Non-invasive strategies for isolating immune cells that respond to tumors that express neoantigens.

Understand better the mechanisms by which cancer cells avoid or suppress the immune response against cancer. A better understanding of how cancer cells manipulate the immune system could lead to the formulation of drugs that block these processes.

Proximity to infrared photoimmunotherapy. This method uses infrared light to activate targeted destruction of cancer cells in the body (December 14-14).

Where can I find information on immunotherapy clinical trials?

In clinical trials, they are evaluated and approved by the FDA and experimental immunotherapy for certain types of cancer. Descriptions of ongoing clinical trials examining the types of immunotherapy in cancer patients can be found in the List of Cancer Clinical Trials on the NCI website. The NCL clinical trial list includes all NCI-sponsored clinical trials conducted in the United States and Canada, including at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, Maryland. For information in English on other ways to search the list, see Help Find NCI-Supported Clinical Trials.

Otherwise, call the NCI Contact Center at 1-800-422-6237 (1-800-4-RAK) for information on clinical trials of immunotherapies.

Seaweed contains anti-cancer compounds

Several international studies have reported that some types of seaweed and their extracts have the ability to affect cancerous diseases.
The most famous study from Brazil, the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte and its scientists, found polysaccharides from the seagrass Sargassum Vulgare that inhibited some of the tumors of angiogenesis, more precisely the development of tumors caused by the growth of new blood vessels.

These compounds have also been found to inhibit HeLa cell lineage. HeLa cells are a species found in Henrite Lax’s body in 1951.

Researchers also confirmed these results in a study by researchers from Putra University in Malaysia. This study showed that the red moxa grass Eucheuma cottonii and the extract of this morxa grass successfully stop the spread of breast cancer even better than the drug tamoxifen. Scientists did a study on mice. The study also proved that there are no side effects and negative effects on the kidneys and liver, only one of the negative effects of the drug used in tamoxifen chemotherapy.

The anti-carcinogenic effects of seaweed have also been shown to be accurate in human studies. In February, Japanese Red Cross researchers Kyoto Daiichi reported that zeaxanthin, along with other seaweed carotenoids, reduced the chance of cancer in adult Japanese.
Researchers from Kyushu University in Japan had confirmed that when they treated human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 with fucoids obtained from brown seaweed – the growth of cancer cells is stopped.

Doctors also found another effect of fucoids in this study, and that is their ability to change the membrane of cancer cells and mitochondria, as well as to change the flow of ions through the membrane.

This supports the release of cytochrome CI BD-2 towards the destruction of the cancer cell.
Researchers from the South Korean College of Veterinary Medicine have found that fucoids inhibit the metastasis of A549 colon cancer. A549 cells are one of the most aggressive forms of colon cancer cells. The mechanism seen in this study is that fucoid reduces the MMP-2 activity of cancer cells.
The researchers found that fucoids could be considered a potential therapeutic compound against metastasis and invasion of human colon cancer.

Liposomal supplements and their application

Although many people have received information about liposomal supplements, most of them still think about whether they are just propaganda or really exist. And! We tell you they are genuine. Take, for example, Liposomal vitamin C, about whom so much has been said. It is assimilated up to 5 times more successfully than any other form of vitamin C. Liposomal goods are compressed in a fatty substance that surrounds it and makes it additionally soluble in fat and freely assimilated from the stomach area. Glutathione is another good example of liposomal goods. Glutathione is the main antioxidant of the human body, and the liposomal formula of this product quickly moves the substance where it is needed by avoiding the course of digestion.

What is a liposome?

Liposomes are small ball-shaped particles made of two molecules that form a thick layer of fat covering the water cabin. In other words, these are minimal, fat-soluble modes of transport for transporting nutrients to the cells of the body. The liposomal examination was published by Dr. Alec Banham of the Babraham Institute in Cambridge, UK.

liposoma

Liposomal encapsulation technology

Liposomal encapsulation technology is a state-of-the-art distribution technique used by medical researchers to relocate medications that act by healing the body’s tissues. This distribution scheme method offers targeted transfer of dynamic composites to the body. It has existed since the early 1970s. Due to the extraordinary transferable competence of LET, several creators of moisturizers and beauty products (which are applied directly to a part of the body) have supported it. Due to the amazing results and benefits obtained from Liposomal Technology, many nutrition companies currently apply this method in the oral distribution of dietary supplements. The advantage is that it allows the nutrient to transport compact and non-decomposed natural compounds to certain tissues and structures. Ensuring that the limited doses are five to fifteen times less than the usual consumption of supplements, the distribution scheme’s efficiency has not changed.

This reduction is significant both therapeutically and in terms of cost reduction. It may not be appropriate to mention here that the normal transition of tablets and capsules and the localized deportation of substances that provide nutrition are affected by humidity, oxygen, and other inappropriate determinants. The substances may be classified according to the presence of enzymes (present in the esophagus’s oral and digestive fluids) that precede their assimilation into the body. Moreover, the materials used to hold things together, protective materials, gelatin, and sugars, are, in fact, preservatives that affect the assimilation procedure. This incomplete assimilation produced by inadequate fragmentation of tablets or capsules is a careful obstacle. However, LET frees the fortification of materials from worrying and aggressive consequences, which are expected to appear in the digestive tract. This is because Liposomal Encapsulation engages phospholipid liposomes to build protection that repels the negative effects of gastrointestinal fluids, alkaline solutions, salts, and free radicals of the body. The interval of this defense lasts from when the nutrients are directed to the digestive tract when the substances touch the tissue that receives them and when they are instantly drawn in by the cell arrangements and relocated to the intracellular zone.

