Medicine in developed countries is not exclusively focused on the production of synthetic drugs and the research of synthetic compounds.
Teams of scientists around the world have discovered a very significant potential of natural preparations in the treatment of many serious diseases such as HIV, cancers, cardiovascular diseases, various types of bacteria, …
Many diseases have remained a mystery, although science has made great strides in discovering the factors that influence their occurrence. For that reason, scientists have directed their creativity in the direction of discovering the healing properties of already formed natural compounds. In the last 20 years, for that very reason, extensive medical studies and scientific research have been started with the aim of discovering the influence of natural compounds on our organism.
In the following texts, we will use information from these scientific studies for the purpose of finding a cure for various diseases.
All information is relevant and is collected from medical journals and professional medical literature or is the work of the authors of some medical research.

All about Labiofam S.A Cuba review

The LABIOFAM Biological and Pharmaceutical Laboratories Group established LABIOFAM SA on September 27, 1993. Since 1996, LABIOFAM Business Group products and services have been exported through various channels to over 95 nations around the world, in order to boost its production capacity. To improve animal, plant, and human health, LABIOFAM SA provides import and export services, employing scientists and engineers in laboratories and production facilities in addition to labor.

LABIOFAM Group provides environmental sanitation services as well as natural products, dietary supplements, biotechnological, pharmaceutical, agrochemical, chemical, and plastic containers. It markets imported items as well as natural goods.

LABIOFAM SA provides a wide variety of exportable products to its customers and commercial partners, including Vidatox 30CH, Biorat, and Natural Products, all of which have significant potential, as well as vector control programs, which have already been successfully implemented in many parts of the world.

International representatives Labiofam S.A

LABIOFAM currently has a total of 172 employees distributed in 13 countries: Angola, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Niger, Tanzania, Ecuador, China, Vietnam, Bolivia and Asia, represented in Commercial Programs Offices, Coordinators, Integrated Project Management, Branches, Administration Services and Representation Offices.

Through these channels, you can contact us and do business with us from anywhere in the world, do not miss the opportunity to become part of our family.

Export Labiofam S.A

Products that we commercialize: Bioproducts, Veterinary Products, Natural Products, Nutritional Supplements, Vimang Complex , Investments, joint projects.


  • Biolarvicides (Griselesf and Bactivec – In 20 L and 30 ml containers) and Biological Rodenticide (Biorat – bags of 4 kg and 50 gr) for the fight against vector-borne diseases.
  • Biofertilizers: Natural microorganisms to increase the growth of crops, which slow down the development of pathogens Phosphorine , Nitrofix , Bioenzyme , Dimargon , Azofert , Biofert , Azotoriza , Azomeg , Acestim , Biofosol B, Fertimang , Licomic , Ecomic , Phosphorine Plus-A, Phosphorine Plus-R, Bacterial Inoculant , Dimargón.
  • Biostimulants: Natural accelerators of plant growth.
  • Biofosol H, Dimabac , Biobras 16, ME-50, Fitomas -E, Tomaticid .
  • Biopesticides: Biodegradable natural controllers of pests and insects Tricosave 34,53 ; Thurisave 1 , 3,13 , 21,24, 25,26, Metasave , Vertisave , Basisave , Paecisave , Garrasave , Herbio , Klamic , Verticid , Nemacid , Gluticid , Blatisave , Bibisave .


  • Antimicrobials- Chemotherapy , Antiseptics, Disinfectants, Antiparasitics, Anesthetics, Tranquilizers, Neurostimulants , Parasympatholytic , Parasympatic-mimetics , Hormones, Vitamins, Mineral Salts, Nutritional Supplements, Solvents and Nutrients
  • Inactivated and live viral vaccines live and inactivated Bacterial vaccines, polyvalent, diagnostic reagents, therapeutic sera, viral and bacterial diagnostic means, and nutritional supplements.


  • Homeopathic Medicine – Vidatox – Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory-Complementary Cancer Therapy).


  • Ferrical – Dietary- natural supplement as a source of iron against anemia – for the treatment of diseases caused by deficit   of proteins – Increase Antiviral Activity
  • Yogurt Paradise (with probiotic action, antiseptic of the digestive system)


  • Nutrisol – Nutritional Restorative, Antianemic
  • Acitán – Antioxidant – Source of dietary fiber
  • Spirulina: Group of Nutritional Supplements. Improve the levels of proteins, vitamins and minerals, healing
  • Asmacán – Antiasthmatic , Bronchodilator, anticatarral- expectorant Complex
  • Vimang New Cream, With Aloe- Antioxidant, Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory, Immune- regulator, Antiangiogenic
  • Vimang – Concentrated Extract
  • Vimang Syrup


  • Natural products for the skin (nourishing creams, anti-wrinkle, astringent)
  • Plants in vitro.


  • Investment for the modernization of the LABIOFAM production plants in the country.


  • Marketing of products of other companies through representation contracts.
  • Creation of mixed companies for the construction of plants with LABIOFAM technology in the Mariel Special Zone.
  • Joint Biotechnology Research Projects


  • Countries of Central and South America, Africa, Asia, Europe.

Import of Labiofam

Products that we commercialize:

  • Medicines and veterinary accessories.
  • Pharmaceutical raw materials.
  • Chemical raw materials.
  • Reagents and diagnostic kits.
  • Equipment and machinery (pharmaceutical, industrial and transport).
  • assembly and packing.
  • Essences and flavors.
  • Equipment and spare parts for the industry.

Biological therapies for cancer application research

Biological therapy uses living organisms, substances from living organisms or synthetic versions of such substances to treat cancer.

Some types of biological therapy use the natural ability of the immune system to detect and destroy cancer cells, while other types directly target cancer cells.

Biological therapies include monoclonal antibodies, cytokines, therapeutic vaccines, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin bacteria, viruses that kill cancer cells, gene therapy, and adopted T lymphocyte transmission.

Side effects of biological therapies can vary depending on the type of treatment, but reactions at the site of application are quite common with these treatments.

What is biological therapy?

Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms or laboratory-produced versions of such substances for the treatment of disease. Some biological cancer therapies stimulate the body’s immune system to act against cancer cells. These types of biological therapies, sometimes collectively referred to as “immunotherapy,” do not directly attack cancer cells. Other biological therapies, such as antibodies, attack directly cancer cells . Biological therapies that interfere with certain molecules involved in tumor growth and evolution are also called targeted therapies.

For cancer patients, biologic therapies can be used to treat the cancer itself or the side effects of other cancer treatments. Although many forms of biological therapy have already been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), others are still experimental and available to cancer patients primarily through participation in clinical trials (research studies involving humans).

What is the immune system?

Immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, organs and matter that they produce. It helps the body fight infections and other diseases.

White blood cells or leukocytes are primarily involved in the responses of the immune system. These cells perform many tasks necessary to protect the body from microbes and abnormal cells that cause disease.

Some types of leukocytes roam the circulatory system in search of foreign invaders and diseased, damaged or dead cells. These white blood cells provide a general – or non-specific – type of immune protection.

Other types of white blood cells, known as lymphocytes, provide targeted protection against certain threats, either from a specific microbe or from a diseased or abnormal cell. The most important groups of lymphocytes responsible for these specific immune responses are B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes.

B cells produce antibodies, which are large secreted proteins that bind to foreign intruders or abnormal cells and help destroy them.

Other types of lymphocytes and leukocytes have supporting functions to ensure that B cells and cytotoxic T cells do their job efficiently. These support cells include helper T lymphocytes and dendritic cells, which help activate both B lymphocytes and cytotoxic T lymphocytes and facilitate their response to specific microbial threats or diseased or abnormal cells.

Antigens are substances in the body that accompany their own cells and microbes that can be recognized by the immune system as harmful to our body. Normal cells in the body have antigens that identify them as “themselves”. Self antigens tell the immune system that normal cells do not pose a threat and should be ignored. In contrast, the immune system recognizes microbes as a possible threat that must be destroyed because they carry foreign antigens or they are not theirs. Cancer cells also often contain antigens, called tumor antigens, that are not present (or are present in lower concentrations) in normal cells.

Can the immune system attack cancer?

The natural ability of the immune system to detect and destroy abnormal cells probably prevents or suppresses the formation of many cancers. Immune cells can sometimes be found in or near tumors. These cells, called lymphocytes that infiltrate the tumor or TIL, are an indication that the immune system is responding to mutated cells. The presence of TIL in a patient’s tumor is often associated with a better patient treatment outcome.

However, cancer cells have a number of ways to avoid detection and destruction by the immune system. For example, cancer cells can:

They undergo genetic changes that reduce the expression of tumor antigens on their surface, making them less “visible” to the immune system.

They have proteins on their surface that inactivate immune cells.

They induce normal cells around the tumor (i.e. in the microenvironment of the tumor) to release substances that suppress the immune response and that promote cell proliferation and tumor survival.

Immunotherapy uses several methods to strengthen the immune system and / or help to overcome cancer defense against the immune system. The goal is to improve the ability of the immune system to detect and destroy cancer.

What types of biological therapies are used to treat cancer?

Several types of biological therapies, especially immunotherapy, are used or formulated to treat cancer. These therapies fight cancer in different ways.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors

How do they work? This type of immunotherapy releases the “brake” of the immune system, which usually prevents excessively strong immune reactions that could damage normal cells as well as abnormal cells. This brake involves proteins on the surface of T lymphocytes called immune checkpoint proteins. When immune checkpoint proteins recognize specific accompanying proteins in other cells, a shutdown signal is sent telling T lymphocytes not to trigger an immune response against those cells.

Two proteins that have been studied very extensively are PD-1 and CTLA-4. Some tumor cells express high concentrations of the accompanying PD-1 protein PD-L1, which causes T lymphocytes to “shut down” and help cancer cells avoid immune destruction. Also, interactions between B7 protein on cell antigen and CTLA-4 are expressed in T cells to prevent other T cells from destroying cells, including cancer cells.

Drugs called immune checkpoints (or modulators of immune checkpoints) prevent the interaction between immune checkpoint proteins and their accompanying proteins, facilitating a strong immune response. The current targets of checkpoint inhibitors are PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4.

How to use:

immune checkpoint inhibitors are approved for the treatment of various types of cancer, including skin cancer, non – lung cancer, small cell lung cancer, bladder cancer, head and neck cancer, liver cancer, Hodgkin ‘s lymphoma, renal cell carcinoma (kidney cancer type) and gastric cancer. An immune checkpoint inhibitor, pembrolizumab (Keitruda®), is used to treat any solid tumor that has high microsatellite instability or cannot be removed surgically. Another immune checkpoint inhibitor, nivolumab (Opdivo®), is used to treat repair abnormalities and major microsatellite instability and metastatic colon cancer that has progressed after treatment with fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan.

Immune cell therapy (also called adopted cell therapy or adopted immunotherapy)

How does it work? This method allows the patient’s own immune cells to attack tumors. There are two methods of cell therapy used to treat cancer. Both involve collecting the patient’s immune cells, multiplying a large number of these cells in the laboratory, and bringing the cells back into the patient.

Lymphocytes that infiltrate the tumor (or TIL). This method uses T lymphocytes that are naturally found in the patient’s tumor, called tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). TILs that best recognize a patient’s tumor cells in laboratory tests are selected, and these cells are grown in large numbers in the laboratory. The cells are then activated by treatment with signaling proteins of the immune system called cytokines and injected into the patient’s bloodstream.

The idea behind this method is that TILs have already shown the ability to target tumor cells, but there may not be enough of them in the tumor microenvironment to destroy the tumor or overcome the suppressive immune signals that the tumor emits. The introduction of huge amounts of activated TILs can help overcome these barriers.

T and CAR cell therapy

This method is similar, but the patient’s T cells are genetically modified in the laboratory to express a protein known as a chimeric antigen receptor or CAR, before being grown and injected into the patient. CARs are modified forms of a protein called the T-cell receptor, which is expressed on the surface of T-cells. CARs are designed to allow T cells to adhere to certain proteins on the surface of a patient’s cancer cells, which improves his ability to attack cancer cells.

Before receiving expanded T cells, patients also undergo a procedure called lymphatic depletion, which consists of a round of chemotherapy and, in some cases, whole-body radiation. Lymphatic depletion kills other immune cells that can interfere with the efficiency of incoming T cells.

How to use? The adopted T cell transfer was first studied for the treatment of metastatic melanoma because melanomas often cause a significant immune response, with many TILs. The use of activated TILs has been effective for some patients with melanoma and has given encouraging positive results in other cancers (e.g., cervical squamous cell carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma).

Two T and CAR lymphocyte therapies were approved. Tisagenlecleucel (Kimriah ™) is approved for the treatment of some adults and children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who do not respond to other treatments and for the treatment of adults with some types of non-Hodgkin’s B-cell lymphoma who have not responded or relapsed in at least two other treatments. In clinical studies, many cancer patients have completely disappeared, and several of these patients have been without cancer for a long time. Ciloleucel akicabtagene (Iescarta () is approved for patients with certain types of non-Hodgkin B cells who have not responded or have relapsed after at least two other treatments. Both therapies involve modifying the patient’s own immune cells.

Therapeutic antibodies

How do they work? Therapeutic antibodies are laboratory-made antibodies that are designed to kill cancer cells. They are a type of cancer-targeted therapy – drugs specifically designed to interact with a specific molecule (or “molecular target”) necessary for cancer cell growth.

Therapeutic antibodies work in many different ways:

They can interfere with a key signaling process that promotes cancer growth and alerts the immune system to destroy cancer cells to which antibodies bind. An example is trastuzumab (Herceptin), which binds to a protein in cancer cells called HER2.

Adherence to the target protein can directly lead to the transition of cancer cells to apoptosis. Examples of this type of therapeutic antibody are rituximab (Ritukan®) and ofatumumab (Arzerra®), which attack a protein on the surface of B lymphocytes called CD20. Similarly, alemtuzumab (Campath®) binds to a protein on the surface of mature lymphocytes called CD52.

They can be bound to a toxic substance that kills the cancer cells to which the antibody binds. A toxic substance can be a poison, such as a bacterial toxin; small molecule drug; a light-sensitive chemical compound (used in photoimmunotherapy); or a radioactive compound used in radioimmunotherapy). Antibodies of this type are sometimes called antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs). Examples of ADCs used for cancer are ado-trastuzumab emtansine, ado-trastuzumab emtasine (Kadcila®), which is taken and destroyed by cancer cells that express HER2 on their surface, and brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris®), which are absorbed by lymphoma cells that surfaces express CD30 and destroy them.

They can bring activated T lymphocytes closer to cancer cells. For example, the therapeutic antibody blinatumomab (Blincito®) binds both to CD19, a tumor-associated antigen that is overexpressed on the surface of leukemia cells, and to CD3, a glycoprotein on the surface of T cells that is part of the T lymphocyte receptor. Blinatumomab contacts leukemia cells with T lymphocytes, resulting in activation of T lymphocytes and cytotoxic T lymphocytes against CD19-expressing leukemia cells.

Other immunotherapies combine other molecules of the immune system (which are not antibodies) and substances that destroy cancer. For example, denileucine diphthytox (ONTAK®) contains interleukin-2 (IL-2) bound to a toxin produced by the bacterium Corinebacterium diphtheria, which causes diphtheria. Denileukin diphtheria uses its share of IL-2 to attack cancer cells that have IL-2 receptors on their surface, allowing the diphtheria toxin to destroy them.

How are they used? Many therapeutic antibodies are approved for the treatment of a wide range of cancers.

Therapeutic vaccines

How do they work? Cancer vaccines are designed to treat existing cancers by strengthening the body’s natural defenses against cancer. The purpose is to slow or stop the growth of cancer cells; to shrink the tumor; stopping the recurrence of cancer; destruction of cancer cells that are not killed by other forms of treatment.

The purpose of cancer vaccines is to introduce one or more cancer antigens into the body that cause an immune response that eventually destroys the cancer cells.

Vaccines for the treatment of cancer can be made from the patient’s own cells (that is, they are modified in such a way as to create an immune response to characteristics that are unique to the patient’s specific tumor) or from substances (antigens) produced by certain types of tumors. , they generate an immune response in each patient whose tumor produces antigen).

The first FDA-approved cancer vaccine, sipuleucel-T (Provenge®), is tailored for each patient. It is designed to stimulate the immune response to prostate acid phosphatase (PAP), an antigen found in most prostate cancer cells. The vaccine is made by isolating immune cells called dendritic cells, which are a type of antigen-presenting cell (APC), from a patient’s blood. These cells are sent to a vaccine manufacturer, where they are grown together with a protein called PAP-GM-CSF. . This protein consists of PAPs associated with a protein called granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), which stimulates the immune system and improves antigen presentation.

Cells representing antigens cultured PAP-GM-CSF are the active component of sipuleucel-T. These cells are injected into the patient. Although the exact mechanism of action of sipuleucel-T is not known, APC cells that have occupied PAP-GM-CSF appear to stimulate T lymphocytes of the immune system to kill PAP-expressing tumor cells.

The first FDA-approved oncolytic viral therapy, talimogen laherparepvec (T-VEC or Imligic®), is also considered a type of vaccine. It is based on the herpes simplex virus type 1 and includes a gene that encodes GM-CSF. Although this oncolytic virus can infect both cancer cells and normal cells, normal cells have mechanisms to destroy the virus, while cancer cells do not. T-ECV is injected directly into the tumor. As the virus replicates, it causes the cancer cells to explode and die. Dying cells release new viruses, GM-CSF and various tumor-specific antigens. They can stimulate an immune response against cancer cells throughout the body.

How are they used? Sipuleucel-T is used to treat prostate cancer that has metastasized in men who have few or no symptoms and whose cancer is hormone resistant (does not respond to hormonal treatment). ECV-T is used to treat some patients with metastatic melanoma that cannot be removed surgically.

Substances that modulate the immune system

How do they work? Substances that modulate immunity strengthen the body’s immune response against cancer. These substances include proteins that usually help regulate or modulate the activity of the immune system, microbes and drugs.

Cytokines These signaling proteins are naturally produced by white blood cells. They help mediate and fine-tune immune responses, inflammation and hematopoiesis (formation of new blood cells). There are two types of cytokines used to treat cancer patients: Interferon Interferons (INF) and Interleukins (IL). The third type, called hematopoietic growth factor, is used to control some of the side effects of some chemotherapy regimens.

The researchers found that one type of interferon, interferon-α, can improve a patient’s immune response to cancer cells by activating some white blood cells, such as natural killer cells and dendritic cells. Interferon-α can also inhibit the growth of cancer cells or accelerate their death.