FLIGHT

The main part of the liposome in LET is made of phospholipids. All body cells are surrounded by a defense membrane that contains phospholipids. Phospholipids are needed by the body to develop and perform their functions. A crucial part of LET is PC liposomes, which function as regions to which condensed supplements are delivered. Liposomes are available in various dimensions, which are determined by how they are prepared. Their dimensions can range from micrometers to nanometers. Their assembly is such that they can have one plane, a binary plane, or several planes. A reduced liposome is more valuable for protecting shipments and passing through the human body than larger liposomes; the thinner the liposome, the longer its life and the greater its persistence. There are various techniques for formulating liposomes. The main method used to transmit food by mouth is an automated brand. The three main arrangements for assembling a mechanical planning procedure are:

  • Extrusion
  • Micro-fluidization
  • Sonication

All mixtures, including chemicals and liposomes, will eventually disintegrate through diet. The full status of liposomal expertise should use liposomes smaller than 200 nanometers with a structure consisting of two planes and Phosphatidylcholine. Eggs and soy are the most common resources and must be kept at room temperature, out of refrigeration. An outstanding illustration of LET’s subordination to life is vitamin C. Vitamin C is also referred to by some as a miraculous antioxidant because of its ability to dissolve and neutralize free radicals. In case a larger amount is needed, it is useful to inject vitamin C intravenously so that more of it is assimilated into the blood and tissues. When consumed orally, only 10 to 15 percent of vitamin C is used because its assimilation is suppressed in the gastrointestinal tract. LET technology has instantly improved and restructured the transfer of vitamin C into cells. So far, this is an unsurpassed way for vitamin C to gain access to the hepatic system in its healthy state. PC liposomes protect vitamin C from damage caused by enzymes and gastric fluid in the gastrointestinal system. As soon as they enter the body, PC liposomes move through the small intestine effortlessly and without stimulation. Liposomes transport the system to the liver in a comprehensive form and are equipped to empty their contents. PC liposomes in the liver are scattered. Polyunsaturated Phosphatidylcholine is swallowed by liver cells while releasing trapped vitamin C. When you use liposomal encapsulated vitamin C orally, the amount of vitamin C in the cell system increases without any indication of harmful effects such as abdominal pain, urine output, and any additional burden on the liver, which is to be commended.

Benefits of liposomal artemisinin

liposomalna tehnologija

Technologically advanced liposomal preparations have suitable properties as drug transporters by intravenous and intramuscular methods. They are great in terms of element dimensions, distribution, encapsulation value, and other useful things. Their somatic and biochemical stability was also assessed. Moreover, in experimentation (using the whole living organism), the antimalarial effect of artemisinin-based liposomal preparations was substantiated in mice with Plasmodium bergei NK-65, a suitable prototype for malaria monitoring because this infection provides mechanical, functional, and cycle-like human diseases. Unaccompanied artemisinin, or the same fused with curcumin, was condensed into conservative PEGylated liposomes, and their overall effects (on living subjects) were evaluated as a contrast to unrestricted preparation. Mice were given artemisinin in an amount of 50 mg per kilogram of body weight per day, without supplements or only with curcumin as an additional drug, given in 100 mg per kilogram of body weight per day. Artemisinin began to reduce the levels of parasites that can be detected in the blood only a week after the treatment. It seemed to have an oscillating tendency in the blood concentration, which proved antimalarial efficacy.

In comparison, the use of conservative liposomes loaded with artemisinin (A-CL), conservative liposomes loaded artemisinin and curcumin (AC-CL), PEGylated liposomes loaded with artemisinin (A-PL), PEGylated liposomes loaded with artemisinin and curcumin (AC-PL) gave the impression of immediate results that opposed malaria. Both nano-condensed artemisinin and artemisinin mixed with curcumin cured mice (infected with malaria) within the equivalent post-injection time. All preparations showed a smaller amount of discrepancy in the plasma concentrations of artemisinin, which tells us that A-CL, AC-CL, A-PL, and AC-PL provided altered drug discharge and, as a result, there was a continuous result that counteracted malaria. In particular, A-PL has been shown to contribute to malaria’s most noticeable and satisfactory treatment effects in this mouse archetype. The improved endurance of A-PL in the blood imposes the use of these nanosystems as suitable inert-directed transporters for growing infections; this robust effect of the formulation is added to the mechanism of action of artemisinin, which acts in the erythrocyte cycle phase in humans as a blood schizonticide (an agent that selectively damages the sporozoan parasite cell). The predominant herbal treatment Artemisinin (also known as sweet wormwood), has been used by the Chinese population for many centuries. It has also gained recognition in the experimental control of drug-resistant falciparum malaria. Artemisia is a modest plant that grows in Southeast Asia and treats intestinal leeches. The World Health Organization has already declared it a harmless medicine against malaria.