Researchers have identified more than a dozen different interleukins, including interleukin-2, also called T-cell growth factor. Interleukin-2 is naturally produced by activated T cells. It increases the proliferation of white blood cells, including cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells, resulting in a better immune response against cancer. Interleukin-2 also facilitates the production of antibodies by B lymphocytes for further attack on cancer cells.

Hematopoietic growth factors are a special class of natural cytokines. They promote the growth of different populations of blood cells that are depleted by chemotherapy. Erythropoietin stimulates the production of red blood cells, and interleukin-11 increases platelet production. Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) stimulate lymphocyte growth, reducing the risk of infection.

Granulocyte colony stimulating factor and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor may also enhance specific anticancer responses of the immune system by increasing the number of cancer-fighting T lymphocytes.

Bacillus of Calmette-Guerin (BCG). The weakened form of live TB bacteria does not cause disease in humans. It was first used in medicine as a vaccine against tuberculosis. When inserted directly into the bladder with a catheter, the Calmette-Guerin bacillus stimulates a general immune response that is directed not only at the foreign bacteria themselves but also at the bladder cancer cells. The exact mechanism of this anticancer effect is not well understood, but treatment is effective.

Immunomodulatory drugs (also called biological response modifiers). These drugs are powerful modulators of the body’s immune system. They include thalidomide (Thalomid®); lenalidomide (Revlimid®) and pomalidomide (Pomalist®), thalidomide derivatives having a similar structure and function; and imiquimod (Aldara®, Ziclara®).

It is not entirely clear how thalidomide and its two derivatives stimulate the immune system, but they promote the secretion of IL-2 from cells and inhibit the ability of tumors to form new blood vessels that support their growth (a process called angiogenesis). Imiquimod is a cream that is applied to the skin. It causes cells to release cytokines, especially INF-α, IL-6 and TNF-α (a molecule that participates in inflammation).

How are they used? Most substances that modulate the immune system are used to treat advanced cancer. Some are used as part of a support scheme. For example, recombinant and biologically similar forms of GM-CSF and G-CSF are used in combination with other immunotherapies to boost the immune response against cancer by stimulating white blood cell growth.

What are the side effects of biological therapies?

The side effects of biologic therapies generally reflect immune system stimulation and may vary according to the type of therapy and the way individual patients respond to it.

However, pain, inflammation, irritation, redness of the skin, itching and rash at the site of infusion or injection are quite common with these treatments. They can also cause a variety of flu-like symptoms, including fever, chills, weakness, dizziness, nausea or vomiting, muscle or joint pain, fatigue, headaches, occasional shortness of breath, and high or low blood pressure. Some immunotherapies that trigger an immune system reaction also cause a risk of hypersensitivity reactions (allergies), even fatal ones.

Long-term side effects (especially immune checkpoint inhibitors) include autoimmune syndromes and acute onset diabetes.

Possible serious side effects of immunotherapy are:

Immune checkpoint inhibitors

Reactions that damage organs caused by immune activity and include the digestive system, liver, skin, nervous system, heart and glands that produce hormones. These reactions can cause pneumonitis, colitis, hepatitis, nephritis and renal failure, myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle), hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

Immune cell therapy

Cytokine release syndrome (CAR and T cell therapy)

Capillary leak syndrome (TIL therapy)

Therapeutic antibodies and other immune system molecules

Cytokine release syndrome (blinatumomab)

Infusion reactions, capillary leakage syndrome and poor visual acuity (denileucine diphthotox)

Therapeutic vaccines

Flu-like symptoms

Severe allergic reaction

Stroke (sipuleucel-T)

Tumor lysis syndrome, herpes viral infection (T-VEC)

Immune system modulators

Flu-like symptoms, severe allergic reaction, low blood counts, changes in blood chemistry, organ damage (cytokines)

Flu-like symptoms, severe allergic reaction, urinary side effects (BCG)

Serious birth defects if taken during pregnancy, blood clots, venous embolism, neuropathy (thalidomide, lenalidomide, pomalidomide)

Skin reactions (imiquimod)

What are the current research on cancer immunotherapy?

Researchers are focusing on several important fields to improve the effectiveness of cancer immunotherapy, including:

Methods for overcoming resistance to cancer immunotherapy. Researchers are testing combinations of different immune checkpoint inhibitors, as well as immune checkpoint inhibitors in combination with a wide range of other immunotherapies, molecularly targeted cancer therapies and radiation, as ways to overcome therapeutic drug resistance. Tumors on immunotherapy.

Identification of biomarkers that predict response to immunotherapy. Not everyone receiving immunotherapy will respond to treatment. Identification of biomarkers that predict the response is the main field of research.

Identification of new cancer-related antigens – so-called neoantigens – that may be more effective in stimulating immune responses than known antigens.

Non-invasive strategies for isolating immune cells that respond to tumors that express neoantigens.

Understand better the mechanisms by which cancer cells avoid or suppress the immune response against cancer. A better understanding of how cancer cells manipulate the immune system could lead to the formulation of drugs that block these processes.

Proximity to infrared photoimmunotherapy. This method uses infrared light to activate targeted destruction of cancer cells in the body (December 14-14).

Where can I find information on immunotherapy clinical trials?

In clinical trials, they are evaluated and approved by the FDA and experimental immunotherapy for certain types of cancer. Descriptions of ongoing clinical trials examining the types of immunotherapy in cancer patients can be found in the List of Cancer Clinical Trials on the NCI website. The NCL clinical trial list includes all NCI-sponsored clinical trials conducted in the United States and Canada, including at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, Maryland. For information in English on other ways to search the list, see Help Find NCI-Supported Clinical Trials.

Otherwise, call the NCI Contact Center at 1-800-422-6237 (1-800-4-RAK) for information on clinical trials of immunotherapies.

Seaweed contains anti-cancer compounds

Several international studies have reported that some types of seaweed and their extracts have the ability to affect cancerous diseases.
The most famous study from Brazil, the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte and its scientists, found polysaccharides from the seagrass Sargassum Vulgare that inhibited some of the tumors of angiogenesis, more precisely the development of tumors caused by the growth of new blood vessels.

These compounds have also been found to inhibit HeLa cell lineage. HeLa cells are a species found in Henrite Lax’s body in 1951.

Researchers also confirmed these results in a study by researchers from Putra University in Malaysia. This study showed that the red moxa grass Eucheuma cottonii and the extract of this morxa grass successfully stop the spread of breast cancer even better than the drug tamoxifen. Scientists did a study on mice. The study also proved that there are no side effects and negative effects on the kidneys and liver, only one of the negative effects of the drug used in tamoxifen chemotherapy.

The anti-carcinogenic effects of seaweed have also been shown to be accurate in human studies. In February, Japanese Red Cross researchers Kyoto Daiichi reported that zeaxanthin, along with other seaweed carotenoids, reduced the chance of cancer in adult Japanese.
Researchers from Kyushu University in Japan had confirmed that when they treated human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 with fucoids obtained from brown seaweed – the growth of cancer cells is stopped.

Doctors also found another effect of fucoids in this study, and that is their ability to change the membrane of cancer cells and mitochondria, as well as to change the flow of ions through the membrane.

This supports the release of cytochrome CI BD-2 towards the destruction of the cancer cell.
Researchers from the South Korean College of Veterinary Medicine have found that fucoids inhibit the metastasis of A549 colon cancer. A549 cells are one of the most aggressive forms of colon cancer cells. The mechanism seen in this study is that fucoid reduces the MMP-2 activity of cancer cells.
The researchers found that fucoids could be considered a potential therapeutic compound against metastasis and invasion of human colon cancer.

Liposomal supplements and their application

Although many people have received information about liposomal supplements, most of them still think about whether they are just propaganda or really exist. And! We tell you they are genuine. Take, for example, Liposomal vitamin C, about whom so much has been said. It is assimilated up to 5 times more successfully than any other form of vitamin C. Liposomal goods are compressed in a fatty substance that surrounds it and makes it additionally soluble in fat and freely assimilated from the stomach area. Glutathione is another good example of liposomal goods. Glutathione is the main antioxidant of the human body, and the liposomal formula of this product quickly moves the substance where it is needed by avoiding the course of digestion.

What is a liposome?

Liposomes are small ball-shaped particles made of two molecules that form a thick layer of fat covering the water cabin. In other words, these are minimal, fat-soluble modes of transport for transporting nutrients to the cells of the body. The liposomal examination was published by Dr. Alec Banham of the Babraham Institute in Cambridge, UK.


Liposomal encapsulation technology

Liposomal encapsulation technology is a state-of-the-art distribution technique used by medical researchers to relocate medications that act by healing the body’s tissues. This distribution scheme method offers targeted transfer of dynamic composites to the body. It has existed since the early 1970s. Due to the extraordinary transferable competence of LET, several creators of moisturizers and beauty products (which are applied directly to a part of the body) have supported it. Due to the amazing results and benefits obtained from Liposomal Technology, many nutrition companies currently apply this method in the oral distribution of dietary supplements. The advantage is that it allows the nutrient to transport compact and non-decomposed natural compounds to certain tissues and structures. Ensuring that the limited doses are five to fifteen times less than the usual consumption of supplements, the distribution scheme’s efficiency has not changed.

This reduction is significant both therapeutically and in terms of cost reduction. It may not be appropriate to mention here that the normal transition of tablets and capsules and the localized deportation of substances that provide nutrition are affected by humidity, oxygen, and other inappropriate determinants. The substances may be classified according to the presence of enzymes (present in the esophagus’s oral and digestive fluids) that precede their assimilation into the body. Moreover, the materials used to hold things together, protective materials, gelatin, and sugars, are, in fact, preservatives that affect the assimilation procedure. This incomplete assimilation produced by inadequate fragmentation of tablets or capsules is a careful obstacle. However, LET frees the fortification of materials from worrying and aggressive consequences, which are expected to appear in the digestive tract. This is because Liposomal Encapsulation engages phospholipid liposomes to build protection that repels the negative effects of gastrointestinal fluids, alkaline solutions, salts, and free radicals of the body. The interval of this defense lasts from when the nutrients are directed to the digestive tract when the substances touch the tissue that receives them and when they are instantly drawn in by the cell arrangements and relocated to the intracellular zone.


The main part of the liposome in LET is made of phospholipids. All body cells are surrounded by a defense membrane that contains phospholipids. Phospholipids are needed by the body to develop and perform their functions. A crucial part of LET is PC liposomes, which function as regions to which condensed supplements are delivered. Liposomes are available in various dimensions, which are determined by how they are prepared. Their dimensions can range from micrometers to nanometers. Their assembly is such that they can have one plane, a binary plane, or several planes. A reduced liposome is more valuable for protecting shipments and passing through the human body than larger liposomes; the thinner the liposome, the longer its life and the greater its persistence. There are various techniques for formulating liposomes. The main method used to transmit food by mouth is an automated brand. The three main arrangements for assembling a mechanical planning procedure are:

  • Extrusion
  • Micro-fluidization
  • Sonication

All mixtures, including chemicals and liposomes, will eventually disintegrate through diet. The full status of liposomal expertise should use liposomes smaller than 200 nanometers with a structure consisting of two planes and Phosphatidylcholine. Eggs and soy are the most common resources and must be kept at room temperature, out of refrigeration. An outstanding illustration of LET’s subordination to life is vitamin C. Vitamin C is also referred to by some as a miraculous antioxidant because of its ability to dissolve and neutralize free radicals. In case a larger amount is needed, it is useful to inject vitamin C intravenously so that more of it is assimilated into the blood and tissues. When consumed orally, only 10 to 15 percent of vitamin C is used because its assimilation is suppressed in the gastrointestinal tract. LET technology has instantly improved and restructured the transfer of vitamin C into cells. So far, this is an unsurpassed way for vitamin C to gain access to the hepatic system in its healthy state. PC liposomes protect vitamin C from damage caused by enzymes and gastric fluid in the gastrointestinal system. As soon as they enter the body, PC liposomes move through the small intestine effortlessly and without stimulation. Liposomes transport the system to the liver in a comprehensive form and are equipped to empty their contents. PC liposomes in the liver are scattered. Polyunsaturated Phosphatidylcholine is swallowed by liver cells while releasing trapped vitamin C. When you use liposomal encapsulated vitamin C orally, the amount of vitamin C in the cell system increases without any indication of harmful effects such as abdominal pain, urine output, and any additional burden on the liver, which is to be commended.

Benefits of liposomal artemisinin

liposomalna tehnologija

Technologically advanced liposomal preparations have suitable properties as drug transporters by intravenous and intramuscular methods. They are great in terms of element dimensions, distribution, encapsulation value, and other useful things. Their somatic and biochemical stability was also assessed. Moreover, in experimentation (using the whole living organism), the antimalarial effect of artemisinin-based liposomal preparations was substantiated in mice with Plasmodium bergei NK-65, a suitable prototype for malaria monitoring because this infection provides mechanical, functional, and cycle-like human diseases. Unaccompanied artemisinin, or the same fused with curcumin, was condensed into conservative PEGylated liposomes, and their overall effects (on living subjects) were evaluated as a contrast to unrestricted preparation. Mice were given artemisinin in an amount of 50 mg per kilogram of body weight per day, without supplements or only with curcumin as an additional drug, given in 100 mg per kilogram of body weight per day. Artemisinin began to reduce the levels of parasites that can be detected in the blood only a week after the treatment. It seemed to have an oscillating tendency in the blood concentration, which proved antimalarial efficacy.

In comparison, the use of conservative liposomes loaded with artemisinin (A-CL), conservative liposomes loaded artemisinin and curcumin (AC-CL), PEGylated liposomes loaded with artemisinin (A-PL), PEGylated liposomes loaded with artemisinin and curcumin (AC-PL) gave the impression of immediate results that opposed malaria. Both nano-condensed artemisinin and artemisinin mixed with curcumin cured mice (infected with malaria) within the equivalent post-injection time. All preparations showed a smaller amount of discrepancy in the plasma concentrations of artemisinin, which tells us that A-CL, AC-CL, A-PL, and AC-PL provided altered drug discharge and, as a result, there was a continuous result that counteracted malaria. In particular, A-PL has been shown to contribute to malaria’s most noticeable and satisfactory treatment effects in this mouse archetype. The improved endurance of A-PL in the blood imposes the use of these nanosystems as suitable inert-directed transporters for growing infections; this robust effect of the formulation is added to the mechanism of action of artemisinin, which acts in the erythrocyte cycle phase in humans as a blood schizonticide (an agent that selectively damages the sporozoan parasite cell). The predominant herbal treatment Artemisinin (also known as sweet wormwood), has been used by the Chinese population for many centuries. It has also gained recognition in the experimental control of drug-resistant falciparum malaria. Artemisia is a modest plant that grows in Southeast Asia and treats intestinal leeches. The World Health Organization has already declared it a harmless medicine against malaria.

In addition to the above, it has proven to be useful in the fight against malignancy. According to research studies, the realization with this plant relies on the fact that malignant cells and malaria parasites store iron, often collecting a thousand times more additional iron than normal cells would store. Artemisinin has two oxygen atoms that can separate in the presence of this amount of iron and consequently produce very sensitive free radicals that are introduced to destroy malaria parasites and many malignant cells. Treatment of individuals (suffering from malignancy) destroys these abnormal cells with artemisinin. However, normal cells remain unaltered. This remarkable ability to target malignant cells makes Artemisinin an exceptional trap driven by malignancy. Artemisinin represents (to those who suffer from some malignancy) the probability of using a non-lethal drug that is not only economical but also widely available. Artemisinin has an incredible safety contour, it should definitely be considered medicine when the usual treatments prove unsuccessful in providing results.

It should also be unquestionably used in people who suffer from malignancy but unwaveringly refuse to receive conventional treatments. Artemisinin is currently undergoing research and analysis to treat malignant cells, and certain Chinese researchers also present that artemisinin provided significant effects on hepatoma cells in humans. Artemisinin has also been shown to reduce the development of blood vessels and the manifestation of vascular endothelial growth factor in several tissues. Later, the pharmacological substance confirmed that a branch (derivative) of artemisinin, called dihydroartemisinin, has the ability to target human secondary malignancies located at a distance from the primary site of the melanoma.

The story of Donald, the mechanic:

Forty-seven-year-old mechanic Donald was quite healthy when he had to seek a herbalist’s advice when he freshly identified a horrible bulge (egg size). When the biopsy was performed, it turned out to be lymphoma. The herbalist immediately put him on therapy with a branch (derivative) of this Artemisinin plant and advised him to use it for two weeks. After two weeks, a slight reduction in the middle appeared on the bulge, but the border developed marginally. Disappointed that the bulge did not degenerate significantly, the mechanic decided to stop using this preparation. After one month, the herbalist received a mechanic call, who told him the good news that the tumor had disappeared completely.

The concept of liposomal vitamin C.

As we all know, Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) is one of the most recognized antioxidants worldwide. This essential food of health plays a decisive role in serving our body’s resistance system.

Liposomal vitamin C is a high-tech innovation in nutrient absorption and represents an incredible health compensation.
Liposomal vitamin C is packaged as a body cell to pass through the digestive barrier and deliver nutrients directly into the bloodstream. This has a much higher absorption rate, with about 90% of cells bathed in vitamin C. Some experts suggest that liposomal vitamin C is vastly superior to vitamin IV yield– an expensive but effective procedure performed quite often in hospitals and alternative health clinics. The dimensions of liposomes are important to a large extent when we talk about their ability to accept the highest vitamin C measures. The exact dimensions should be between 100 – 400 nanometers and must be verified by the FDA control authority to guarantee protection and value.

The best transporters for liposomal vitamin C are phosphatidylcholines, which help attach liposomes. The perfect amounts should be between 250-500mg PC for each dose in a liposomal vitamin C formulation. This phosphatidylcholine should be derived from non-genetically modified sunflower or soy lecithin.

Benefits of liposomal vitamin C.

Since vitamin C is essential for healthier eyes, many authorities accept that the intake of even 1,000 mg of liposomal vitamin C a day can stop cataracts.

Liposomal vitamin C has medicinal properties.

Use of liposomal vitamin C to treat pneumonia

Alan Smith, a New Zealand agricultural worker dedicated to the majority of processes and methods related to milk, butter, and cheese production, got swine flu when he was on vacation in Fiji. When he returned home, the flu quickly progressed to severe pneumonia, which caused him to lose consciousness and why he had to be placed in intensive care. A lung scan showed that his lungs were absolutely filled with fluid. Three weeks later, Alan’s doctor questioned his relatives about whether they were allowed to turn off the appliances and let him die. Alan’s son-in-law (with little information about medicine) convinced the doctors to try to inject a larger amount of vitamin C intravenously into Alan. Initially, doctors refused but had to give in after Alan’s three sons persuaded them to inject vitamin D into their father. As a result, they decided to give Vitamin C to Alan unsafely and with much doubt. So Alan received 25 grams of vitamin C intravenously in the evening and an additional 25 grams the next morning.