In addition to the above, it has proven to be useful in the fight against malignancy. According to research studies, the realization with this plant relies on the fact that malignant cells and malaria parasites store iron, often collecting a thousand times more additional iron than normal cells would store. Artemisinin has two oxygen atoms that can separate in the presence of this amount of iron and consequently produce very sensitive free radicals that are introduced to destroy malaria parasites and many malignant cells. Treatment of individuals (suffering from malignancy) destroys these abnormal cells with artemisinin. However, normal cells remain unaltered. This remarkable ability to target malignant cells makes Artemisinin an exceptional trap driven by malignancy. Artemisinin represents (to those who suffer from some malignancy) the probability of using a non-lethal drug that is not only economical but also widely available. Artemisinin has an incredible safety contour, it should definitely be considered medicine when the usual treatments prove unsuccessful in providing results.

It should also be unquestionably used in people who suffer from malignancy but unwaveringly refuse to receive conventional treatments. Artemisinin is currently undergoing research and analysis to treat malignant cells, and certain Chinese researchers also present that artemisinin provided significant effects on hepatoma cells in humans. Artemisinin has also been shown to reduce the development of blood vessels and the manifestation of vascular endothelial growth factor in several tissues. Later, the pharmacological substance confirmed that a branch (derivative) of artemisinin, called dihydroartemisinin, has the ability to target human secondary malignancies located at a distance from the primary site of the melanoma.

The story of Donald, the mechanic:

Forty-seven-year-old mechanic Donald was quite healthy when he had to seek a herbalist’s advice when he freshly identified a horrible bulge (egg size). When the biopsy was performed, it turned out to be lymphoma. The herbalist immediately put him on therapy with a branch (derivative) of this Artemisinin plant and advised him to use it for two weeks. After two weeks, a slight reduction in the middle appeared on the bulge, but the border developed marginally. Disappointed that the bulge did not degenerate significantly, the mechanic decided to stop using this preparation. After one month, the herbalist received a mechanic call, who told him the good news that the tumor had disappeared completely.

The concept of liposomal vitamin C.

As we all know, Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) is one of the most recognized antioxidants worldwide. This essential food of health plays a decisive role in serving our body’s resistance system.

Liposomal vitamin C is a high-tech innovation in nutrient absorption and represents an incredible health compensation.
Liposomal vitamin C is packaged as a body cell to pass through the digestive barrier and deliver nutrients directly into the bloodstream. This has a much higher absorption rate, with about 90% of cells bathed in vitamin C. Some experts suggest that liposomal vitamin C is vastly superior to vitamin IV yield– an expensive but effective procedure performed quite often in hospitals and alternative health clinics. The dimensions of liposomes are important to a large extent when we talk about their ability to accept the highest vitamin C measures. The exact dimensions should be between 100 – 400 nanometers and must be verified by the FDA control authority to guarantee protection and value.

The best transporters for liposomal vitamin C are phosphatidylcholines, which help attach liposomes. The perfect amounts should be between 250-500mg PC for each dose in a liposomal vitamin C formulation. This phosphatidylcholine should be derived from non-genetically modified sunflower or soy lecithin.

Benefits of liposomal vitamin C.

Since vitamin C is essential for healthier eyes, many authorities accept that the intake of even 1,000 mg of liposomal vitamin C a day can stop cataracts.

Liposomal vitamin C has medicinal properties.

Use of liposomal vitamin C to treat pneumonia

Alan Smith, a New Zealand agricultural worker dedicated to the majority of processes and methods related to milk, butter, and cheese production, got swine flu when he was on vacation in Fiji. When he returned home, the flu quickly progressed to severe pneumonia, which caused him to lose consciousness and why he had to be placed in intensive care. A lung scan showed that his lungs were absolutely filled with fluid. Three weeks later, Alan’s doctor questioned his relatives about whether they were allowed to turn off the appliances and let him die. Alan’s son-in-law (with little information about medicine) convinced the doctors to try to inject a larger amount of vitamin C intravenously into Alan. Initially, doctors refused but had to give in after Alan’s three sons persuaded them to inject vitamin D into their father. As a result, they decided to give Vitamin C to Alan unsafely and with much doubt. So Alan received 25 grams of vitamin C intravenously in the evening and an additional 25 grams the next morning.

The next day, a CT scan of Alan’s lungs showed increased air movement, and after a few days, a radiograph showed air progress. A clear recovery was noticeable. On the other hand, doctors rejected the idea that vitamin C brought recovery, and as an alternative, they attributed the credit for the recovery to rotating the patient face down. Almost immediately after the IV injection of vitamin C, Alan was transferred from the breathing apparatus and started inhaling with his own lungs. Despite this, another consultant doctor suddenly sneezed, assumed that control of the case had been established, and discontinued vitamin IV C. Alan Smith’s condition quickly deteriorated to the point that his wife appealed for a consultation with this doctor who did not want to continue with vitamin C. But he had to give up when, once again, Alan’s sons insisted on vitamin IV. The doctor reluctantly continued to take vitamin C but only in small doses of one gram a day.

Alan began to recover and was finally relocated to a hospital that was closer to his home (although he was breathing with the help of a respirator). Alan’s relatives had to go through another conflict with another doctor, who again discontinued vitamin C therapy. This time the family reached for a legal representative who sent a warning letter to the hospital. The hospital was forced to continue with vitamin C, but again, in small amounts. As a final result, Alan could sit on the bed and be transferred to take fluids by mouth. However, based on their personal judgment, the relatives provided their father with 6 grams of vitamin C a day, which he took orally. This vitamin was in the form of an extremely easily digestible type known as Lipo-spherical vitamin C.