The next day, a CT scan of Alan’s lungs showed increased air movement, and after a few days, a radiograph showed air progress. A clear recovery was noticeable. On the other hand, doctors rejected the idea that vitamin C brought recovery, and as an alternative, they attributed the credit for the recovery to rotating the patient face down. Almost immediately after the IV injection of vitamin C, Alan was transferred from the breathing apparatus and started inhaling with his own lungs. Despite this, another consultant doctor suddenly sneezed, assumed that control of the case had been established, and discontinued vitamin IV C. Alan Smith’s condition quickly deteriorated to the point that his wife appealed for a consultation with this doctor who did not want to continue with vitamin C. But he had to give up when, once again, Alan’s sons insisted on vitamin IV. The doctor reluctantly continued to take vitamin C but only in small doses of one gram a day.

Alan began to recover and was finally relocated to a hospital that was closer to his home (although he was breathing with the help of a respirator). Alan’s relatives had to go through another conflict with another doctor, who again discontinued vitamin C therapy. This time the family reached for a legal representative who sent a warning letter to the hospital. The hospital was forced to continue with vitamin C, but again, in small amounts. As a final result, Alan could sit on the bed and be transferred to take fluids by mouth. However, based on their personal judgment, the relatives provided their father with 6 grams of vitamin C a day, which he took orally. This vitamin was in the form of an extremely easily digestible type known as Lipo-spherical vitamin C.

Alan endured until his recovery and was sent home from the hospital. At home, Alan’s neighbor John teased him that he owed him $ 15, which he paid for his suit’s dry cleaning, which he intended for Alan’s funeral.

Use of liposomal vitamin C to treat malignancy

Among malignancies, breast malignancy is the most common cause of death in women, accounting for about 1.5% of all deaths (Murthy and Aleyamma 2004).
Currently, there is progress in the health benefits of anti malignant mediators with a reduction in secondary adverse effects. The transportation of drugs to the end site fundamentally uses new expertise, e.g., Nanotechnology, in medicine. (Brigger et al., 2002). Consequently, it may be a solitary technique to consume a tumor-explicit effect with fewer side effects and less damage to biological cells. A wide range of nanotransporters for anti-cancer drug cargoes is used to combat drug resistance (Martin 2009), e.g., Drug-loaded liposomes (Sells et al., 1987; Cowens et al., 1993), polymeric nanosphere, polymeric nanocapsules (Couvreur 2001), compact nanolipides, and nanoparticles capable of magnetizing (Muller and Keck, 2004). For the aforementioned reasons, artemisinin was inserted into liposomes (A, form) and into the artemisinin slit in a pegylated liposome (B, form) to analyze their utility for breast cancer cell line, which is MCF-7. Effects of artemisinin liposomes (A) and artemisinin liposome polyethylene glycol 20000 (B) the breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) were considered. Zetasizer defined the thickness of the nanoparticles of both A and B. The Zetasizer Nano Z system is dedicated to quantifying zeta capacity and electrophoretic motion in aqueous and non-aqueous diffusions using Laser Doppler Micro-Electrophoresis (motion of distributed particles comparable to a liquid under the effect of a structurally unchanging electric field).

The result

The involvement of nano transporters in drug distribution (e.g., nanoliposomes) plays a vital role in raising drugs’ beneficial manifestation.

(Int. J. LifeSc. Bt & Pharm. Crisp. 2013 Azim AkbarzadehISSN 2250-3137
Vol. 2, no. 1, January 2013)

Chemotherapy and vaccines are a lie

In an exclusive interview, the celebrated American publicist Edward Griffin reveals why official medicine hides the real cure for cancer. There are no malignant diseases globally, and how dangerous vaccination is.

American writer and publicist Edward Griffin (81) thought it would take him three weeks, and it took him three years of research work to write the controversial book “A World Without Cancer”.

In this work, the author thoroughly proves that the cause of cancer is not viruses or mysterious toxins but a simple lack of one nutrient – vitamin B17.
Opposing the official pharmaceutical policy, which, according to him, has been skillfully hiding the real cure for cancer from the public for the last 30 years, Griffin points out that today more people earn their living on cancer than die from it.

In search of an answer to this question and why the placing of vitamin B17 on the market is banned in America, we are talking to Griffin, who arrived in Belgrade to promote the book “A World Without Cancer,” finally translated into Serbian.

– It is indeed difficult for people to believe what I have written, but it does not surprise me at all. Well, in the 19th. For centuries, scientists thought that sailors’ scurvy resulted from the bite of mysterious beetles from below decks. Later, of course, it turned out that the cause of this disease was actually a lack of vitamin C. – explains in an exclusive interview this celebrated California publicist known for dealing with various topics in his works, including terrorism, subversion, but also archeology and history.

How did you come up with the idea to write this book?

– It all started by accident. And that’s because my friend Dr. Richardson started using it at a clinic in San Francisco about thirty years ago, vitamin B17 (which in its purified form is called laetrile or amygdalin) in the treatment of cancer patients. It all happened after the famous biochemist Ernst T. Kreb raised dust in public by wanting to place this drug on the market, stating that cancer is actually a deficiency disease, more precisely a disorder in metabolism caused by a lack of vitamin B17 in the diet.

However, your friend first tried the medicine on his dog; who had cancer?

– True, the dog recovered. After that, Richardson started using this medicine in his patients’ therapy. He first tried it on his head sister’s wife, to whom all the doctors gave a maximum of two or three weeks of life. After taking lateral, he fully recovered.

How did it come about that the drug was banned in the United States?

– After the patients who recovered started spreading the story about the medicine, it did not help anyone. Especially not too large pharmacy cartels and the administration of official medicine. You guessed it, primarily because of making a lot of money from selling cytostatics. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) called vitamin B17 a common scam and banned its marketing.

Where can vitamin B17 be found in foods?

– It is a natural chemotherapeutic agent that can be found in more than 1,200 plants. Primarily in the stones and seeds of fruits: apricots, apricots/peaches, plums, cherries, apples, and millet. Its molecule is composed of two sugar molecules and one cyanide and benzaldehyde.

If the cyanide from this molecule is responsible for eliminating the malignant cell, is there a possibility that it will kill healthy cells?

– Healthy cells have an enzyme to neutralize the breakdown products of B17, so they use cyanide for the metabolic synthesis of B12, which is important in hemoglobin metabolism, then creates a thiocyanate compound in the presence of sulfur, which participates in regulating blood pressure, and excess is excreted in the urine.

Is it true that during your research work, you came across data on places in the world where there are no cancer patients, such as the Hunza tribe in Pakistan?

– This tribe inhabits remote and remote places of the Himalayas. They are known for their amazing longevity and good health. It is not unusual for them to live to be a hundred years old, and some even a hundred and twenty or more. Interestingly, in that tribe, money is an unknown concept, but that is why wealth is measured by the number of apricot trees that someone owns. Apricot kernels are considered the most prized food and are eaten as rice is eaten in Asian culture. Food rich in vitamin B17 is also eaten by Eskimos, among whom no case of malignant disease has been reported…

Until some of the Eskimos served in the military in Canada and the United States?

– True… As soon as they moved and changed their diet, they immediately started getting sick and dying from malignant diseases.

What would you say to patients going for chemotherapy?

Not as an expert (because I am not), but I would not recommend anyone to go to chemotherapy as an ordinary person. I know I would never go to chemotherapy. I even believe it causes cancer. Formal cancer treatment is big business. Chemotherapy and cytostatics make billions of dollars. Not all doctors put money in front of patients, but in human nature, unfortunately, there is a rush for money.

Do you believe that vaccines against swine, bird flu, or West Nile virus are also part of a medical scam?

– Vaccines are more harmful than they help. Billions of dollars are spent on lobbying the law, which places the use of various vaccines. I know of hundreds of fake studies on how vaccines are supposedly healthy. The sad thing is that many doctors do not know about these scams or do not even try to investigate them.

The use of alternative medicine in the health care of Western countries

A new report shows that three out of four health workers in the United States use complementary or alternative medicine to improve their health.
Doctors, nurses and their assistants, health technicians, and health administrators are increasingly using alternative medicine methods in practice, including massage, yoga, acupuncture, pilates, and herbal medicine.

“No one has done a similar analysis so far, but when we got the results of the survey, I was shocked,” said the executive director of the Penny George Institute for Health and Treatment with Allina Health System in Minneapolis. “It’s very nice to know that our health professionals understand the need for alternative therapies to improve the health of all of us. “

According to the U.S. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, about 38 percent of Americans currently use some form of alternative medicine that also includes dietary supplements, meditation, chiropractic, Pilates, and Chinese traditional medicine.

In determining the nationally representative sample, 14,300 respondents over 18 were included in this research. Out of the total number of 1,300 respondents, they were health care workers and workers employed in the hospital and outpatient environment.

The sample included 36 options, including body, mind, body manipulation, biologically based therapies, and energy therapies.
When defining the results of doctors and nurses, it was discovered that they use the services of alternative medicine twice as much as non-clinical workers.

They were almost three times more convinced of their administrative colleagues’ success in these methods.

Overall, it was found that health workers are greater users of alternative methods compared to workers outside the health industry.76 percent of health workers said they are users of such methods versus 54 people who do not work in the health industry.

Even when diet, vitamins, and herbal supplements were excluded from possible alternative therapy options, health professionals were still ahead of other respondents (41 versus 30 percent).

“Until recently, Western culture believed that alternative medicine was relatively unexplored compared to conventional medicine,” said Dr. Knutson, one of the team members who conducted the survey. “But this is no longer the case. Now there is an exchange of experiences between healthcare workers and patients who use the potential of alternative medicine, which is extremely good. “

Judy Blatman, PR of the Washington Nutrition Center, said: “These results are also surprising with information on the use of alternative herbal medicine in the treatment of certain diseases and herbal products as a dietary supplement by our healthcare staff. development of our diet to improve the health of the entire population. “
This research concludes that it is much better about previous traditional attitudes to sharing their thoughts and ideas about alternative treatment with your doctor. He is very likely familiar with some alternative treatment methods and can implement them in standard therapy. Although the general public is not familiar with these details and believes that conventional medicine has no flexibility in terms of alternatives from the personal examples of health workers in the United States, the opposite has been proven.

A plant that treats brain tumors

The Ruta graveolens homeopathic medicine product destroys brain malignancy cells. The homeopathic agent that is crystallized is isolated from the plant Ruta graveolens. Human brain malignancy, HL-60 leukemia malignancy, non-lymphoid cells, and murine melanoma cells were affected by Ruta by coupling with ca3 (po4) 2 in a controlled artificial environment.

Ruta is often used in homeopathy for injuries to ligaments, tendons, and cartilage. He also proved that the medicine helps with bruises and sore and strained eyes after a long reading or working on the computer. Learn more about Ruta’s application areas and use the product properly.

Exploring the ruta graveolens

15 individuals with detected intracranial tumors were used Ruta 6  and Ca3 (PO4) 2 calcium phosphate. Among these 15 patients, 6 of 7 glioma patients experienced complete tumor degeneration. Brain tumor cells treated with Ruta outside the organism under experimental conditions were investigated for the following: Telomer dynamics, Apoptosis.

The research aimed to establish the procedure of self-destruction of cancer cells. The following research method has been proven that it can be very successfully done in this way with the use of Ruta 6 and CA3 (PO4) 2 controls the development of brain malignancy (glioma).

In this study, it was found that a mixture of Ruta and CA3 (PO4) 2, when consumed orally they can interfere with the development or destroy glioma human brain tumor with minimal or no side effects. Patients with glioma treated with Ruta showed better results compared with patients with some other types of brain tumors.

What is Ruta?

Rura graveolens

Ruta graveolens is a very tough vine used as an ornamental plant. Studies have shown that this plant has the effect of reducing gliomas.  The extract’s key effect is that this compound instantly strengthens the chromosomal DNA fragments called telomeres.

Telomeres act as armed fractions of chromosomal DNA to which sequences are specifically associated. If some harmful influences damage these telomeres, they can no longer defend chromosomes. These destabilized and damaged chromosomes are connected, and in that way, they create certain anomalies of cells that, over time, begin to multiply. In this way, brain tumors and malignant growths are formed.

Once the telomeres are recovered and strengthened by the Ruta, the body itself regains control not only begins to attack cancerous cells in the brain but also enhances the division of healthy blood cells and the immune system. This preparation restores power to the body, and soon the patient feels much better.

Scientists have proven an extremely high level of remission in such tumors. They also emphasize the effect of this preparation on malignant breast tumors, throat, lungs, and stomach.

When is Ruta used?

Ruta is used in homeopathy to accelerate healing after an injury to ligaments, tendons, or cartilage, regardless of whether the symptoms result from an accident or overuse. The ruta helps, for example, after hitting the lower leg. But we can also successfully treat many other injuries of the musculoskeletal system with Ruta.

Ruta graveolens is also used for eye weakness and eye inflammation if caused by excessive eye strain. Most people know about this phenomenon when they sit in front of the screen for a long time or read tiny fonts.

  • Diseases and conditions that respond well to the Route:
  • Eyes strained
  • Back pain from tension
  • Injury/bruising of the periosteum (especially ribs and lower legs)
  • Injuries/operations, especially on the joints, wrists, knees, shoulders, and hips
  • Tooth injuries
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome

Ruta graveolens for babies and children

Parents who want to treat their children homeopathically should always have Ruta on hand. Injuries due to falls, kicks, or the like are common in children. Unfortunately, more serious injuries also occur in children – then you should consult a doctor. With homeopathy, you can positively influence the healing process and alleviate your child’s pain.

Even after joint surgery or dental surgery, Ruta speeds up the healing process and relieves pain. In older children with symptoms of excessive muscle or joint strain (sore muscles, tennis elbow, chronic knee pain), an attempt at Ruta treatment should be helpful.


Although Ruta graveolens affects several different malignancy types, it still shows the best results in brain tumors. This treatment is extremely economical, it is not deadly, and there are no side effects. Ruta 6 can destroy glioblastoma. Also, there are no contraindications specific to Ruta 6 when taken concomitantly with any other unconventional drug. Ruta 6 is a very significant discovery and a promising cure for a wide range of malignancies.

Scientific research on artemisinin as a potential cure for cancer

Compound artemisinin is extracted from a plant called sweet wormwood. Many thousands of years ago, the Chinese used it to treat malaria. Today, scientists have proven that this miraculous plant is equally effective in fighting cancer. Let’s review some of the scientific research papers that have been published so far.

Cancer treatment method

All cancerous cells have an increased concentration of iron to develop; in other words, cancer cells have a much higher iron concentration than normal cells. During the research, the scientists removed cells from the body with the maximum iron concentration and injected them into them. Artemisinin. The result was that artemisinin has the properties of inhibiting and destroying cancer cells.

( U.S. Patent 5,578,637, University of Washington, inventors Dr. H. Lai and Dr. NP Singh, November 26, 1996)

Leukemia in humans


In another study, Dr. Lai found very significant discoveries regarding leukemia cells. He discovered that cancer cells were destroyed very quickly within a few hours when exposed to holotransferrin (it binds receptors that serve to transmit iron) and dihydroartemisinin (a type of artemisinin that is soluble in water). He emphasized that the destruction of cells could be the product of a high concentration of iron in leukemia cells.

( H.Lai I NP Sing, selective cancer cells exposed to Dihydroartemisinin and holotransferrin )

55 oncological cell lines

This amazing plant has been tested for activity against 55 cancer lines. It was found to be artemisinin most active against leukemia and colon cancer, melanoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and kidney cancer. It was also found that the effectiveness was significant in combination with other standard drugs used in the fight against cancer. These results classify it as a beneficial compound with low toxicity and can potentially replace chemotherapy.

(Antimalarial drug is also effective against cancer Int’l Journal of Oncology, 18; 767-773,2001)

Breast cancer cells

Sweet wormwood plant and compound artemisinin become cytostatic in the presence of iron. The cancer cell possesses more transferrin receptors; these are the pathways that allow the iron to enter the cell. Breast cancer cells have 5 to 15 times more surface transferrin receptors than normal breast cells. In recent studies, artemisinin was injected into normal and cancerous breast cells. The results were astonishing. Artemisinin killed even those cells that were resistant to radiation. The effects on normal cells were minimal. This analysis shows that treating this plant can be a simple, effective, and economical cure for cancer.

(NP Singh and H Lai, The Selective Effect of Dihydroartemisinin on Breast Cancer Cells. Life Sciences, 70: 49-56,2001)

Natural remedies that are better than chemotherapy

Various studies conducted separately in Germany and Australia have revealed the activities of twenty drugs on leukemia artemisinin, artesunate, baicalein, Baicalin, berberine, bufalin, cantharidin, cephaloridine, curcumin, daidzein, daidzin, diallyl, disulfide, Ginsenosidine, Rh2, Homoharringtonine, nardosinone, carbofuran, Puerarin, quercetin, tannic acid, and tetrahydronardosinone. The results showed that artesunate increased daunorubicin I accumulation in E1000 cells.

Artesunate and bufalin have the ability to fight leukemia, used alone or together with daunorubicin in multi-resistant cells. These two drugs are suitable for the treatment of leukemia and, as such, have the future of such use in medicine.

(Efferth et al., Blood Cells, Molecules, and Diseases 28 (2) Mar / April; 160-168, 2002)

4 lines of cancer cells

Isolated triterpenes and sesquiterpenes from Artemisia stolonifera both can destroy lung cancer, ovarian cancer, melanoma of the skin and colon.

(Kwon, Phytochemical constituents of Artemisia stolonifera, Arch.Pharm, Research 24 (4): 312-315,2001)

Leukemia and lung cancer

Researchers have discovered a new compound that can destroy cancer cells after modification artemisinin. This new derivative contains cyano and aryl groups, and this compound has been very effective in destroying lung cancer and leukemia.

(Li, Ying, et al., Novel antitumor artemisinin derivatives targeting G1 phase of the cell cycle, Bioorganic and Medicinal chemistry letters 11: 5-8, 2001)

I hope you have found some interesting information from this scientific research on artemisinin, its derivatives, and its effect on cancerous diseases.

You can also read Artemisinin derivative of sweet wormwood and its growing importance in medicine.

Clinical studies in the fight against cancer and case treatments with Artemisinin

Since the late 1980s, sweet wormwood artemisinin’s anti-cancer properties have been investigated in vitro [1]. After more detailed studies by Kelter G. in 2007 and Efferth T. in 2001, artemisinins were found to be active against many unrelated cancer cell lines, from the most common types such as bowel, breast, and lung cancer. To leukemia and pancreatic cancer. Studies have also identified potential general mechanisms such as normalizing the increased Wnt / β-catenin pathway in colorectal cancer. Other pathways for anti-cancer activities include inhibition of increased tumor-associated angiogenesis.