Alan endured until his recovery and was sent home from the hospital. At home, Alan’s neighbor John teased him that he owed him $ 15, which he paid for his suit’s dry cleaning, which he intended for Alan’s funeral.

Use of liposomal vitamin C to treat malignancy

Among malignancies, breast malignancy is the most common cause of death in women, accounting for about 1.5% of all deaths (Murthy and Aleyamma 2004).
Currently, there is progress in the health benefits of anti malignant mediators with a reduction in secondary adverse effects. The transportation of drugs to the end site fundamentally uses new expertise, e.g., Nanotechnology, in medicine. (Brigger et al., 2002). Consequently, it may be a solitary technique to consume a tumor-explicit effect with fewer side effects and less damage to biological cells. A wide range of nanotransporters for anti-cancer drug cargoes is used to combat drug resistance (Martin 2009), e.g., Drug-loaded liposomes (Sells et al., 1987; Cowens et al., 1993), polymeric nanosphere, polymeric nanocapsules (Couvreur 2001), compact nanolipides, and nanoparticles capable of magnetizing (Muller and Keck, 2004). For the aforementioned reasons, artemisinin was inserted into liposomes (A, form) and into the artemisinin slit in a pegylated liposome (B, form) to analyze their utility for breast cancer cell line, which is MCF-7. Effects of artemisinin liposomes (A) and artemisinin liposome polyethylene glycol 20000 (B) the breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) were considered. Zetasizer defined the thickness of the nanoparticles of both A and B. The Zetasizer Nano Z system is dedicated to quantifying zeta capacity and electrophoretic motion in aqueous and non-aqueous diffusions using Laser Doppler Micro-Electrophoresis (motion of distributed particles comparable to a liquid under the effect of a structurally unchanging electric field).

The result

The involvement of nano transporters in drug distribution (e.g., nanoliposomes) plays a vital role in raising drugs’ beneficial manifestation.

(Int. J. LifeSc. Bt & Pharm. Crisp. 2013 Azim AkbarzadehISSN 2250-3137 www.ijlbpr.com
Vol. 2, no. 1, January 2013)

Research with artemisinin

So far, the most extensive research on Artemisinin’s active derivative of sweet wormwood as an anti-cancer agent has been done by Dr. Narenda Singh and Henry Lai from the University of Washington. This study was published in the Journal of Life Science.

Iron is required in many cellular processes.It is known that many types of cancer cells accumulate iron. Various cancer cells have large amounts of iron on receptors that cover cells’ surfaces. In laboratory research on breast cancer, which has a high degree of iron accumulation in cells, it was discovered that artemisinin destroys 75% of iron-enriched cells in the first 8 hours and even 100% in the first 24 hours.

You should also note that healthy cells remain intact and function normally after this treatment.
The fact that cancer cells have a high concentration of iron. It is also used in another treatment method, the so-called Zoetron therapy. On that occasion, with the help of special electromagnetic devices, high-frequency movement of cancer cells is performed. on healthy cells, and when the temperature rises, the cancerous cells die while the healthy ones survive.

Artemisinin works effectively against a wide range of carcinogenic diseases, and this fact has been confirmed through a series of successful experiments. It is the most successful in the fight against leukemia and colon cancer. The middle stage of activity and success artemisinin has been shown in melanoma, breast, ovary, prostate, and kidney cancers. Although artemisinin is not soluble in water, it can cross the blood-brain barrier. In this way, it is very suitable for treating brain tumors together with poly-MVA (metal-vitamins).

Some scientists claim that nitrogen stays in cancer cells for a long time and cannot get rid of it. Nitrogen binds artemisinin to itself and allows artemisinin to stay in cells longer.

According to Dr. Rowen, who is oriented towards natural cancer treatment and is also the editor of the medical newspaper “Second Option,” doctors from the Hoang family in Vietnam used artemisinin in cancer patients’ therapies years. They reported that over a period of 10 years, more than 400 patients were treated with artemisinin and that 50-60% of them had long-term effects after applying this therapy. there were no toxicological changes even when using high doses of 70 mg per kilogram of body weight.
Artemisinin Sweet wormwood derivative is not an independent agent in the fight against cancer. A combination of nutritional supplements such as green tea, CoQ10, and pancreatic enzyme with an anti-cancer diet is excellent in the fight against this disease.

Warnings
1. Artemisinin should not be taken 30 days after radiation therapy or chemotherapy as there is a possibility of iron moving into the tissue surrounding the cells.
2. Before taking artemisinin, you should do a blood test. If it is determined that the iron level is low, you should take iron a few days before starting artemisinin therapy.
3. Tumor markers may begin to increase in the early stages through artemisinin destroys the tumor.
4. Vitamin E can affect the effectiveness of artemisinin therapy and the action of sweet wormwood.

Chemotherapy and vaccines are a lie

In an exclusive interview, the celebrated American publicist Edward Griffin reveals why official medicine hides the real cure for cancer. There are no malignant diseases globally, and how dangerous vaccination is.

American writer and publicist Edward Griffin (81) thought it would take him three weeks, and it took him three years of research work to write the controversial book “A World Without Cancer”.

In this work, the author thoroughly proves that the cause of cancer is not viruses or mysterious toxins but a simple lack of one nutrient – vitamin B17.
Opposing the official pharmaceutical policy, which, according to him, has been skillfully hiding the real cure for cancer from the public for the last 30 years, Griffin points out that today more people earn their living on cancer than die from it.