The anti-cancer effect of sweet wormwood extract

The anti-cancer effect of sweet wormwood extract, Artemisinin, has been documented in human studies and individual clinical cases. Sweet wormwood extract, Artemisinin, has been used in cancer therapy and is easily tolerated and tolerated without significant side effects and side effects. It is hypothesized that iron-activated Artemisinin causes damage due to the release of highly acylated carbon-based radicals and radical oxygen species (ROS). Radicals may play a role in cell changes observed in Artemisinin-treated cells, such as increased apoptosis, growth retardation, inhibition of angiogenesis, and DNA damage.

Before any drug can be made available to the public, it must first undergo rigorous research. The last step towards approving a drug for human use is a clinical trial. Clinical trials are research studies that involve humans. They are the last step in a long process that begins with research in the laboratory. Most of the treatments we use today result from past clinical trials. Clinical trials are one of the last steps in the long process of bringing a new pharmaceutical product to market. Before regulatory authorities approve such a product, its efficacy and safety must be demonstrated in the target patient population. The clinical development program for new products includes many clinical trials and tens of thousands of subjects.

Artemisinin treatment for cancer

The collected clinical evidence shows that Artemisinin and its derivatives promise treatment for laryngeal cancer, uveal melanoma, and pituitary macroadenoma. Sweet wormwood extract is also in Phase I-II trials for the treatment of breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and colorectal cancer. Similarly, a 2008 clinical trial conducted by Zhang in 120 patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer showed that sweet wormwood extract in combination with the vinorelbine and cisplatin chemotherapy regimen increased the one-year survival rate by 13% with a very high significant progress in disease control and time of progression, i.e., disease progression. No additional side effects were reported.
A 2006 study conducted by Singh and Panwar, a sweet wormwood extract, Artemisinin, was used to treat a seventy-five-year-old male patient suffering from pituitary macroadenoma. This patient had problems with sight, hearing, and movement due to his illness. The patient consumed the sweet wormwood extract orally for a period of 12 months. Although the tumor remained the same in terms of size, the CT scans showed a decrease in tumor density, and clinically, associated symptoms and signs improved significantly as therapy progressed. The patient also pointed out that he profited from many of these treatments. This, in fact, extended his life and improved the quality of his life. Overall, artemisinin treatment is beneficial and effective in improving patients’ quality of life.

In another 2014 study conducted by Sanjeev, a randomized, placebo-controlled experimental study in which neither subjects nor researchers were aware that the drug was given to a patient was related to oral Artemisinin therapy for colorectal cancer and was applied to 20 patients. This study’s primary goal was to determine and determine the effects of sweet wormwood extract, Artemisinin, taken orally, in inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in patients awaiting colorectal adenocarcinoma surgery. Apoptosis in less than 7% of cells was seen in 67% and 55% of patients in the artemisinin and placebo groups, respectively. Therefore, Artemisinin has anti-proliferative properties in colorectal cancer and is generally well tolerated.

Toxicity of Artemisinin treatment

In 2008, Zhang designed a study to compare the efficacy and toxicity of Artemisinin treatment combined with NP (vinorelbine and cisplatin chemotherapy regimen) and NP alone in the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). One hundred and twenty cases of advanced NSCLC were randomly divided into a chemotherapy group and a group with combined Artemisinin and chemotherapy. Patients in the control group were treated with chemotherapy with vinorelbine and cisplatin. Patients in the study group were treated with a chemotherapy regimen supplemented with intravenous injections of Artemisinin. The disease control rate in the study group (88.2%) was significantly higher than in the control group (72.7%) (P< 0.05), and the time of disease progression in the study group (24 weeks) was significantly longer than in the control group (20 weeks). Therefore, Artemisinin combined with chemotherapy may increase disease control and prolong the time of disease progression in patients with advanced NSCLC without significant side effects.
Singh and Verma in 2002 noted that Artemisinin was successfully used in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, where treated patients showed a significant reduction in tumor size (up to 70%) after two months of treatment. Overall, Artemisinin therapy of patients has been of great benefit in prolonging and improving life quality. Without treatment, patients with laryngeal cancer die within 12 months.

Furthermore, Berger in 2005. proved that Artemisinin, used in combination with standard chemotherapy, increased survival and significantly reduced metastases in patients with malignant skin cancer. These patients with metastatic uveal melanoma were treated after standard chemotherapy alone was ineffective in stopping cancer from growing. This patient is still alive 47 months after being diagnosed with stage IV uveal cancer, a diagnosis with an average survival of about 2-5 months, with no additional side effects.
In the end, we conclude that the extract of sweet wormwood, Artemisinin, is largely non-toxic, and it has been applied with related compounds to over 2 million patients, both children, and adults, worldwide with no reports of significant side effects and side effects. Also, Artemisinin is very affordable in terms of price, unlike conventional cancer drugs. The final result of current clinical trials, using Artemisinin as therapy or adjunct against a wide range of cancerous diseases, has not yet been published. However, the original findings showed very positive results. Other cases describing the use of Artemisinin for cancer treatment were noted in the Cancer Smart Bomb in the first and second parts of the study (White, 2002).

[1] In laboratory conditions. (Literal translation from Latin: inside the glass). It refers to experimental biological studies conducted using components of an organism isolated from their usual biological context to allow a more detailed or appropriate analysis than would be possible with the whole organism.
Written by Dr. Benz Napoli

Arginine and nitric oxide help develop cancer

Cancer is a dangerous disease that is deadly in many cases. For this reason, some new methods are being implemented to find the ideal treatment for this disease. Arginine is an amino acid that has a very active effect on cancerous diseases.

Arginine is an amino acid that enters cells through special receptors and transporters. When present in a cancerous cell, arginine produces nitric oxide. Nitric oxide further affects the further progression of cancer and the division of cancer cells.

Transport of arginine depends on several things, tumor necrosis factor and cytokine. It should be noted that both are produced by tumors and due to inflammation. The more these compounds, the faster the transport of arginine and the higher the production of nitric oxide. Arginine is metabolically derived from the enzyme arginase.
Certain tumor cells need arginine to survive. Healthy cells themselves produce arginine from the enzyme arginase. Tumor cells cannot produce arginine alone. For that reason, there is a tendency to reduce arginine levels in cancer cells.

Arginine deiminase

In one such experiment, the enzyme Arginine deiminase was given to liver cancer patients. This enzyme reduced the level of arginine in cancer cells. This enzyme must be given in high doses as it breaks down very quickly when found in cells. The result was a staggering 2 patients out of 19 were completely cured.
On the other hand, arginine is a modulator of the immune system by promoting an increased concentration of T cells that destroy cancer and also affects the level of cytokines that have inflammatory effects.

During chronic inflammation, large amounts of nitric oxide are produced. Its production can lead to the formation of cancer cells. For example, in ulcerative colitis, a disease of chronic inflammation of the intestines, large amounts of nitric oxide are produced. Patients with ulcerative colitis can develop colon cancer, and this is the golden rule for long-term exposure of cells to nitric oxide.

Other types of cancer predominantly caused by the effects of nitrogenous acid are cholangiocarcinoma (bile cancer), lung cancer, metastatic breast cancer, and stomach cancer with long-term ulceration. Nitric oxide also promotes the development of new blood vessels and, by preventing apoptosis, affects tumor cells’ accelerated growth. Nitric oxide acts on cells’ DNA, damaging it and preventing repair. In this way, nitric oxide helps in the development of cancer.

Nitric oxide has three forms known as iNOS, eNOS, and nNOS. All three forms were found in tumor cells. These forms help the cancer cells to divide and invade other tissues. Metalloproteinase helps tumor cells to invade, and nitric oxide increases its expression. These claims further confirm that inflammatory mediators in breast cancer cells help transport arginine and nitric oxide, which help further spread these cells.

Nitric oxide

Nitric oxide also mediates programmed cell death, known as apoptosis. Depending on the levels of nitric oxide in cancer cells, cell death can be prolonged or caused. Cytokines cause the production of nitric oxide in cancer cells. For example, in liver cancer cells, nitric oxide does not cause cell death.

High levels of nitric oxide kill cells, and lower levels prevent cell death. Therefore, nitric oxide indicates and prevents cell apoptosis depending on its level and cell type.

Tumor cells need large amounts of blood to survive, and therefore the tumor produces new blood vessels. Research shows that nitric oxide cannot accelerate or stop new blood vessels’ development directly. In general, nitric oxide promotes the formation of new blood vessels by improving the factors that regulate this process.

Nitric oxide causes toxicity in macrophages to cells of the immune system that directly destroy cancer. The cytotoxicity showed by nitric oxide also attacked other immune cells, such as T cells. Loss of immune cells helps cancer to spread unhindered. When cancerous cells produce nitric oxide, it suppresses the natural immune system and accelerated tumor progression.

Nitric oxide also helps cancer cells to bind to platelets, which prevents the immune system from destroying them and allows them to spread to distant places in the body.
Understanding all these processes gives us new solutions for combating certain cancer types. Controlling arginine levels and inducing nitric oxide levels can be included in some new types of therapies. Nitric oxide is effective in increasing the effectiveness of radiation. It should also be noted that high levels of nitric oxide can cause apoptosis.


As seen above, the role of nitric oxide is not fully defined. Although it has increased cancer in several cases and accelerated its development, this agent also affects chemotherapy’s functioning. When using adriamycin, nitric oxide is given before taking chemotherapy to increase this medicine’s effectiveness. Due to these very complex factors, new research should be focused on this agent to find all the directions of its positive and negative impact on cancerous diseases.

Artificial kidneys will replace dialysis in just two years

Natural preparations cannot always be enough for some diseases and medical conditions. No matter how successful they are, only medicine and medical technology can help in such cases, as in kidney dialysis. Without dialysis, the patient would not survive, and daily dialysis makes life unbearable until a kidney transplant. To date, there has been no other solution.
With the latest scientific invention, medical technology has been enriched for one new device, all thanks to California’s University at San Francisco and its scientists. The device is called a bionic kidney, and it can replace damaged kidneys.
The first bionic kidneys can be inserted and attached to the body with an effortless operation. Current tests show that these kidneys are the perfect replacement for damaged kidneys. The bionic kidneys are connected to the heart via several microchips and purify toxins in the same way that normal kidneys do.

Team members Shuvo Roy and William H. Fisel said the invention gives hope to millions of those suffering from kidney disease and using dialysis.

The bionic kidney’s main technology is a micro chrome made of silicone nanotechnology that functions similarly to the microelectronics used in computers. Microchips are very affordable and excellent filters. Each unit will have about 15 microchips built in layers, and they will act as a platform on which to live living kidney cells that will grow in the filter of each microchip. These cells will have the activity of a living kidney.

The main challenge was how to let the blood through the device not to clot or damage the machines. Biomedical engineer Amanda Bucks managed to avoid damaging the artificial kidneys by using dynamic fluid.
This invention improves the research of the production of artificial organs, which will help millions of people live better and for their organism’s problems to disappear forever.

Dr. Suzanne Steinbaum: Discover the path to the health of your heart

Suzanne Steinbaum is an osteopath and cardiologist living and working in New York City.

She is known in the media as a passionate fighter for the preservation of women’s heart health, and in her lectures, she has always emphasized the importance of prevention.

He comes from a family of as many as 18 osteopathic doctors.

Curiosity from family life is related to the actions of her grandfather.

He was also a physician and wrote about natural antioxidants’ health benefits – decades before science confirmed it.
Modern life reflects on heart health.

Dr. Steinbaum warns that women are being exposed to increasing stress day by day, trying to balance between the many responsibilities of family and business life.

In doing so, they generally completely neglect themselves, justifying it by lack of time.

Such a way of life and neglect of their own needs strongly affect their heart’s health.

Heart problems

suzanne steinbaum
Dr. Suzanne Steinbaum

Although until recently, heart disease was considered mostly male, an increasing number of younger women are complaining of palpitations, chest pain, panic attacks, fatigue, and anxiety.

While Dr. Steinbaum worked on Block Island, 30-year-olds and 40-year-olds with various problems came to her office.

All of these, in turn, were successful young women burdened with several responsibilities.

Before the holidays, they were still functioning somehow, but as soon as they relaxed a bit, they would “fall apart.”

Dr. Steinbaum explains this by saying that their stress hormones, which otherwise allowed them to survive frantic days, ended up in the bloodstream on vacation, where they caused a short circuit.

This has resulted in symptoms such as rapid heartbeat and high blood pressure, and chest pain.

Extremely harmful effects of stress

Heart disease, says Dr. Steinbaum, starts long before you think it.

It starts when you don’t feel good and not honest with yourself.

Due to stress, poor diet, passive lifestyle, smoking, and alcohol, maintaining bad relationships, anxiety, or anxiety, your heart already ill, says Dr. Steinbaum.

All patients with severe heart disease have something in common – they are under a lot of stress and feel lonely and misunderstood.

Stress is more harmful to a woman’s heart than a man’s

While men react to stress on the principle of fight or flight, women naturally react to calm down, and friends and usually want to talk about it.

Support, family, and friendship are critical to women.

But as no one has time to talk anymore, they react to stress like men, which hurts their heart’s health.

“Stress can become your life, and it’s the fastest way to wither your heart,” says Dr. Steinbaum.
Indicators of your vitality

Dr. Steinbaum lists several indicators that indicate the level of your heart health and functionality.

Indicators of heart function

shape – good shape contributes to heart health
heart rate – should not be higher than 50-70 beats per minute
smoking – multiplies the risk of vascular and heart diseases
cholesterol levels – To avoid high cholesterol, eat more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains

A holistic approach to a woman – the path to the health of her heart

When a woman comes to the office, Dr. Steinbaum first inquires about the “emotional” state and only then about her heart’s physical state.

He asks the patient if she sleeps well, her life passion is, if she is satisfied with her job, how she feels in a marriage or relationship, etc.

Having worked with many women who have struggled with anger and rage, she has also realized how much such negative emotions threaten heart health.

“If you suppress anger and hatred in your heart, you are poisoning it,” he says. Therefore, it is essential to trigger these emotions, not to suppress them.

It is also essential for a woman to “get out of her head and go down to her heart” because whenever the brain takes the lead, the heart receives less oxygen.

5 tips from Dr. Steinbaum that will strengthen your heart

Incorporate physical activity into your daily routine

The heart is a muscle that does not like passivity and sitting but seeks activity and movement.

Therefore, to have a healthy and strong heart, move as much as possible, and be active.

Find the form of exercise that suits you best, such as running, cycling, Pilates, yoga, dancing, etc.

Dr. Steinbaum recommends 150 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise per week or about 30 minutes a day five days a week or 75 minutes of high-intensity aerobic exercise per week.

Distinguish a panic attack from a heart attack

Many young women complain of anxiety and panic attacks, and additional stress and anxiety are created because it is difficult to distinguish panic attacks from heart attacks.

Dr. Steinbaum advises how to recognize what it is about.

This is very important to know because you will certainly not die from a panic attack, while a heart attack can be fatal.

The symptoms of panic attacks and heart attacks are the same: rapid breathing, shortness of breath, rapid heartbeat, sweating, dizziness, and nausea.

Therefore, if you experience these symptoms, consciously slow down your breathing, the cardiologist advises.

The body will calm down due to slow breathing, you will activate the parasympathetic system, and you will spare your heart any damage.

Here’s what to do in case of a panic attack:

First, take a deep breath until you count to four.
Then hold your breath until you count to four.
In the end, exhale slowly so that you make a shhhh sound and count to six.
After exhaling, hold your breath again until you count to four.
Repeat several times.
If that helps, it means it’s a panic attack. If you still have the same symptoms after this exercise, call a doctor or go to the emergency room yourself, Dr. Steinbaum advises.

Find meaning in life

Besides a healthy diet and exercise, heart health needs to find meaning in life.

It will feed your heart and soul and make you happy, says Dr. Steinbaum.

It doesn’t matter if that higher purpose is related to your job and career, like starting your own business or something else like a hobby.

You must know that you will do what you love and do it for someone better every morning when you get up.

To discover a higher meaning, these questions will help you:

What do you like to do most of all?
What is it that you can’t stop thinking about? What is your dream that you would like to realize?

Be positive and cheerful

Be cheerful and optimistic because optimism is good for your heart.

Research has found that optimistic people have as much as a 50 percent lower risk of a heart attack.

And don’t forget the music.

Find your theme song. It is a song that will awaken strength and a positive attitude in you and which will also relax you when you are under stress.

Sing it loud or quiet because you cannot hyperventilate while you are singing.

The song will help you keep your heart rate low, lower your blood pressure, and prevent any panic attacks.

Keep a diary

Start keeping a diary, in which you will write down what you eat, how much you move, how much you exercise, how much you sleep, whether stress manages your life, whether you have heart problems.

Here you will also write down what you currently want from life, your goals, whether you want to spend more time with dear people, whether you are happy in your current relationship, etc.

This diary can help you spot patterns of behaviors and habits in your life that are harming your heart, becoming aware of your heart’s messages, and finally starting to live up to them.

“There are things in life that you want to change. When you write them down, they become real. ”, says Dr. Steinbaum.
Sources used in this article include:
Dr. Suzanne Steinbaum’s book: A Woman’s Heart.

Blood group determination of inheritance and Rh factor

Human blood is divided into blood groups based on the absence or presence of certain antigens on the surface of red blood cells. Before the blood transfusion, blood group tests are performed, and during the examination of pregnant women to determine the Rh factor. Blood grouping is done to determine if there is any likelihood that two people are blood-related.

One of the most important antigens in the blood is blood group antigens (ABOs) and Rh-antigen. That is why tests related to these blood groups are most often performed, although there are other ways to determine blood groups. Both types of testing are determined on a blood sample taken from a vein.

The antigens he mentioned include proteins, glycoproteins, carbohydrates, and glycolipids. Still, it all depends on the blood group system, and some of the antigens are present on the surfaces of other cells.

Determination of blood groups A, B, AB or 0

blood group donation

Human blood is divided into four blood groups:

• If antigen A is located on the surface of blood cells, it is blood group A. Plasma, i.e. the liquid part of the blood, contains blood group B antibodies

• If antigen B is on the surface of red blood cells, it is blood group B. Then the plasma contains antibodies against blood group A.

• If neither of these two antigens is present on the surface, it is a blood group because, in the plasma, there are antibodies against blood group A and also antibodies against blood group B.

• There is a possibility of being on the surface red blood cells find antigen A and antigen B, which would mean that there are no antibodies in the plasma, and such persons have blood group AB.