In search of an answer to this question and why the placing of vitamin B17 on the market is banned in America, we are talking to Griffin, who arrived in Belgrade to promote the book “A World Without Cancer,” finally translated into Serbian.

– It is indeed difficult for people to believe what I have written, but it does not surprise me at all. Well, in the 19th. For centuries, scientists thought that sailors’ scurvy resulted from the bite of mysterious beetles from below decks. Later, of course, it turned out that the cause of this disease was actually a lack of vitamin C. – explains in an exclusive interview this celebrated California publicist known for dealing with various topics in his works, including terrorism, subversion, but also archeology and history.

How did you come up with the idea to write this book?

– It all started by accident. And that’s because my friend Dr. Richardson started using it at a clinic in San Francisco about thirty years ago, vitamin B17 (which in its purified form is called laetrile or amygdalin) in the treatment of cancer patients. It all happened after the famous biochemist Ernst T. Kreb raised dust in public by wanting to place this drug on the market, stating that cancer is actually a deficiency disease, more precisely a disorder in metabolism caused by a lack of vitamin B17 in the diet.

However, your friend first tried the medicine on his dog; who had cancer?

– True, the dog recovered. After that, Richardson started using this medicine in his patients’ therapy. He first tried it on his head sister’s wife, to whom all the doctors gave a maximum of two or three weeks of life. After taking lateral, he fully recovered.

How did it come about that the drug was banned in the United States?

– After the patients who recovered started spreading the story about the medicine, it did not help anyone. Especially not too large pharmacy cartels and the administration of official medicine. You guessed it, primarily because of making a lot of money from selling cytostatics. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) called vitamin B17 a common scam and banned its marketing.

Where can vitamin B17 be found in foods?

– It is a natural chemotherapeutic agent that can be found in more than 1,200 plants. Primarily in the stones and seeds of fruits: apricots, apricots/peaches, plums, cherries, apples, and millet. Its molecule is composed of two sugar molecules and one cyanide and benzaldehyde.

If the cyanide from this molecule is responsible for eliminating the malignant cell, is there a possibility that it will kill healthy cells?

– Healthy cells have an enzyme to neutralize the breakdown products of B17, so they use cyanide for the metabolic synthesis of B12, which is important in hemoglobin metabolism, then creates a thiocyanate compound in the presence of sulfur, which participates in regulating blood pressure, and excess is excreted in the urine.

Is it true that during your research work, you came across data on places in the world where there are no cancer patients, such as the Hunza tribe in Pakistan?

– This tribe inhabits remote and remote places of the Himalayas. They are known for their amazing longevity and good health. It is not unusual for them to live to be a hundred years old, and some even a hundred and twenty or more. Interestingly, in that tribe, money is an unknown concept, but that is why wealth is measured by the number of apricot trees that someone owns. Apricot kernels are considered the most prized food and are eaten as rice is eaten in Asian culture. Food rich in vitamin B17 is also eaten by Eskimos, among whom no case of malignant disease has been reported…

Until some of the Eskimos served in the military in Canada and the United States?

– True… As soon as they moved and changed their diet, they immediately started getting sick and dying from malignant diseases.

What would you say to patients going for chemotherapy?

Not as an expert (because I am not), but I would not recommend anyone to go to chemotherapy as an ordinary person. I know I would never go to chemotherapy. I even believe it causes cancer. Formal cancer treatment is big business. Chemotherapy and cytostatics make billions of dollars. Not all doctors put money in front of patients, but in human nature, unfortunately, there is a rush for money.

Do you believe that vaccines against swine, bird flu, or West Nile virus are also part of a medical scam?

– Vaccines are more harmful than they help. Billions of dollars are spent on lobbying the law, which places the use of various vaccines. I know of hundreds of fake studies on how vaccines are supposedly healthy. The sad thing is that many doctors do not know about these scams or do not even try to investigate them.

The use of alternative medicine in the health care of Western countries

A new report shows that three out of four health workers in the United States use complementary or alternative medicine to improve their health.
Doctors, nurses and their assistants, health technicians, and health administrators are increasingly using alternative medicine methods in practice, including massage, yoga, acupuncture, pilates, and herbal medicine.

“No one has done a similar analysis so far, but when we got the results of the survey, I was shocked,” said the executive director of the Penny George Institute for Health and Treatment with Allina Health System in Minneapolis. “It’s very nice to know that our health professionals understand the need for alternative therapies to improve the health of all of us. “

According to the U.S. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, about 38 percent of Americans currently use some form of alternative medicine that also includes dietary supplements, meditation, chiropractic, Pilates, and Chinese traditional medicine.

In determining the nationally representative sample, 14,300 respondents over 18 were included in this research. Out of the total number of 1,300 respondents, they were health care workers and workers employed in the hospital and outpatient environment.

The sample included 36 options, including body, mind, body manipulation, biologically based therapies, and energy therapies.
When defining the results of doctors and nurses, it was discovered that they use the services of alternative medicine twice as much as non-clinical workers.

They were almost three times more convinced of their administrative colleagues’ success in these methods.

Overall, it was found that health workers are greater users of alternative methods compared to workers outside the health industry.76 percent of health workers said they are users of such methods versus 54 people who do not work in the health industry.

Even when diet, vitamins, and herbal supplements were excluded from possible alternative therapy options, health professionals were still ahead of other respondents (41 versus 30 percent).