Blood received through a transfusion must have the same antigens and red cells as the person receiving it. In short, the blood of the donor and recipient must be compatible. If incompatible blood is received, the antibodies will recognize the received blood as foreign and destroy the red blood cells.
Such a transfusion reaction occurs immediately after receiving a blood transfusion and can have serious consequences for the recipient’s health and can even lead to death.

Blood group 0 negative in the shadow does not have any antigen, so we call it universal, which means that it is compatible with all blood groups. Blood group AB positive is called the universal recipient, which means that people with this blood group can receive any blood group blood.

Antigens that are not so important and are located on the surface of red blood cells can cause problems, and before removal, their compatibility with those in the recipient’s blood is checked.

We note that transfusion reactions are rare today, precisely because of blood groups’ determination.

Determination of Rh factor

rh factor

Rh-factor testing determines its presence or absence in the blood.

• If there is Rh-factor in the blood – it will be Rh-positive
• If Rh-factor is not in the blood – it will be Rh-negative
• Blood containing Rh and A antigen is then A-positive
• Blood that contains Rh-factor and B antigen – then it is a B-negative blood group

The division of blood concerning the Rh factor is significant for pregnant women. The problem that can arise is that a woman has Rh-negative blood and carries a child with Rh-positive blood, which we call Rh-incompatibility. During childbirth or pregnancy, the baby’s Rh-positive blood and the Rh-negative blood of the mother may mix, after which the mother begins to produce antibodies. This production of antibodies is called Rh-sensitization, leading to the destruction of a child’s red blood cells.

Rh-sensitization does not affect the health of the child carried by the mother when sensitization occurs. But if a woman in her second pregnancy again carries a child who has Rh-positive blood, there could be problems of varying intensities, from mild to very dangerous.

This condition is called hemolytic disease of the newborn, and if treatment is not carried out and the mother is sensitized, in rare cases, the child may die.

Testing for this Rh-factor is done during the first examination of the uterus. If a woman has Rh-negative blood, she is given a vaccine, Rh-immunoglobulin, which prevents sensitization.

Note that after discovering the vaccine, the problems caused by Rh-sensitization are minimal and almost rare.

Blood group inheritance


We ourselves know that blood type determination is also done to determine paternity, in case the mother, father, or both parents’ identity is not completely certain.

In determining paternity, the blood groups of persons who could be the father of the child are compared with the mother and the child’s blood groups, and the birth father is determined by excluding persons for whom it is impossible to be fathers.

A child inherits genes A, B, or 0 from each parent. Geb B and gene A are dominant, while gene 0 is recessive
Determination of human blood group is done in the case of:

• Operations

• Blood transfusions

• Before the person donates blood

• Before a person donates an organ for a transplant

• At the first examination of the pregnant woman

• In case of blood relationship

Determination of blood group is done by taking a blood sample from a vein in a widespread and painless way. It is important to note that the contrast agent used in the X-ray procedure before determining the blood group may affect the blood group examination accuracy.

Also, taking medications like methyldopa, levodopa, and the like. It may show a false-positive result. Also, carcinoma or leukemia can cause a change in blood type. In addition to this improper handling of blood samples, the samples’ results may prove inaccurate.

Blood group 0

This blood type responds perfectly to stress, is an outstanding leader, very determined and experienced, stable, and lives well. It is good that with this blood group, breast cancer has a lower mortality rate than others, while bladder cancer has the highest risk of tumor progression. It poses the greatest danger of melanoma and is prone to gastritis, ulcers, and various allergies.

Signs of toxicity of this blood group:

• Inflammation

Menstrual problems

• Cramps

• Inflammation of the joints

• Fatigue

• Exhaustion

• Mental hyperactivity

Tips for this blood type:

• Chew food slowly

• Reduce cigarettes if you are a smoker

• More physical activity

• Talk to people

• Practice the technique of overcoming anger

Exercises for this blood type:

• Gymnastics

• Aerobics

• Riding a bike

• Weightlifting

Blood type 0 diet

Proper nutrition helps our health greatly. You will find tips on what is very good for you to consume in the following sentences. It is important to avoid caffeine and alcohol, especially when you are under stress because of the very high adrenaline in you.

Poultry and meat:

– Good foods: veal liver, game, heart, lamb, beef
– Neutral foods: chicken, turkey, chicken
– Avoid: pork, bacon, and ham

Seafood and fish:

– Good foods: pike, leaf, cod
– Neutral foods: salmon, oysters, sardines, grouper, and mussels
– Avoid: squid, sea snail, octopus

Eggs and dairy products:

– Good foods: Dairy products make you fat and stimulate the production of gastrin
– Neutral food: butter, cheese, feta cheese, eggs
– Avoid: parmesan, kefir, sour cream, ice cream, smoothies, yogurt


– Good ingredients: onion, beet, artichoke, spinach, ginger, paprika, chard
– Neutral foods: mushrooms, garlic, celery, olives, beets
– Avoid: pickles, capers, olives, potatoes


– Good foods: pineapple, figs, mango, plums, cherries
– Neutral foods: melon, strawberry, grapes, cranberries
– Avoid: blackberries, avocados, oranges, coconut


– Good foods: green tea, mineral water
– Neutral foods: red wine
– Avoid: white wine, carbonated drinks, coffee, black tea

Blood group A

It has been determined that this is the oldest blood group. The first carriers are farmers and farmers. For this blood type, the connection between body and mind is vital.

Here we classify analytical types of people with a good sense of detail. They love to be brought to perfection and are very sensitive. They react more strongly to stress due to the increased adrenaline concentration in the body. People are susceptible to the needs of others.

People with this blood type suffer a lot from cancer, for which they have the lowest cure rate. There is also a risk of developing gynecological tumors and thyroid cancer.

Signs of toxicity of this blood group:

• Low sugar

• Flatulence

• Psoriasis, acne


• Cholesterol

Tips for this blood type:

• Eat more protein at the beginning of the day

• Do not skip meals

• Determine the work rhythm

• Sleep at least 8 hours

• Have your heart checked regularly

Exercises for this blood type:

• Aromatherapy

• Deep breathing

• Tai Chi

• Yoga

Blood group A diet

Proper nutrition greatly helps our health, in the following text you will find tips on what is good to consume, what is neutral and what should be avoided.

Meat and poultry

– Animal proteins are not recommended and should be avoided
– Avoid foods: beef, veal, game
– Neutral foods: turkey and chicken

Fish and seafood

– Good foods: sardines, cod, mackerel, trout
– Avoid foods: anchovies, oysters, eels, shrimp
– Neutral foods: grouper, dentex, tuna

Dairy Products:

– Use these products in as small quantities as possible
– Avoid foods: parmesan, emmentaler cheese, edam cheese, butter
– Neutral foods: feta cheese, goat’s milk, chicken eggs, kefir, yogurt


– Good foods: chard, broccoli, garlic, celery, artichokes
– Neutral foods: mushrooms, cauliflower, cabbage, chicory, zucchini, radishes
– Avoid foods: capers, tomatoes, eggplant, peppers


– Good foods: pineapple, figs, lemon, cranberry, grapefruit
– Neutral foods: peaches, melons, strawberries, apples, watermelons
– Avoid foods: coconut, oranges, tangerines and mangoes


– Good drinks: red wine, coffee and green tea
– Neutral foods: white wine
– Avoid foods: sweet carbonated drinks, spirits, beer, mineral water

Blood donation

Blood is very important in treating people who need it. Today there is a big problem of getting blood so it is very humane to give blood if you are able to do it. Giving blood takes about half an hour with all the procedure that needs to be done, which we will explain below.

In the half hour you spend you can save someone’s life. Alcohol should not be consumed before (the day before) when donating blood.

When donating blood, you will first fill out a questionnaire with some questions that are important and you are expected to answer them honestly. The questionnaire exists to protect the health of the person who will receive your blood but also to ask you about some of the questions in the questionnaire.

Blood donation is a humane act

Your hemoglobin, a blood dye-containing iron, is checked before donating blood. Iron deficiency indicates possible anemia. So you get a small sting in your fingertip, and you will make test hemoglobin on site.

Also, your doctor will measure your blood pressure, obeys the heart and lungs work, which means a kind of small systematic examination.

450 milliliters of blood are taken when donating blood. Needles and bags that are sterile and used only once are used. Taking the said amount of blood does not pose a health hazard to a healthy person. Just taking blood takes about 10 minutes. It is important to alert your doctor to any changes you notice or if you start to feel unwell.

After donating, your blood is tested for hepatitis B and C, HIV (AIDS), and syphilis. You can transmit these diseases through the blood. If any of the tests are positive, your doctor will contact you.

After donating blood, you must sit still for about 10 minutes, keeping the injection site pressed to prevent bruising and subsequent bleeding from the injection site.

After donating blood, you also receive a Thanksgiving meal, and it is recommended that you take at least the offered drink to make up for the lost volume.

So, be humane and donate blood. That way, you can save someone’s life!

Learn all about anemia

Anemia  (hr.  anemia;  ICD-10:  D50-D64) is strictly defined as a decrease in red blood cell mass (erythrocytes, RBC from red blood cell) and is the most common blood disorder.  Erythrocytes’ role is to deliver oxygen from the lungs in tissues and carbon dioxide from tissues into the lungs. This is achieved using hemoglobin (Hb), a tetrameric protein composed of heme and depth. Anemia, therefore, impairs the body’s ability to exchange these gases, reducing the number of erythrocytes that can carry oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Anemia, like fever, is only a symptom, a consequence (or clinical condition) that requires investigation of a further causal etiology.

Erythrocyte measurement methods

erythrocyte examination

Erythrocyte mass measurement methods are time-consuming, expensive, and often require transfusion of radioisotope-labeled erythrocytes. Therefore, in practice, anemia is often detected and quantified by measuring the number of erythrocytes, hemoglobin concentration, and hematocrit. However, these values should be interpreted with caution, as concentrations are affected by plasma volume changes. For example, dehydration raises these values, and increased plasma volume in pregnancy can decrease values without actually affecting erythrocyte mass.


Basically, all causes of anemia can be grouped into three basic groups: due to anemia blood loss (hemorrhage  ), anemia due to increased destruction of erythrocytes  ), and anemia due to decreased erythrocyte production (ineffective hematopoiesis  ). These cases include several etiologies (genetic, nutritional, physical,  chronic, and malignant diseases, infectious diseases  ) that require specific and appropriate therapy.

Another clinically useful approach to anemia classifications is a change in red blood cell morphology, which often indicates a specific cause. Morphological features that indicate etiology include erythrocyte size (normocytes, microcytes, or macrocytes); the amount of hemoglobin reflected in cell color (normochromic or hypochromic); and cell shape. In general, microcytic hypochromic anemias are caused by hemoglobin synthesis disorders (most commonly iron deficiency). In contrast, macrocytic anemias most commonly originate from abnormalities that impair erythroid precursors’ maturation in the bone marrow. Normochromic normocytic anemias have different etiologies: in some of these anemias, specific erythrocyte-shaped abnormalities observed on the peripheral blood smear provide an important etiological signpost.

In emergency services, by far, the most common cause of anemia is acute bleeding.

Drug-induced anemia

Medicines or other chemicals often cause aplastic and hypoplastic group disorders. Certain types of these causative agents are dose-related, and others are idiosyncratic. Any man exposed to a sufficient dose of inorganic arsenic, benzene, radiation, or conventional chemotherapeutic agents develops bone marrow suppression with pancytopenia. In contrast, only occasionally does a reaction occur among idiosyncratic agents that result in the suppression of one or more cell lines (1 in 100 to 1 in a million). Thus chloramphenicol can cause pancytopenia, while granulocytopenia is more commonly seen with sulfonamides or antithyroid drugs.


Prevention of anemia

The prevalence of anemia in population studies of healthy people (excluding pregnant women) depends on the hemoglobin concentration selected as the lower limit of normal. The World Health Organization (WHO) selects 12.5 g / dL for adult and adult women. So it is estimated that approximately  4% of men and 8% of women have values lower than this. A significantly higher prevalence is observed in the patient population.  In less developed countries, the prevalence of anemia 2-5 is higher than in developed countries, which is probably influenced by geographical diseases (sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, malaria, chronic infections), and nutritional factors iron deficiency and, to a lesser extent folic acid deficiency. Populations with little red meat in the diet have a higher incidence of anemia due to iron deficiency because iron from heme is better absorbed than inorganic iron present in vegetables.

Age and a half

Overall, anemia is twice as common in women as in men. The difference is significantly greater during the fertile years due to pregnancy and menses. Approximately 65% of all iron in the body is incorporated into circulating hemoglobin. One gram of hemoglobin contains 3.46 mg of iron (1 mL of blood with a hemoglobin concentration of 15 g / dL; therefore contains 0.5 mg of iron). Every healthy pregnancy takes the mother approximately 500 mg of iron.

While a man must absorb about 1mg of iron to maintain balance, premenopausal women must absorb an average of 2mg of iron per day. Further, since women eat less food than men, they must have twice as effective iron absorption to avoid deficiency.

Women have a significantly lower incidence of X-linked anemias, such as G-6-PD deficiency and sex-linked sideroblastic anemias, than men. Additionally, in younger age groups, men have a higher incidence of acute anemia due to traumatic causes.

Previously, severe, genetically acquired anemias (e.g., sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, Fanconi syndrome) were more common in children because they did not survive adulthood. However, with advances in medical care and advances in transfusion and chelation, along with fetal hemoglobin modifiers, life expectancy in people with these diseases has been significantly prolonged.

Acute anemia has a bimodal frequency distribution, affecting mainly younger adults and people in their late fifties. Causes among young adults include trauma, menstrual and ectopic bleeding, and acute hemolysis problems.

In people between the ages of 50 and 65, acute anemia is usually the result of acute blood loss with a chronic anemic condition. This is the case with uterine and gastrointestinal bleeding.

Anemia and ethnic groups

blacks anemia

The prevalence of neoplasms increases with each decade of life. It can cause anemia through bleeding, invasion of the bone marrow by a tumor (where the bone marrow is replaced by a tumor, or for example, granuloma -[podtiip] myelophthisical anemia[/podtip] ), or the development of anemia associated with chronic disorders. The use of aspirin, nonsteroidal antirheumatic drugs, and warfarin also increases with age and can create gastrointestinal bleeding.

As mentioned earlier, certain ethnic groups have an increased prevalence of genetic factors associated with certain types of anemia. Diseases such as hemoglobinopathies, thalassemia, and G-6-PD deficiency have different mortality in different populations due to differences in the genetic abnormalities that create the disorder. For example, G-6-PD deficiency and thalassemia have lower morbidity in African Americans than in the Mediterranean due to genetic differences. Conversely, sickle cell disease has higher morbidity and mortality in African Americans than in Saudis.

Ethnicity is also a factor in nutritional anemias and anemias associated with untreated chronic diseases. Socioeconomic benefits that positively affect diet and access to health care lead to a reduction in the prevalence of these types of anemias. Thus, iron deficiency anemia is more prevalent in developing countries (which have less meat in their diet) than in developed countries. Similarly, chronic disease anemia is common in populations with a high incidence of chronic infectious diseases (e.g., malaria, tuberculosis, AIDS). This is partially exacerbated by these populations’ socioeconomic status and their limited access to adequate health care.


Physiological responses to anemia vary with acuteness and type of stroke.

The gradual onset of the disease may allow the activation of compensatory mechanisms. Except for anemia due to chronic renal failure, in which the cells produce erythropoietin, a decrease in tissue oxygenation that accompanies anemia usually triggers increased erythropoietin production. Erythropoietin stimulates compensatory hyperplasia of erythroid precursors in the bone marrow, and in severe anemia, the appearance of extramedullary hematopoiesis in secondary hematopoietic organs (spleen, liver, and lymph nodes).

In well-nourished individuals who become anemic due to acute bleeding or hemolysis, the compensatory response may also increase red blood cell regeneration five to eight-fold. The main feature of increased erythrocyte production in the bone marrow is reticulocytosis, i.e., the characteristic appearance of an increased number of newly formed cells (reticulocytes) in the peripheral blood. In contrast, disorders with decreased erythrocyte production (regenerative anemia) are characterized by reticulocytopenia.

Anemia due to acute blood loss

In anemia due to acute blood loss, a decrease in oxygen transfer capacity occurs along with a decrease in intravascular volume, with resultant hypoxia and hypovolemia. Hypovolemia leads to hypotension, which is detected by baroreceptors in the carotid bulb, aortic arch, heart, and lungs. These receptors transmit impulses to the vagus’s afferent fibers and glossopharyngeal nerves in the medulla oblongata, cerebral cortex, and pituitary gland.

Development 1

In the medulla oblongata, sympathetic tone increases as a reflex response, while parasympathetic activity decreases. Increased sympathetic tone leads to the release of norepinephrine from the sympathetic nerve endings and adrenaline release and noradrenaline from the adrenal medulla. Sympathetic association with hypothalamic nuclei increases the secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) from the pituitary gland. ADH increases the reabsorption of water from the distal collecting tubules of the kidney. The response is reduced renal perfusion, juxtaglomerular cells in afferent arterioles releasing renin into the renal circulation, leading to elevated angiotensin I, which angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) converts to angiotensin II.

Development 2

Angiotensin II has a potent pressor effect on arteriolar smooth muscle. Angiotensin II also stimulates the adrenal cortex’s glomerular zone to produce aldosterone. Aldosterone increases the reabsorption of sodium from the kidney’s proximal tubules, thus increasing the intravascular volume. The sympathetic nervous system’s primary effect is to maintain tissue perfusion by increasing systemic vascular resistance. Increased venous tone increases preload and final diastolic volume, increasing stroke volume. Therefore, stroke volume, heart rate, and systemic vascular resistance are maximized by the sympathetic nervous system. Improving oxygen delivery is made possible by increased blood flow.

Hypovolemic hypoxia

In hypovolemic hypoxia conditions, increased venous flow due to increased sympathetic tone is likely to dominate the vasodilatory effects of hypoxia. Counterregulatory hormones (e.g., glucagon, adrenaline, cortisol) are likely to move intracellular water into the intravascular space, possibly due to the resulting hyperglycemia. This contribution to intravascular volume has not yet been fully elucidated.

Patient prognosis

The prognosis usually depends on the underlying cause of the anemia. However, the severity of the anemia, its etiology, and the rate at which it develops may play an important role in the prognosis. Similarly, the patient’s age and the existence of other comorbid conditions affect the outcome of the disease.