“Until recently, Western culture believed that alternative medicine was relatively unexplored compared to conventional medicine,” said Dr. Knutson, one of the team members who conducted the survey. “But this is no longer the case. Now there is an exchange of experiences between healthcare workers and patients who use the potential of alternative medicine, which is extremely good. “

Judy Blatman, PR of the Washington Nutrition Center, said: “These results are also surprising with information on the use of alternative herbal medicine in the treatment of certain diseases and herbal products as a dietary supplement by our healthcare staff. development of our diet to improve the health of the entire population. “
This research concludes that it is much better about previous traditional attitudes to sharing their thoughts and ideas about alternative treatment with your doctor. He is very likely familiar with some alternative treatment methods and can implement them in standard therapy. Although the general public is not familiar with these details and believes that conventional medicine has no flexibility in terms of alternatives from the personal examples of health workers in the United States, the opposite has been proven.

A plant that treats brain tumors

The Ruta graveolens homeopathic medicine product destroys brain malignancy cells. The homeopathic agent that is crystallized is isolated from the plant Ruta graveolens. Human brain malignancy, HL-60 leukemia malignancy, non-lymphoid cells, and murine melanoma cells were affected by Ruta by coupling with ca3 (po4) 2 in a controlled artificial environment.

Ruta is often used in homeopathy for injuries to ligaments, tendons, and cartilage. He also proved that the medicine helps with bruises and sore and strained eyes after a long reading or working on the computer. Learn more about Ruta’s application areas and use the product properly.

Exploring the ruta graveolens

15 individuals with detected intracranial tumors were used Ruta 6  and Ca3 (PO4) 2 calcium phosphate. Among these 15 patients, 6 of 7 glioma patients experienced complete tumor degeneration. Brain tumor cells treated with Ruta outside the organism under experimental conditions were investigated for the following: Telomer dynamics, Apoptosis.

The research aimed to establish the procedure of self-destruction of cancer cells. The following research method has been proven that it can be very successfully done in this way with the use of Ruta 6 and CA3 (PO4) 2 controls the development of brain malignancy (glioma).

In this study, it was found that a mixture of Ruta and CA3 (PO4) 2, when consumed orally they can interfere with the development or destroy glioma human brain tumor with minimal or no side effects. Patients with glioma treated with Ruta showed better results compared with patients with some other types of brain tumors.

What is Ruta?

Rura graveolens

Ruta graveolens is a very tough vine used as an ornamental plant. Studies have shown that this plant has the effect of reducing gliomas.  The extract’s key effect is that this compound instantly strengthens the chromosomal DNA fragments called telomeres.

Telomeres act as armed fractions of chromosomal DNA to which sequences are specifically associated. If some harmful influences damage these telomeres, they can no longer defend chromosomes. These destabilized and damaged chromosomes are connected, and in that way, they create certain anomalies of cells that, over time, begin to multiply. In this way, brain tumors and malignant growths are formed.

Once the telomeres are recovered and strengthened by the Ruta, the body itself regains control not only begins to attack cancerous cells in the brain but also enhances the division of healthy blood cells and the immune system. This preparation restores power to the body, and soon the patient feels much better.

Scientists have proven an extremely high level of remission in such tumors. They also emphasize the effect of this preparation on malignant breast tumors, throat, lungs, and stomach.

When is Ruta used?

Ruta is used in homeopathy to accelerate healing after an injury to ligaments, tendons, or cartilage, regardless of whether the symptoms result from an accident or overuse. The ruta helps, for example, after hitting the lower leg. But we can also successfully treat many other injuries of the musculoskeletal system with Ruta.

Ruta graveolens is also used for eye weakness and eye inflammation if caused by excessive eye strain. Most people know about this phenomenon when they sit in front of the screen for a long time or read tiny fonts.

  • Diseases and conditions that respond well to the Route:
  • Eyes strained
  • Back pain from tension
  • Injury/bruising of the periosteum (especially ribs and lower legs)
  • Injuries/operations, especially on the joints, wrists, knees, shoulders, and hips
  • Tooth injuries
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome

Ruta graveolens for babies and children

Parents who want to treat their children homeopathically should always have Ruta on hand. Injuries due to falls, kicks, or the like are common in children. Unfortunately, more serious injuries also occur in children – then you should consult a doctor. With homeopathy, you can positively influence the healing process and alleviate your child’s pain.

Even after joint surgery or dental surgery, Ruta speeds up the healing process and relieves pain. In older children with symptoms of excessive muscle or joint strain (sore muscles, tennis elbow, chronic knee pain), an attempt at Ruta treatment should be helpful.

Summary

Although Ruta graveolens affects several different malignancy types, it still shows the best results in brain tumors. This treatment is extremely economical, it is not deadly, and there are no side effects. Ruta 6 can destroy glioblastoma. Also, there are no contraindications specific to Ruta 6 when taken concomitantly with any other unconventional drug. Ruta 6 is a very significant discovery and a promising cure for a wide range of malignancies.

Scientific research on artemisinin as a potential cure for cancer

Compound artemisinin is extracted from a plant called sweet wormwood. Many thousands of years ago, the Chinese used it to treat malaria. Today, scientists have proven that this miraculous plant is equally effective in fighting cancer. Let’s review some of the scientific research papers that have been published so far.