Liver cirrhosis

Approximately 30% of patients with cirrhosis of the liver die from bleeding. The prognosis for traumatic aortic rupture is also poor, where approximately 80% of patients die before reaching the hospital, and most patients who do not receive adequate care die within 2 weeks. Non-traumatic aneurysm rupture also has a poor prognosis and is essentially fatal if left untreated. In patients with sickle cell anemia, homozygotes (Hgb SS) have the worst prognosis because they are more likely to have crises. In contrast, heterozygotes (Hgb AS) have crises only in extreme conditions.


In thalassemia, homozygotes (Cooley’s anemia or thalassemia major) have a worse prognosis than patients with any other thalassemia. The chances of survival are worse for patients with idiosyncratic aplasia caused by chloramphenicol and viral hepatitis and better when paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria or antisepticizes are probable causes. The prognosis for idiopathic aplasia lies between these two extremes, where the mortality rate for untreated cases is approximately 60-70% within two years of diagnosis.

Hyperplastic bone marrow

Among patients with hyperplastic bone marrow and decreased erythrocyte production, one group has an excellent prognosis, and the other does not respond to therapy and has a relatively poor prognosis. The first group includes patients with relative bone marrow failure disorders due to nutritional deficiency where appropriate treatment with vitamin B12, folic acid, or iron leads to the correction of anemia once the appropriate etiology is established. The second group includes patients with idiopathic hyperplasia who may partially respond to pyridoxine therapy but more often do not respond. These patients have annular sideroblasts in the bone marrow, suggesting inappropriate use of iron in mitochondria for heme synthesis.

Other cases of anemia

As for other conditions, such as ectopic pregnancy, the prognosis with prompt care is excellent, with a mortality rate of only 1-2%. In patients with hemophilia, about 15% of them eventually develop factor VIII inhibitors and may die from bleeding complications. Patients with idiopathic platelet purpura usually respond to immunosuppression or splenectomy and have an excellent prognosis. Approximately 80-90% of patients with TTP who receive plasmapheresis fully recover. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome carries significant morbidity and mortality if left untreated. Up to 40% of patients may die, and almost 80% develop renal failure.

Pernicious anemia

Chronic illness/anemia resulting from insufficient absorption of vitamin B 12. 


It occurs in adults due to gastric atrophy (you cannot absorb vitamin B12). Parietal cells in the stomach that produce an intrinsic factor required to absorb vitamin B12 and their destruction lead to a deficiency of this essential vitamin.

The name pernicious anemia has remained since this type of anemia was fatal, which is no longer the case, but the name has been retained for historical reasons. 

To lack vitamin B12 it can lead to several diseases and conditions. Still, pernicious anemia is understood only due to atrophic gastritis and loss of parietal cell function.

Dr. Addison was the first to describe this disease, and until 1920, people died from it a year to 3 years after diagnosis. Three physicians in their thirties treated this anemia so that patients consumed raw liver juice in large quantities. That is why they deservedly won the Nobel Prize in 1934, curing a hitherto incurable disease !!

We are very grateful for the progress and the fact that we do not have to drink raw liver, but we elegantly solve the lack of this vitamin with tablets or injections!

Vitamin B12 and anemia

Vitamin B12 cannot be created/synthesized in the human or animal body, so we must ingest it through food. It is essential for the brain and nervous system; it participates in every cell’s metabolism in the body.

We get the most vitamin B12 from meat (especially liver), fish, shellfish, and dairy products.

The genetic variant of pernicious anemia is an autoimmune disease with a definite genetic predisposition. Antibodies (anti parietal) occur in 90% of people with pernicious anemia, while they are present in only 5% of people in the general population.

Classical pernicious anemia occurs due to the lack of intrinsic factors synthesized in the stomach’s parietal cells. There is no absorption of vitamin B12, the result: megaloblastic anemia.

Any disease or malabsorption condition can lead to vitamin B12 deficiency and macrocytic/megaloblastic anemia accompanied (though not always) by neurological outbursts.

Causes of vitamin B12 deficiency

  • Insufficient consumption (strict vegetarian diet: vegans)
  • Atrophy or severe disorder of the gastric mucosa
  • Deficiency or impaired function of intrinsic factor
  • Pancreatic enzyme deficiency
  • Inflammation of the small intestine, ileitis, celiac disease, intestinal amyloidosis, intestinal resection, Crohn’s disease
  • Infection with the parasite Diphyllobothrium latum: this parasite interferes with the absorption of vitamin B12


It most often occurs in the northern European population: English, Scandinavians, Irish, Scots, aged 40 to 70.


  • Weight loss, subfebrile fever
  • Anemia: paradoxically anemia is well tolerated, even when hemoglobin is extremely low (40-50), MCV (mean corpuscular volume) is high: angle over 100
  • About 50% of patients have a very smooth tongue, without papillae (glossitis)
  • Changes in character and personality
  • Thyroid dysfunction
  • Diarrhea
  • Paresthesias: tingling in the arms/legs
  • The most severe: neurological outbursts: balance problems, unsteady gait, muscle weakness. In the elderly, people with symptoms of dementia must exclude vitamin B12 deficiency as memory problems, hallucinations. Irritability may occur.


Laboratory tests: complete blood count, peripheral blood smear, levels of vitamin B12, folate, methylmalonic acid, and homocysteine in the blood

 Schilling test: the patient’s ability to absorb vitamin B12 is checked.

The presence of antibodies to intrinsic factors in the blood.


As you have probably guessed so far, the therapy is: to replace vitamin B12. The synthesized vitamin B12 is called cyanocobalamin. It does not exist in nature but is synthesized and administered to patients orally, transdermally, intranasally, or by injection (intramuscularly, subcutaneously).
Today, some tablets contain high doses of vitamin B12: 500-1000 mcg, so there is quite enough vitamin to keep the cells in the body functioning well.

If in doubt, it is certainly advisable to give replacement therapy in the form of an injection! 

Famous people with this disease:

Alexander Graham Bell
Annie Oakley: 1925. died from the effects of pernicious anemia in 65 g of life

Avitaminosis hypovitaminosis for all vitamins

Avitaminosis is any disease caused by chronic or long-term vitamin deficiency or a disease caused by a defect in metabolic conversion, such as that of tryptophan to niacin.

Fat-soluble vitamins

Fat-soluble vitamins are K, A, D, and E. Precisely because they are fat-soluble, they can accumulate in the body, and avitaminosis occurs when fat absorption is impaired. Their lack is noticed only after a few months since they are stored. Diseases of the pancreas, liver, bile, and bile ducts and prolonged and fatty diarrhea can cause a deficiency of these vitamins.

Vitamin A avitaminosis

avitaminosis vitamin a

Vitamin A (retinol, carotene) is important for maintaining normal differentiation of epithelium, skeletal muscle, and cell membrane components. It is essential for photosensitive retinal epithelium. Because vitamin A deficiency  (ICD-10:  E50) causes xerophthalmia and night blindness. In nature, vitamin A appears as retinol  (a more important form in which it is stored, transmitted, and actively involved in the function of sight) or as beta-carotene (provitamin A in yellow and leafy vegetables).

In the absence of vitamin A, the epithelium irregularly keratinizes and shows signs of the cylindrical epithelium’s squamous metaplasia. We see such changes in the trachea, bronchi, renal droplets, uterus, pancreatic ducts, and salivary gland ducts. You cannot regenerate rhodopsin so that vision disorders will occur. In short, in vitamin A deficiency, we have:

  • eye changes –  night blindness due to retinol deficiency,  xerophthalmia  (dry eyes), increased frequency of infections,  Bitot spots, softening of the cornea with consequent susceptibility to infections (keratomalacia).
  • skin changes – follicular hyperkeratosis due to impaired keratinization of the epithelium in hair follicles,
  • respiratory epithelial metaplasia with favoring infections and bronchopneumonias
  • pyelonephritis.

Vitamin D deficiency

vitamin d foods

Vitamin D’s function is to maintain normal plasma calcium and phosphorus levels. Calcium deficiency disrupts neural excitation and muscle relaxation, leading to hypocalcemic tetany. You should remember the sign of hypocalcemia –  Chvostek’s sign (tapping on the facial muscle causes facial muscle spasms) and Trousseau’s sign (arm muscle spasms when a cuff like a pressure gauge is put on).

Vitamin D deficiency in children causes rickets, and in adults, osteomalacia. The underlying disorder in both diseases is reduced mineralization of the newly formed bone matrix. In children, growth is not yet complete, so the pineal glands are open, there is insufficient mineralization of the newly formed bone and cartilaginous matrix in the growth zone. Epiphyseal cartilage overgrows without adequate calcification and normal cartilage cell maturation. The growth zone is wide and irregular. The cartilaginous cells are large, irregularly distributed, only in rows. The thickened ossification border is macroscopically observed as a spherical spindle thickening called a rickets crown.

Due to the abundance of osteoids, the bone is soft, flexible, and suitable for distortion and deformation. The softened occipital bone that dies when touched is called the craniotabes. The head takes on a square shape due to many osteoids created in frontal and parietal protuberances (square head –  square head ). And the spine is softened, causing kyphoscoliosis. The sternum protrudes or dents (pectus carinatum or pectus excavatum). The bones of the limbs are thick and stocky and shorter. The softer bones in the legs bend and form deformed O or X-shaped legs. In women, the pelvis becomes narrowed due to the sacrum’s impression and the suppression of the acetabulum ( pelvis angusta ) or flat ( pelvis plan ).

Vitamin K

Vitamin K comes in two forms: K 1  in plants and K 2, synthesized by the bacterial intestinal flora. Vitamin K serves as a cofactor in glutamic acid’s carboxylation to gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (in the liver). It is necessary for the functioning of the three clotting factors (VII, IX, and X) and proteins C and S. The natural deficiency of vitamin K occurs in newborns because they have sterile intestines. The most important complication is hemorrhagic diathesis (bleeding tendency), with the most dangerous manifestation being intracranial hemorrhage. Therefore, vitamin K is given to newborns prophylactically to avoid vitamin K avitaminosis.

Water-soluble vitamins

Vitamin B 1 (thiamine)

Vitamin B avitaminosis 1 (thiamine) is known as beriberi. It most commonly occurs in alcoholics. Thiamine deficiency is manifested by changes in peripheral nerves, the brain, and the heart. Peripheral nonspecific neuropathy or dry beriberi is asymmetrical neuropathy that first appears on the legs, followed by weakened reflexes, atrophy, and muscle weakness. It is characterized by myelin degeneration and axon fragmentation. Changes in the cardiovascular system or wet beriberi are characterized by peripheral vasodilation leading to AV shunts and consequent dilatation of the heart.

The heart is dilated, thinned walls, heavier and reduced stroke volume, leading to peripheral edema. As mentioned earlier, alcoholics develop Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome due to thiamine deficiency, two syndromes,  Wernicke’s encephalopathy and  Korsakoff’s psychosis, which often occurs together for the same cause. Encephalopathy is characterized by ophthalmoplegia (weakening of extraocular muscles), ataxia (incoordination of voluntary movements), and confusion.

Korsakoff’s syndrome is also called an amnesia-confabulatory syndrome due to retrograde amnesia, inability to remember new information, and confabulation.

Vitamin B 2 (riboflavin)

Vitamin B 2  (riboflavin) coenzyme is in various oxidation and reduction reactions. Today, its deficiency is a rarity. The morphological changes it causes are changes in the scalp, lips, tongue, cornea, and erythroid lineage. Ketosis is a characteristic change. Some fissures radiate and sometimes become secondarily infected in the corner of the lips. Glossitis is also present.

Vitamin B 3 (niacin)

vitamin b3 niacin

Niacin avitaminosis causes a disease called pellagra. It is most commonly found in alcoholics and chronic patients and in people whose diet is poor in tryptophan and rich in leucine (leucine inhibits the conversion of tryptophan to niacin). Pellagra is clinically manifested by dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia. Long-term untreated pellagra is fatal.

Vitamin B 6 (pyridoxine)

Vitamin B 6  (pyridoxine) is a cofactor in a number of enzymes involved in the metabolism of lipids and amino acids, and its deficiency is rare

Vitamin B 12 and folic acid

Vitamin B 12  or cyanocobalamin occurs in two active forms – coenzyme B 12  and methylcobalamin. It is essential to synthesize methionine, nucleic acids, and folic acid metabolism. It is found exclusively in food of animal origin. Plants cannot produce it (that is why people who eliminate animal origin products from their diet sometimes cannot compensate for B 12, and they should be suspected of B after 12  deficiency). For the absorption of vitamin B. 12, gastric cells’ intrinsic factor is necessary.

Vitamin B 9  or folic acid (pteroylmonoglutamic acid) is an oxidized folate form. It has a similar role as cobalamin.

Both vitamins are absorbed in the small intestine. Avitaminosis of both vitamins causes megaloblastic anemia. Since DNA synthesis is disrupted, changes are first observed in the fastest-dividing hematopoietic cells. Glossitis is present. The mucosa of the digestive tract is atrophied. The bone marrow is hyperplastic and, as in the blood, megalocytes and megakaryoblasts predominate.

Anemia leads to tissue hypoxia, so there will be a fatty change in the parenchymal organs. The posterior and lateral columns of the spinal cord are demyelinated. A diet low in folic acid in the first trimester of pregnancy increases the risk of neural tube rupture.

Vitamin C

vitamin c from fruits

Vitamin C ( ascorbic acid ) has the property of reversible oxidation and reduction, on which its action is based. In the body, there is a balance of reduced (L-ascorbic acid) and oxidized (L-dehydroascorbic acid) form:
L-ascorbic acid ↔ dehydro-L-ascorbic acid + 2H +  + 2e .

Vitamin C as a cofactor of proline hydroxylase

This system is associated with other reducing and oxidizing agents. Vitamin C acts in the synthesis of collagen as a coenzyme hydroxylase that hydroxylates the amino acid residues (prolyl and lysyl) of procollagen, a condition for the stabilization of collagen. It also participates in the synthesis of norepinephrine from 3,4-dihydroxy phenyl-ethylamine, carnitine from butyrobetaine 5-hydroxy-tryptophan from tryptamine. The absorption of iron from the intestine is better with ascorbic acid because it reduces the ferric form of iron to the ferrous form. Before the ferritin release, iron is converted to ferric form with ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid protects tetrahydrofolate from the action of oxidizing substances.
In addition to collagen synthesis, vitamin C is important in synthesizing intercellular substances such as ostemucine, chondromucine, and dentin.

Humans, monkeys, and guinea pigs cannot synthesize ascorbic acid due to a mutation in the gene for the enzyme L-gluconolactone oxidase, which catalyzes the transition L-gluconogamalactone to L-ascorbic acid. The daily requirement for vitamin C in quiet conditions is 60 mg, but this need increases two to three times in stress, infection, after surgery, in pregnancy, breastfeeding, and hyperthyroidism. The reserve is small, so it wears out quickly. The kidneys excrete it as oxalate or sulfate.

Vitamin C avitaminosis is rare and causes scurvy, a disease characterized by bone disorders, bleeding, and inability to heal wounds. The cause of this is the formation of abnormal collagen, where the bleeding that accompanies scurvy is the result of a defect in collagen as an integral part of the capillary wall and venules. Therefore, we often see spotting (ecchymoses and purpura) on the mucous membranes.

Often bleeding gums, teeth can fall out due to alveolar bone resorption. Poor connection between the periosteum and bone can lead to subperiosteal bleeding. Due to insufficient production of the osteoid matrix and excessive cartilage growth, wide pineal glands are formed. Anemia is common due to frequent bleeding and reduced release of iron from ferritin reduced absorption of iron from the intestine, and reduced amount of effective folate due to the irreversible oxidation of N 10 formyl-tetrahydrofolate into ineffective metabolites.

Susceptibility to infections is a logical outcome.

Stem cells are successful in treating about 100 diseases

Stem cells are saving millions of lives right now around the world. Storage of umbilical cord blood stem cells is becoming an increasingly common phenomenon globally, and experts in the field of regenerative medicine indicate that they successfully treat about a hundred diseases, from minor injuries to the most serious diseases, such as leukemia. 

Stem cells in Italy

Currently, at the oldest hospital in Milan, Ospedale mađore polikliniko, state-of-the-art clinical trials of stem cells are performed. 20 samples from 21 gynecological centers in Italy are delivered daily because it exists within the public bank where those cells are kept.

Director of the Research Foundation, Dr. Lorenza Lazari which is one of the most recognized experts in the field of regenerative medicine, said during the visit of journalists from Serbia to that hospital that, thanks to stem cells preserved from the umbilical cord, damaged tissues can be successfully treated or repaired.

According to her, stem cells can also be used to treat people with severe heart disease successfully. Thus, waiting lists for such interventions are relieved in Italy.  Thanks to the fact that stem cells are useful in treatment, Dr. Lazar designed their multiplication to make the treatment success rate even better.

She said that leaving stem cells in public banks in Italy is becoming more frequent and that their application is wide, so every region in that country has at least one bank of such cells.

“Currently, there are about 9,000 samples of umbilical cord cells within the public bank in the hospital in Milan, which are useful for treating many diseases,” she said, adding that they can also be taken from bone marrow, fat, liver, teeth …

According to her, they are the most useful stem cells from the umbilical cord, the so-called “mesenchymal cells,” because the practice has shown that the survival rate thanks to them is 70 percent, and in those used from the bone marrow, 30 percent.

Lazari added that thanks to the use of these cells, it is possible to survive premature babies whose lungs are underdeveloped and children with diabetes. Damaged liver tissue can also return to the initial phase, she stated

Stem cells in the region

When it comes to regenerative medicine in Serbia and the surrounding countries, for now, only in Serbia and Albania, there is still no public bank. Still, interested citizens can keep stem cells in private foreign banks.

They usually do that in the Belgian bank “Cryo-Save,” whose representatives state that an increasing number of citizens are interested in this method and decide to save those cells.

The procedure costs about 1. 700 euros, and some of the banks provided loans to citizens for that, while for those who already have sick family members, free storage of cells in a Belgian bank was provided.

Research associate “Cryo save” Dr. Mima Fazlagić explained to the journalists that they have been waiting for a year for the legal regulations which would be approved for the occasion blood sampling. He also took five centimeters of umbilical cord tissue to get even more cells.

She stated that many maternity hospitals in Serbia, especially in larger cities, have the Ministry of Health’s approval that cells can be taken during childbirth and added that it is essential to establish a public bank and a scientific research center.

According to her, stem cells are stored in special bunkers on liquid nitrogen at a temperature of minus 196 degrees Celsius, and their storage is unlimited.

Stem cell use

Stem cells obtained from the umbilical cord are the stem cells of that child. That is, they are completely immunologically identical to it.

It will most likely stem cells suitable for another person with the closest relatives, i.e., born siblings. With the parents, and before any use with another person, a matching check must be performed, the so-called HLA typing, to determine whether the recipient is immunologically matched to the donor.