Cancer treatment method

All cancerous cells have an increased concentration of iron to develop; in other words, cancer cells have a much higher iron concentration than normal cells. During the research, the scientists removed cells from the body with the maximum iron concentration and injected them into them. Artemisinin. The result was that artemisinin has the properties of inhibiting and destroying cancer cells.

( U.S. Patent 5,578,637, University of Washington, inventors Dr. H. Lai and Dr. NP Singh, November 26, 1996)

Leukemia in humans

artemisinin

In another study, Dr. Lai found very significant discoveries regarding leukemia cells. He discovered that cancer cells were destroyed very quickly within a few hours when exposed to holotransferrin (it binds receptors that serve to transmit iron) and dihydroartemisinin (a type of artemisinin that is soluble in water). He emphasized that the destruction of cells could be the product of a high concentration of iron in leukemia cells.

( H.Lai I NP Sing, selective cancer cells exposed to Dihydroartemisinin and holotransferrin )

55 oncological cell lines

This amazing plant has been tested for activity against 55 cancer lines. It was found to be artemisinin most active against leukemia and colon cancer, melanoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and kidney cancer. It was also found that the effectiveness was significant in combination with other standard drugs used in the fight against cancer. These results classify it as a beneficial compound with low toxicity and can potentially replace chemotherapy.

(Antimalarial drug is also effective against cancer Int’l Journal of Oncology, 18; 767-773,2001)

Breast cancer cells

Sweet wormwood plant and compound artemisinin become cytostatic in the presence of iron. The cancer cell possesses more transferrin receptors; these are the pathways that allow the iron to enter the cell. Breast cancer cells have 5 to 15 times more surface transferrin receptors than normal breast cells. In recent studies, artemisinin was injected into normal and cancerous breast cells. The results were astonishing. Artemisinin killed even those cells that were resistant to radiation. The effects on normal cells were minimal. This analysis shows that treating this plant can be a simple, effective, and economical cure for cancer.

(NP Singh and H Lai, The Selective Effect of Dihydroartemisinin on Breast Cancer Cells. Life Sciences, 70: 49-56,2001)

Natural remedies that are better than chemotherapy

Various studies conducted separately in Germany and Australia have revealed the activities of twenty drugs on leukemia artemisinin, artesunate, baicalein, Baicalin, berberine, bufalin, cantharidin, cephaloridine, curcumin, daidzein, daidzin, diallyl, disulfide, Ginsenosidine, Rh2, Homoharringtonine, nardosinone, carbofuran, Puerarin, quercetin, tannic acid, and tetrahydronardosinone. The results showed that artesunate increased daunorubicin I accumulation in E1000 cells.

Artesunate and bufalin have the ability to fight leukemia, used alone or together with daunorubicin in multi-resistant cells. These two drugs are suitable for the treatment of leukemia and, as such, have the future of such use in medicine.

(Efferth et al., Blood Cells, Molecules, and Diseases 28 (2) Mar / April; 160-168, 2002)

4 lines of cancer cells

Isolated triterpenes and sesquiterpenes from Artemisia stolonifera both can destroy lung cancer, ovarian cancer, melanoma of the skin and colon.

(Kwon, Phytochemical constituents of Artemisia stolonifera, Arch.Pharm, Research 24 (4): 312-315,2001)

Leukemia and lung cancer

Researchers have discovered a new compound that can destroy cancer cells after modification artemisinin. This new derivative contains cyano and aryl groups, and this compound has been very effective in destroying lung cancer and leukemia.

(Li, Ying, et al., Novel antitumor artemisinin derivatives targeting G1 phase of the cell cycle, Bioorganic and Medicinal chemistry letters 11: 5-8, 2001)

I hope you have found some interesting information from this scientific research on artemisinin, its derivatives, and its effect on cancerous diseases.

You can also read Artemisinin derivative of sweet wormwood and its growing importance in medicine.

Hepatocellular carcinoma treatment and experiments with artemisinin

Artemisinin is the first type of drug to treat the basic version of the parasite Plasmodium falciparum or disease better known as malaria. This preparation was isolated from the plant Artemis Annua or popularly called sweet wormwood, which has been one of the leading plants in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries.

Artemisinin has a peroxide bond that gives it the ability to form free radicals after contact with iron. Free radicals are toxic cells. Cancer cells are extremely dependent on iron due to DNA duplication during cell division. For this reason, cancerous cells contain a high concentration of intercellular iron, more than normal cells to be able to supply uncontrolled replication. For that reason, Artemisinin is toxic exclusively to cancer cells.

This invention related to artemisinin has inspired many researchers who have dedicated their work to the study of cancerous diseases and the discovery of new therapy to treat cancer . In addition, artemisinin is less potent than other anti-cancer drugs, so larger amounts of this preparation are needed to achieve the desired effect. For this reason, more effective artemisinin derivatives have been developed and used in clinical trials. These compounds have given promising results as extremely potent drugs with fewer side effects compared to the traditional anti-cancer agents used so far.

Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

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Many artemisinin derivatives, both simple and complex, have been tested as a treatment for some types of cancer that occur in humans. The hepatocellular type of cancer is one of them.

Hepatocellular carcinoma has a long developmental time without symptoms and complications present. For this reason, most patients have a highly developed disease with many enlargements and tumors of a high degree at the time it is diagnosed. These results are associated with a very low survival rate that is on average within 5 years of onset.

Hepatocellular cancer treatment options include surgery and chemotherapy. Surgical interventions are not possible in cases with a developed type of tumor. For this reason, pharmacological therapy is extremely important for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Traditional chemotherapeutic drugs are not as effective on advanced types of cancer, even when used in combination. This fact adds even more pressure on medicine and scientists to find an alternative to classical methods of treatment.

Gemcitabine

Gemcitabine, the latest broad-spectrum drug with anti-cancer properties, has been included in the latest medical trials for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Research has yielded positive results so far. Further research was continued with this drug and its combination with artemisinin and its derivatives.

Artemisinin study 1

sweet wormwood artemisia annua

The anti-cancer effects of artemsinin include its effect on apoptosis or the death of cancer cells. The method of action in this direction has not been defined yet.

One study on hepatocellular carcinoma was conducted in China and the leader of the research team was Dr. Junmei Hou. In this study, artemisinin or ART for short and its derivative dihydroartemisinin or DHA, ARM artemether and ARS artesunate were tested in vitro on hepatoma cells HepG2 (p53 wild type), Huh-7 (p53 mutated), BE-7404 (p53 mutated), Hep3B (p53 null) and 7702 (normal liver cells). The effect and variations of artemisinin derivatives on all cell types, both carcinogenic and healthy, were compared.

The effects of ART and DHA alone and in combination with gemcitab on HepG2 and Hep3B were further investigated in vitro and in vivo. In addition to all four types of artemsinin derivatives, ART and DHA had the highest cytotoxic effects on hepatoma cells and despite that they had a very low degree of toxicity on normal liver cells. The basic mechanisms in these processes were inhibition of cell proliferation, G1 phase arrest and modulation of molecules in cells. Also included were apoptosis, tumor growth inhibition, and tumor gene modulation in both in vitro and in vivo.

In these activities, DHA increased the anticancer effects of gemcitabine. The researchers concluded that “ ART and DHA have a surprising anti-cancer effect on human hepatoma cells, especially on p53 status, with minimal effects on normal cells, with indications that these two derivatives are promising therapeutics for human hepatoma cancer both when used alone and when used in combination with other drugs.

Artemisinin study 2

The second study was conducted by Dr. YP Vandewyncel and his team 2014 to find therapeutic effects of artesunate on hepatocellular cancer. The main objectives of the study were evaluation and effects on tumor growth, anginogenesis, protein reactions and chemoresistance of hepatocellular carcinoma. Several types of hepatoma cells have been tested under normoxic and hypoxic conditions both in vitro and in vivo. Enzyme tests and advanced imaging techniques were used in this study. The results showed that artesunate has an effect on the vitality of cancer cells. The hypoxic state increased these effects.

Artesunat regulated vascular endothelial growth factor (essential for angionogenesis) and reduced tumor growth. The effects are further enhanced in combination with sorafenib. No hepatotoxicity was recorded during these reactions and artesunat showed no chemoresistance along with dosorubicin. These studies also concluded that artesunate is a potential drug for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Research by DR Henry Lai

He made a very interesting study Dr. Henry Lai with his research team based on the fact that cancer cells have a larger number of transferrin receptors on the surface. Transferrin is a protein that transports iron. Transferrin, once introduced into the receptor, is introduced into the cell through a process called endocytosis. Therefore, if artemisinin is bound to transferrin, this contingent could be taken up by cancer cells leading to a high concentration in the carcinogenic cells of artemisinin introduced by transferrin.

In the cells themselves, iron would be released from transferrin. The reaction between iron and artemisinin would produce free radicals that destroy the cancerous cell from within. The researchers emphasize that this process is very selective and potent in terms of binding of artemisinin to the transferrin protein and its potency in destroying cancer cells.

A Chinese herb cures cancer

treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

We found more facts in the article entitled “Chinese herb cures cancer” from  Dr. Robert Jay R Rowen published in 2002. According to this article, a team of scientists from Vietnam recorded a successful long-term cure in about 60% of cases  (out of 400 patients) in humans where artemisinin was combined with standard cancer treatments.

During the treatment of these patients, a 47-year-old woman, who had terminal liver cancer complicated by ascites and whose life expectancy was limited to days to a maximum of weeks, was treated with artemisinin and combination therapy. She was alive for two and a half years after the therapy without any signs of illness. This event provides solid evidence that artemisinin treatment can stabilize cancer growth very effectively.

Another study was conducted in 2013  with artemisinin derivatives AD1-AD8 on in vitro liver cancer cells. It was also concluded that these compounds have the potential as anti-cancer agents and that further animal studies are needed to further improve them.

Conclusion

The conclusion from the above studies is that artemisinin has the ability to treat hepatocellular carcinoma. Various studies have followed the effect of this drug during the invasion and spread of hepatocellular carcinogenic cells. Several cancer cell lines were treated with different concentrations of artemisinin. The results of these studies indicate that the concentration depends on the inhibitory effect on metastases both in vivo and in vitro. Several biochemical mechanisms including MMP2 metalloproteinase, TIMP2, and CDC42 cell division control have led to these effects.

Because many studies and researchers have given a very strong recommendation for the use of artemisinin and its derivatives as anticancer agents in hepatoma cancer and in the effective apoptosis of cancer cells, reducing tumors and inhibiting the spread of cancer. Further combination therapies that are better than single or solo therapies are recommended. Further research in humans is necessary to accurately determine the efficacy of this compound and to identify side effects before embarking on mass production of this promising drug.