The hospital in Milan, which journalists from Serbia visited, is the oldest in Italy and was built in the 15th century. Century, and it is known to the general public that Leonardo da Vinci designed exercises in anatomy in it.

It was the Center for the Treatment of Infectious Diseases, where patients were delivered by boat in the distant past. The patients who died in the meantime were then laid in the hospital yard, and today their bones are kept in the basement of that medical institution.

Within the hospital, Ospedale mađore polyclinic in 1992. A public stem cell bank was established in 2006, and the first transplant was performed seven years later.

Stem cells: There will be a cure for everything

More than two thousand citizens in Serbia decided to save their stem cells after giving birth in one of the European private banks, whose representative offices are located in our country.

Thus, they gave a chance to themselves, but also to their relatives, to be cured in case they get sick leukemia, get some blood and immune disorders, and even to restore their heart muscle, liver, or some other organ.

While the number of private banks is increasing in our country, where stem cells are “deposited” by citizens only for their own needs, the plan is to open the first public bank in Serbia, where donors will not care who uses their stem cells, but awareness is important. To save someone’s life!

– In our country, 2009. years formed family umbilical cord blood bank, because the parents of children suffering from hematological and oncological diseases, where transplantation is almost the only form of treatment, are interested in leaving umbilical cord blood cells at the birth of another child – explains Dr. Dragana Vujić, head of the Bone Marrow Transplant Service and Laboratory for cryobiology of the Institute for Mother and Child “Dr. Vukan Cupic.”

Stem cells are found in many tissues in adults but are most abundant in the blood and bone marrow.

According to our interlocutor, when the first public stem cell bank in Serbia is opened, it is planned to store up to 10,000 samples, considering the number of births, the need for transplantation, and the number of inhabitants.

According to official data, there are more than 450,000 umbilical cord blood samples in public banks globally, and more than 20,000 transplants have been performed in the last twenty years.

– They are only public and family banks medically justified.  Chances are I am a donor utilize stem cells given to a private bank are 0.04 percent. Thus, the formation of private banks was banned in Italy and France. In Russia, due to the rejuvenation of stem cells, there was an increase in the number of patients with tumors, which is characteristic of children.

Tumor – Immunobiology of tumor origin development and treatment

Tumor mortality has been steadily rising, but recently, with declining mortality from colon, lung, breast, and prostate cancers, stagnation has occurred. Every 3. get sick, and every 5. dies of a tumor. Tumor cells evade growth control mechanisms, antigens appear on the cell surface, which could theoretically serve as a target antitumor therapies . Based on experimental and clinical data that the organism can reject tumor the theory of immune surveillance has been established.

Tumor origin and development

Vascularization represents the boundary between tumor formation and development. Normally, the body maintains a balance between dying and cell renewal, so that the number and architecture in an organ remain the same.

A cell that avoids the mechanisms of regulation begins to divide autonomously and purposelessly, resulting in a neoplasm or tumor. Benign tumors grow well confined to surrounding tissue, while malignant ones infiltrate healthy tissue, spread by lymphoma, and blood . The altered cell goes through several stages before it becomes a metastatic cancer:

Genetically modified cell -> hyperplasia -> dysplasia -> carcinoma in situ -> invasive cancer

Genetic background

Accumulated mutations in genes essential for cell proliferation and control lead to the formation of defective proteins.


Mutated forms of normal genes (protooncogenes) whose products stimulate cell growth. Protooncogenes encode proteins, which bring growth signals into the cell’s interior, and their mutation can lead to excessive proliferation, ie. excessive production of these proteins.

– Sarcomas and gliomas produce platelet-derived growth factors
– Creating altered growth stimulators
– Creation of aberrant receptors that flood the cells with growth signals even when they are not activated.

The most famous oncogene is  race ,,  and the ras protein is stuck in the on state. 

Tumor suppression genes

These genes inhibit cell division through signals that are passed on to the nucleus, and their mutation can lead to malignancy. The most famous example is gen RB  (tumor retinoblastoma), which encodes the protein pRB (DNA duplication brake). Its mutation produces a non-inactive protein, so the cell can constantly multiply. Gene p53  with its protein through DNA binding and p21 protein synthesis stops the division of damaged DNA.

A gene for checking and repairing DNA

They control the genetic material and through their proteins stop entering the next phase of division if the Dna has not doubled properly. They can prevent or induce apoptosis, and by mutating them, cells can avoid apoptosis.

Gene expression in a tumor cell is disrupted quantitatively and qualitatively.

Tumor growth

Sleeping tumor cells can survive in the body for decades before they establish blood circulation and their malignant phenotype


In order for a tumor to grow it must establish its own blood supply. Cells on the surface of the tumor are constantly growing and travel to the middle of the node where they necrotize. Although they have a common ancestor, the cells are genetically unstable, and over time they increasingly differ in size, shape, growth rate, antigenic properties, sensitivity to external factors and metastatic potential.

Some cells secrete a TAF factor (  tumor angiogenesis factor , it is also secreted by macrophages), which stimulates the ingrowth of new blood vessels and infiltration into the surrounding tissue.


Metastases are biologically rare but clinically common. The cell first breaks away from the primary tumor, infiltrates the surrounding tissue, enters a blood or lymph vessel (or hollow organ), travels through them, grabs the wall, implants, proliferates, and establishes new blood circulation. Every step involves the body’s defense system.

Tumor antigens

Tumor antigens are peptides formed by processing tumor proteins into T lymphocytes represented by MHC I or MHC II molecules.


– Methods in vivo
a) Methods of immunization

b) adoptive immunity transfer

c) passive transmission of immunity

d) neutralization test

e) skin test delayed hypersensitivity
–  Methods  in vitro
a) interaction of lymphocytes and tumors
b) antigen detection by antibodies

 – Genetic approach

In vivo methods

a) Immunization method

The best and oldest method for detecting tumor transplant antigens. If a member of a pure strain is immunized with a tumor induced in that strain, the secondary tumor graft may be rejected if it contains tumor transplant antigens. Immunization is achieved by ligation or surgical removal of the tumor, or by administration of small amounts of living or dead tumor cells. The virulence of tumor cells can be reduced while maintaining antigenicity by ionizing radiation, successive freezing and thawing, cytostatics, iodoacetate.

Example: in a mouse, the tumor is caused by chemical agents, it is immunized surgically, and after transplantation, the tumor is rejected, thus proving the presence of TSTA

b) Adaptive immunity transfer

Immunity is transmitted by injecting sensitized lymphocytes into the syngeneic organism, and immunization is successful if the tumor has transplant tumor antigens.

c) Passive transmission of immunity

Serum immunization is usually not successful, but with rare inhibition (RNA viruses, leukemias), growth is more common (tumors caused by DNA viruses, chemical or physical agents)

d) Neutralization test

The antitumor activity of sensitized lymphocytes is determined. Lymphocytes are mixed in a certain ratio with live tumor cells, injected into the syngeneic host and the dynamics of tumor growth is monitored. By changing the ratio, immunity can be determined approximately quantitatively.

e) Delayed hypersensitivity skin test

Various extracts of living or dead tumor cells are initiated into the skin and the appearance of redness or swelling characterized by abundant infiltration of inflammatory cells, especially lymphocytes and macrophages, is monitored. The method can be used to assess specific sensitivity to the tumor, in patients and in the immunized organism. It is synonymous with cellular hypersensitivity and the test detects cell-mediated immunity.

In vitro methods

A faster, simpler method, performed under defined conditions, better determines quantitative relationships and is suitable for studying human tumors due to the instability of ethical barriers, but for proven antigens it is not certain whether they are transplantable and what their importance is. The method is based on studying the interactions of tumor cells with sensitized lymphocytes and / or with specific antibodies.

Interaction of lymphocytes and tumors (antigens)

Lymphocytes and tumor cells are mixed, and lymphocyte proliferation (3H-thymidine) and cytokine secretion are monitored. The direct effect of cytotoxic T CD8 + lymphocytes was observed by trypan blue staining and measurement of dead tumor cells, measurement of radioactivity released after membrane damage of subsequently labeled cells, counting living tumor cells adhering to the medium and determining the ability of tumor cells to form colonies.

Detection of tumor antigens using antibodies

The cytotoxic effect of antibodies on the tumor or by binding them to the tumor is observed.

Genetic approach

In bacteria it amplifies cDNA formed by mold mRNA isolated from tumors. The isolated DNA is transferred to a eukaryotic cell that expresses a high concentration of MHC-I molecules, which allows the preparation of larger amounts of protein for analysis.

Properties of tumor antigens

tumor antigens

Most are similar to the normal cells from which the tumor originated (species-specific tissue matching antigens) and are mostly glycoproteins. In spontaneous tumors, in contrast to those experimentally induced, antigens are more difficult to detect, less frequent, and do not elicit a transplant rejection reaction.

There are two types of antigens:

–  Tumor specific antigens , TSA – are not found on any normal cell and are really specific

–  Tumor-associated antigens , TAA – are not new to the host because they are found on embryonic tissue cells, on cells during viral infection and on normal cells in lower concentrations

–  Transplant tumor antigens , TATA – include TSA or TAA

They can be located:

And)  on the surface – similar to tissue matching antigens, serve as a theoretical target of antibodies or sensitized lymphocytes, which can cause cell lysis

b)  in the interior – interesting for studying malignant transformation and as markers of tumors

c) in the environment – after necrosis or spontaneous release, responsible for the production of blocking factors, which cause immune growth enhancement. They also serve in the diagnosis and assessment of tumor Peter (afp in hepatoma).

Most of the research was performed on animal experimental models, especially mice, while a smaller part on spontaneously formed tumors.

TSA (tumor specific antigens)

They most often belong to the Heat-shock-protein family ( HSP  ), which is a large number of soluble cellular proteins, which are classified on a molecular basis  Peter. They are also found in normal tissue and are not immunologically active, but HSP tumors cause a specific tumor immunoreaction because a peptide is inserted into it, which binds to progenitor cells (macrophage or dendritic cell), enters the remodeling process for endogenous and exogenous antigens, and is proposed on the surface of the presentation cell within MHC-I or MHC-II.

1. Caused by chemical agents

They have unique and unrepeatable antigens. By ingestion or rubbing into the skin of carcinogens (polycyclic hydrocarbons, aromatic amines, azo dyes and nitroso compounds). They have strong individual antigens that act as transplantable and are specific for one particular solid tumor.

2. Challenged by physical means

They have unique and unrepeatable antigens. They occur after the action of ionizing radiation, chronic mechanical or thermal stimuli or after implantation in the tissue of inert sheets of cellophane or metal, which interrupt intercellular communication. Antigens are less immunogenic.

3. Caused by viruses

Tumor antigens characteristic of the virus are expressed, along with which, in addition to oncogenic DNA or RNA virus, antigens of an incidental virus can also be expressed. Viruses cause lysis of the host cell and in a productive infection the viral genome takes over genetic control over metabolism and creates its own ingredients, which bind to each other into viruses. With integrated infection, malignant cell transformation can occur.

Proviruses act as part of indigenous genetic material and it may be a long time before a normal cell transforms. Virus proteins (antigens) react with proteins that are essential for cellular regulation (products of suppression genes) and remove them. Some of the DNA viruses are: papovirus, adenovirus and herepsvirus. RNA viruses (retroviruses) incorporate their genome into the cell and thus complementary DNA synthesis to RNA virus occurs with the enzyme reversible transcriptase (RNA-dependent DNA polymerase) encoded by viral RNA.

Examples of RNA viruses are HIV and HTLV (human T cell leukemia virus).
Because antigens are determined by the viral genome, they are the same for all antigens caused by the same virus.


Also present in normal cells in smaller amounts.

1. Oncofetal tumor antigens

Macromolecules in high concentrations present in the embryonic period, while in an adult only in traces. They are weakly immunogenic and their recurrence may or may not be associated with tumors. Reappearance is caused by activation of embryonic genes (dedifferentiation caused by neoplastic transformation). The best known are carcinoembryonic antigen and alpha-fetoprotein and TL antigen, a differentiating thymic antigen present on cells in murine leukemia.

2. Oncogenic proteins

Antigens encoded by cellular oncogenes. They are normally found in small amounts encoded by proto-oncogenes. The receptor for the growth factor Neu is found in very small amounts, and in breast tumors in large quantities and can stimulate an immune response. Some oncogenic proteins are different from normal and can function as TAA.

3. Tumor antigens of histological type

Antigens common to most tumors of the same histological type and characteristic are human tumors.

Division of antigens based on structure and genetic origin

1.  Products of mutated onogens and suppression genes
From the cytoplasm, tumors are presented on the surface with MHC-I and MHC-II, but are not the target of antitumor lymphocytes in patients.

2.  products of other mutated genes
They used to be considered TSTAs, and are present in tumors caused by chemical or physical means because they cause a random mutation of any gene.

3.  overexpression of normal gene products
Normal proteins that are present in small concentrations, and in tumors in high ones. – – Tyrosinase – an enzyme present only in melanocytes, and a larger amount triggers an immune response.

4.  Expression of repressed products of normal genes
Proteins are present only in a certain period of embryonic development, and reappear in malignant transformation, and in the wrong tissue and at the wrong time it causes an immunoreaction.

a) MAGE – melanoma antigens

b) CT-group of cancer-testis antigen

5. Altered glycolipid and glycoprotein antigens
Present in human and experimental tumors and targets are tumor immunotherapy and diagnostic markers. These tumors express altered gangliosides, blood group antigens, and mucins.

6. Tissue-specific differentiation antigens
Consequence of deregulation of gene expression (TL antigen)

7. Antigens encoded by oncogenetic viruses

8. Oncofetal antigens 

Human tumor antigens

They have been studied in vitro and in vivo

And) In vitro 
– does not allow the inference of the ability to induce immune rejection of tumors.

b) In vivo
– skin test of late hypersensitivity to extracts of own tumor cells. Tumor nodule formation is reduced if lymphocytes are added to the injected cells.

Antigens found in humans are classified into three groups:

1. Antigens characteristic of histological origin
–  colon, lungs, skin, thyroid
– Patients with malignant melanoma show reactivity against melanoma of other patients, but not reactive to other tumors

2. Viral antigens
–  Epstein-Barr virus -> Burkitt’s lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, infectious mononucleosis
–  Simple hrpes virus type 2 -> cervical cancer
–  type C -> leukemia
– Heliobacter pylori (bac.) -> stomach cancer

3. Oncofetal antigens
–  glycoproteins, which are secretory products and are used in the diagnosis and prognosis of the disease, but are not involved in tumor rejection
– alpha – fetoprotein  – the main serum protein of embryonic age present in liver blackness, hepatitis, liver tumors, chronic hepatitis, ulcerative colitis
– carcinoembryonic antigen – Colon cancer and rectum

Display tumor markers  and connections with authorities:

tumors dividing antigens

Immunoreaction to tumor

Tumor cells are genetically unstable and subject to apoptosis, and apoptotic vesicles contain antigens, which activate lymphocytes via predation cells.

Immune resistance to tumor

The host immune system plays an essential role in tumor formation. Tumors, especially of the hematopoietic system, are more common in animals with a weakened immune system by radiation, immunosuppressive agents, antilymphocyte serum or neonatal thymectomy. Abundant infiltration of the tumor by lymphocytes, macrophages, and plasma cells is evidence of an immune response to the tumor.

A person develops concomitant immunity to a tumor because injecting the cells of that tumor into another place the body shows resistance. Nonspecific and specific immunoreactions (cellular and humoral) are involved in the response to tumors. The cellular response involves lymphocytes, NK cells, macrophages, monocytes, Petertocytes, eosinophils, and other polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Different antibodies participate in the humoral.

Cellular immunity

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes

Upon direct contact, they can destroy the cell by a mechanism via the antigen proposed in MHC-I, but many tumors weakly express MHC-I molecules, thus limiting the cytotoxic effect of CD8 + lymphocytes. Sensitized lymphocytes from an immunized donor or a person with a progressive tumor, which release cytokines in contact with the antigen, also have the ability to kill, but tumors, unlike bacteria and viruses, do not cause cytokines and chemokines required for progenitor cell-specific T lymphocytes. .

NK stations

nk cells

They can kill tumor cells without prior sensitization, and the carbohydrate components of glycoproteins embedded in the membrane of target cells are involved in the recognition process.

After binding to the cell, it releases soluble factors, which cause the cell to lyse. It then separates and connects to another station. Their activity is stimulated by interferons, and inhibition by antigen and tumor complexes.

Macrophages and Monocytes

Participants in the afferent and efferent part of the immunoreaction. Immunity can be passively transmitted through peritoneal macrophages, as well as their ability to kill tumor cells in vivo by inserting the contents of their lysosomes. Their anti-tumor activity is based on lytic enzymes and metabolites of the reactive oxygen species and nitrous dioxide.

Their toxicity can be specific or nonspecific. They also carry receptors for fc-antibodies. They become nonspecific cytotoxic after treatment of animals with nonspecific reticuloendtothelium (BCG) and they selectively recognize and destroy cells with malignant features and can be isolated from tumors.

Humoral immunity

Sensitivity to antibodies is weak and varied. In some cases, immunity can be transmitted by the serum of immunized animals passively by antibodies, but more often there is growth enhancement, after enhancements.

Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity

Antibodies after binding to the tumor make it susceptible to lysis mediated by macrophages and NK cells.

Complement-dependent cytotoxicity of antibodies

It is not present, except in leukemias, especially in those enchanted RNA viruses. Such antibodies sometimes appear in the early stages of the disease (melanoma) or after surgical excision.

Blocking factors

Often found in the serum of hosts with progressively growing tumors, which inhibit specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in antitumor activity, and these are antibodies, immunocomplexes, but also the tumor antigens themselves. Passive transmission of serum in vivo induces immune enhancement of tumor growth.

Immune monitoring of tumor cells

The immune system constantly monitors the body and destroys malignant cells to preserve antigenic and genetic integrity. The main purpose of the transplant reaction would be to protect the organism from tumors. According to some opinions, this system has a role in the elimination of tumor cells at the very beginning, and not when the tumor is already clinically noticeable.

Avoiding tumors by immune defense

1. Poor immunogenicity / MHC-1 deficiency 

Lack of MHC-I, beta2-microglobulin and other parts of the antigen processing mechanism (proteasome) inhibit the activity of cytotoxic CD8 + lymphocytes. Patients with a tumor that does not express MHC-I have a poorer prognosis. A weak immune response can stimulate tumor growth because a small amount of sensitized splenocytes or antibodies to the tumor inoculum accelerates its growth.

2. Immunoselection

Immune attack-sensitive tumor cells decay, and resistant cells, which have been phenotypically modified by induction of an immunoreaction (tumor correction), survive.

3. Antigen modulation

Reversible disappearance of antigen from the surface while there are antibodies (TL antigen in leukemia) or Peterking of antigen by glycocalyx.

4. Lack of costimulator / MHC-II

One signal for TH lymphocyte activation comes from the antigen receptor fused to the antigen exposed to MHC-II, and the other signal through the interaction of CD80 (B7) on the progenitor cell and CD28 molecule on T lymphocyte, which stimulates IL-2 production and T lymphocyte proliferation. T cells can be inhibited via CTLA-4, which like CD28 belongs to the same molecular family and are expressed on CD8 + lymphocytes. Poor activation can lead to clone anergy. The tumor can lose other cells essential for lymphocyte adhesion and lead to a shift of TH1 to TH2. The cytokine microenvironment can create a hostile environment for lymphocytes and prevent their division (TGF-beta).

5. Antigen release / smoke curtain

The action of cytotoxic cells and antibodies requires a certain local density of antigens, but if they are constantly released, a so-called “smoke curtain” is created.

6. Sneaking theory

Tumor cells are initially too small and later too large. The tumor is faster than the effector arc of the immune system.

7. Immune nonreactivity

a) tolerance to vertically transmitted oncogenic viruses (specifically acquired immunotolerance)

b) Tolerance due to inappropriate overdose of tumor antigen
c) Nonspecific natural, iatrogenic or tumor-induced tolerance (VEGF – vascular endothelial growth factor or TGF-beta which inhibits the stimulation of T lymphocytes with IL-2).
Tumors are more common in children due to its underdevelopment and in the elderly due to exhaustion. Suppressive mechanisms are also involved in the immunoreaction, and increasing the number of CD25 + lymphocytes leads to suppression of the antitumor response.

8. Theory of blocking factors

The serum of a progressive tumor carrier can block cellular cytotoxicity in vitro, whereas the serum of a regressive tumor organism does not have this effect.

Tumor immunotherapy

Immunotherapy is based on stimulating the patient’s immune response to the tumor, but is not successful in therapy, but in prophylaxis it is.

Passive immunotherapy

Transfer of specific antibodies prepared in another organism of the same or different species. There is a risk of growth enhancement, poor entry of antibodies into the tumor node and their binding to normal cells (same antigen, binding to the fc-receptor), and they may be antigenic. Antibodies can also enter a tumor cell (toxin), a cytostatic or a radioactive isotope.
Successes have been achieved in the treatment of B-lymphoma with monoclinic antibodies against the antigen CD20 / 22/52, in breast cancer against HER2 / Neu (herceptin) and in leukemia with B and T anti-idiotypic antibodies, and active vaccination against idiotypes of B lymphoma can be performed. antibodies neutralize growth factors and angiogenesis , block growth factor receptors.

Adaptive immunotherapy

Transmission of sensitized lymphocytes can protect, cause regression, or slow tumor growth.

Specific active immunotherapy

Own tumor cells are killed by radiation, heat, successive freezing and thawing and together with the adjuvant are injected under the skin (in melanoma due to common antigens). A promising approach is the manipulation of the costimulatory signal using transfection with the genome that determines the B7 ligand. It is possible to create a spectrum of melanoma cell lines ratified with B7.
In the experimental phase are cellular vaccines, which are divided into 3 types:
  1. dendritic cells
  2. atologic tumor cells
  3. hybridomas of tumor cells and progenitor cells
Attempts are being made to antigenic peptide which would be administered as a vaccine. Vaccination against the idiotypes of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and multiple myeloma has been successful.

Nonspecific active immunotherapy

The use of non-specific stimulants is also successful. FOR stimulation of a nonspecific reticuloendothelial system such as zymosan, glucan, levamisole, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, Bordotella pertussis. The number and activity of immunocompetent cells, which activate cytokine-secreting macrophages and express MHC-II molecules and B7 costimulatory molecules, increases.

This all leads to the activation of TH helper lymphocytes and increases cellular and humoral immunity. By injecting local BCG into the tumor, its regression and metastasis to the lymph nodes is achieved. Immune status is impaired due to cytostatics and the results are not satisfactory, except in the treatment of melanoma.

Restorative immunotherapy – recovery and stimulation of the immune response

Antagonists of suppressive effects (cyclophosphamide, indomethacin – prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor) are used. Isolation and cloning of genes for various cytokines has led to the possibility of easy production. Interferons, alpha, beta and gamma, IL-1/2/4/5/12, GM-CSF and TNF-alpha are used in therapy, but without much success . Antibodies against 35] CTLA-4 are also used.
It is possible to be vaccinated with heat shock proteins, which are released upon cell damage and lead to the presentation of the HSP peptide within the MHC-I on professional presentation cells.

Tumor immunoprophylaxis

– Vaccination against oncogenic viruses successful in experimental animals, but also applied in humans.
–  Clinoran antigenic peptides are products of tumor antigens, and some produce onogens or viruses.
–  Experiments with antiidiotopic antibodies, which mimic the properties of antigens.
– HPV vaccine , hepatitis B vaccine

Explanation of the terms mentioned in the text

Lymphocytes  – central cells in a specific immunoreaction
NK cells – a subtype of lymphocytes that are classified as large granular lymphocytes and is not a clonal organism. 

Petertocytes  – large cells in the connective tissue, especially under the skin and mucous membranes. They bind IgE, which, after binding to the allergen, causes degranulation. They mediate the anaphylactic hypersensitivity reaction.

Macrophages  – professional phagocytes from the bone marrow, travel through the blood as monocytes and roam the tissues like mature macrophages. Participants in a specific and nonspecific immunoreaction. 

Nonspecific immunity  – is innate, the first line of defense that exists without prior encounter with the antigen, and is directed against all antigens. It is based on anatomical, physiological, phagocytic barriers and inflammation. 

Molecule B7  – expressed on presentation cells and provides a costimulatory signal for T lymphocytes, binding to the CD28 molecule, and is also found on macrophages and B lymphocytes. 

BCG  –  Bacillle Calmette Guerin , is an attenuated strain  Myobacterium tuberculosis  which is used for vaccination and as an adjuvant for nonspecific immunostimulation.

Beta2 – microglobulin  – a polypeptide involved in the structure of MHC-I

Energy  – inability to respond to antigens by immunoreaction, and may occur if no other signal is present. 

TH1 lymphocytes  – anti-inflammatory cells that mediate the late hypersensitivity reaction. They secrete cytokines, activate macrophages, and can lyse target cells.

TH2 lymphocytes  – secrete cytokines IL-4/5, and stimulate humoral immunity. 

CTLA-4  – negative signal and inhibits lymphocyte proliferation (CD28 antagonist).

Tumor transplant antigens  – antigens that can cause a tumor transplant rejection reaction 

Transplant reaction  – graft immune rejection reaction 

Transplantation  – the procedure of transplanting tissues and organs from one place to another within the same organism (autotransplantation) or from one individual to another (allotransplantation, to an unrelated individual within the same species, xenotransplantation, from another species) 

Pure strains of animals  – are syngeneic animals created by mating a brother and sister for at least 20 years 

Syngenic  – indicates that two tissues or organisms are genetically identical, e.g. identical twins or pure strains of animals

Inflammation  – stereotypical, standard reaction of the organism to any damage and is the beginning of any specific immunoreaction. 

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes  executive effector lymphocytes that, in direct contact, can kill target cells without the mediation of antibodies and complements. They recognize antigens represented by MHC-I molecules. They are major mediators of cellular immunity, late hypersensitivity, graft and tumor rejection, and killing of one’s own infected cells. 

CD8  – a heterodimeric molecule on cytotoxic lymphocytes, which acts like a receptor that binds to the alpha3 – domain of MHC-I and participates in signal transduction during the activation of T lymphocytes.


Taradi M et al .: Immunology. Medicinska naklada, Zagreb, 2010

Microbes and cancer is there a connection?

For modern independent cancer researchers, the only mystery left is how the microorganism got into the cell, that is, whether it was created in it (under anaerobic conditions) or entered through a weakened cell membrane. But the fact is that you can find it in a cancer cell and that many scientists have seen it from the world’s most eminent clinics.

Roman oncologist Dr. Tulio Simoncini discovered the candida fungus, and he even claims that it is necessarily present in cancer patients. Fungi are often ingested by smoking. 

What happens in the cancer cell in this case is vividly described by R. Webster Kerr

bacterial microorganisms

Once in the cell, the microbe begins to intercept glucose that enters the cell and feeds on it, thus depriving the cell of food. The microbes then secrete micro toxins, actually dangerous hormones, and dirt is created inside the cell in cell fungus. Mycotoxins are very acidic, and the inside of the cell becomes more acidic. And that is exactly the characteristic of a cancer cell – the longer the cell is cancerous, the more acidic it is.

Because the microorganism hijacks glucose molecules, tiny amounts of food remain available to the cells (glucose in the cell needs to be converted to pyruvate to enter the mitochondria). Due to the large amount of “dung” in the cell, it cannot produce enough ATP molecules to start the “battery” filling of the mitochondria. Thus, the mitochondria are located at the bottom of a muddy pond in which they cannot “breathe.” The energy level of mitochondria decreases because the number of ATP molecules decreases.

Signals are sent to insulin receptors and glucose receptors on the cell membrane, and more glucose is required. The body of a cancer patient, therefore, wants to eat sweets. As much as 15 times more glucose enters the cancer cell, the microbe still intercepts these molecules and feeds and multiplies abundantly. Thus, the microbe becomes healthy and nourished, and the cell becomes sick and hungry it simply “chokes” in the mud from dangerous hormones and mycotoxins.

There is probably a biological limit here, Kerr notes, as much as the receptors can place glucose on the cell, and when that limit is met, there is no other way for the mitochondria to get enough energy. Due to the small number of ATP molecules, the energy level decreases, and the cell becomes anaerobic. And that suits the microorganism perfectly.

The other side of the coin – the medical establishment


“The medical establishment, through its media, usually places the story that DNA has been damaged the cause of cancer. While in rare cases, someone’s normal DNA can give the immune system a predisposition to get cancer, DNA damage has never been the cause of any cancer. Cancer only occurs when the Krebs cycle and the “electron transport chain” (ETC) are interrupted from within the mitochondria. “DNA damage cannot interrupt the Krebs cycle, and thus cancer cannot occur,” Kerr claims.

The medical establishment wants to deceive the public and many scientists with this claim for two reasons. This gives people the impression that cancer research is very complex and has to be done for a long time, and it will take a long time for the cure, so a lot of money is needed. In the meantime, research is being done for military purposes.

Based on the research of Ron Gdanski, which is  As for DNA damage, is damage to the DNA of a microbe that is inside the cell and which is the cause of the DNA damage of the cancer cell. So the DNA of a damaged cell is not the cause of cancer, but it is subsequently damaged due to microbes in it.

Medicine thus uses viruses injected into cells with defective DNA to use them to repair the DNA of cells. This is called “gene therapy” because it is known that the microbial DNA (called “vectors”) inside a human cell can affect the DNA inside the cell itself. 
(So, if this doesn’t cure cancer, then we can only imagine what kind of genetic experiments are being done and for what purpose).

Cancer treatment

When we know all this, there are four ways to treat cancer:

1. By killing cancer cells; 
2. By killing microbes inside the cancer cell;
3. By strengthening the immune system so that he kills the cancer cell (he puts it on apoptosis ); 
4. By transforming the microbe inside the cell into a microbe “in hibernation.”

Forbidden vitamin b17

The biggest problem with most of the alternative therapies we’ve already listed is that when a cancer cell is killed, it’s done gradually to eventually induce the immune system to induce the cell to apoptosis.

During that period, during the treatment, an inflammatory process occurs in the tumor itself, and swelling is created, so the mass of the tumor increases in the first weeks of therapy. When there is a surge of electricity in it, if it is a brain or lung tumor, this can be very inconvenient, so adequate therapy is required for each tumor.

Killing  cyanide cells from vitamin B17 does not have this problem but 
this therapy is banned in the United States and is now performed mostly in a private clinic in Mexico.

Electric cancer treatment

Therefore,  an almost perfect way to kill the cause of cancer is to kill the microbes in the cell to be killed by the immune system when the Krebs cycle resumes.

And Royal Rife did that successfully by precisely calculating the frequencies with which the microbe in the cancer cell oscillated. But you destroyed all his works. And probably no one knows that exact frequency for now. However, many try to do it with approximate frequencies.

When in 1990. Dr. Stephen Cali and William Lyman researching AIDS, published their discovery that a small amount of alternating current (50 to 100 millionths of an ampere) destroys a microbial enzyme, and physicist Robert Bob Beck, who has been practicing electromedicine for thirty years, became interested in this. Eminent clinics and scientific research centers were not interested in discovering Kali and Liman further perfected.

You can guess why. This discovery actually meant that you could prevent the microbe from being coiled or “hooked” cells (e.g., for white blood cells). This would definitely turn the pharmaceutical business black.

Bob Beck research

Bob Beck
Dr. Bob Beck

In order not to be struck by the fate of Royal Rife, Dr. Beck had to be careful, so he did most of the research outside the United States, and the microbial killer he assembled was never offered to anyone as a whole, but it is still sold in parts. . Those who want to be treated for cancer with this most effective method so far, must  to assemble it themselves at home according to the instructions and with the precise protocol of Dr. Bob Beck.  And don’t be surprised because the time we live in is worse than the time of the medieval Inquisition.

The laws in our country as well as in Western countries are such that the right to apply medical treatments (which does not mean to treat) have only those who have been approved by the state.  Otherwise, you are a fraud and a quack doctor, no matter how much knowledge and success you have in treatment. And even some educated doctors in Serbia have already felt that on their skin. Because of the scam called chemotherapy and radiation, no one has gone to prison yet, although many people are already like this  poisoned and killed.

What is pancreatin?

Pancreatin is a combination of digestive enzymes (proteins). These enzymes are normally produced by the pancreas and are important for digesting fats, proteins, and sugars.

Pancreatin is used to replace digestive enzymes when the body does not have enough of its own. Certain medical conditions can cause this enzyme deficiency, such as cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, or pancreatic surgery.

Pancreatin can also be used to treat steatorrhea (rare, oily stools).

Pancreatin may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

You should not take pancreatin if you are allergic to pork proteins or have a sudden onset of pancreatitis or a worsening of a long-term pancreatic problem.

To make sure that pancreatin is safe for you, tell your doctor if you have:

When it comes to pregnant women, it is unknown whether pancreatin harms the unborn baby. Do not use this medicine without medical advice if you are pregnant.

It is unknown whether pancreatin passes into breast milk or whether it could harm a nursing baby.

Do not use this medicine without medical advice if you are breast-feeding a baby.

Side effects of pancreatin

Seek emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: rash, difficulty breathing, swelling of the face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor immediately if you have:

  • severe nausea, vomiting or diarrhea,
  • severe abdominal pain
  • swollen or painful joints
  • any changes you notice.

Common side effects include:

  • nausea, mild abdominal pain,
  • diarrhea or
  • mild skin rash.

This is not a complete list of side effects, but others may appear. Call your doctor for medical advice on side effects.

Pancreatin and its interactions

Do not take any other digestive enzyme unless your doctor tells you to.

Avoid taking antacids 1 hour before or after taking pancreatin.

Other medicines may interact with pancreatin, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Tell each of your doctors about all the medicines you are currently taking and about every medicine you start or stop taking.

Dosage of pancreatin

Use it exactly as stated on the package or as prescribed by your doctor. Your doctor may change the dose you take from time to time to get the best results. Please do not use it in larger or smaller quantities or longer than recommended.

Pancreatin should be taken with a meal or snack.

Take pancreatin with a full glass of water.

Do not hold the tablet in your mouth. The drug can irritate the inside of the mouth.

Do not crush, chew or share pancreatin tablets. Swallow it whole.

You may need frequent blood tests to make sure this medicine helps your condition. You may not notice any change in your symptoms, but your blood test will help your doctor determine how long you will be treated with pancreatin.

Call your doctor if your symptoms do not improve or worsen while using pancreatin.

Pancreatin can only be part of a complete treatment program that includes a special diet. Follow the diet plan prescribed by your doctor or nutrition counselor. Familiarize yourself with the list of foods you need to eat or avoid to help control your condition.

Use pancreatin regularly to get the most benefits, and you may need to use this medicine for the rest of your life.

Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat.

If your doctor changes the medicine manufacturer, the strength, or the type of pancreatin, your doses may change. Ask your pharmacist if you have any questions about the new type of pancreatin you get at the pharmacy.

Take the missed dose as soon as you remember that you have skipped taking pancreatin. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take an extra dose to make up for a forgotten dose.

Always take pancreatin with food.

Cellular biology of neurons

The human brain consists of more than 10 11 neurons associated with more than 10 12 glia cells. A neuron is an electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information via electrical and chemical signals. Each morphological part of the neuron has a separate signaling function (separate biochemical reactions) and is of ectodermal origin, as are the epithelial cells. We distinguish the following functional structures on neurons:

  • Dendrites and axons are input or receptive, which translates signals into intracellular biochemical signals (the membrane corresponds to the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells).
  • Trigger zone nerve impulse is an axonal mound in which all received excitatory impulses are integrated and further translated along the axon.
  • The conduction part of a neuron is an axon that conducts an impulse to the next neuron, i.e., to the synapse
  • presynaptic element is the presynaptic part of a neuron (the membrane corresponds to the apical membrane of epithelial cells), where a neurotransmitter transmits a signal in the form of signaling molecules uni-directionally to the postsynaptic part of another neuron, which is connected by a synapse (synapse is asymmetric or polarized, leading to unidirectional transmission).

Neurons are terminally differentiated because they no longer divide after formation. The neuron’s nucleus is pale because the chromosomes are not compact, and the nucleus is visible.
Neurons synthesize three major groups of proteins:

  1. Cytosolic proteins for the cytoskeleton and numerous enzymes characteristic of certain neurons (acetylcholine neurons contain choline acetyltransferase, chAT)
  2. Proteins formed in the cytosol that are further distributed in the nucleus, mitochondria, and peroxisomes
  3. Proteins in function cell membranes :
– transmembrane, anchored
proteins in the lumen of GA or ER
and are not bound to the membrane
Proteins synthesized in the membrane
, which are further transmitted to other organelles or cell surface (secretory or synaptic vesicles)

The mRNA molecule

The mRNA molecule, which controls the synthesis of groups 1 and 2, is bound to polyribosomes, while the mRNA of the third group is located in the rER membrane. All proteins (except mitochondria) are formed on ribosomes in the cytosol, and depending on whether they have an amino acid signal sequence, remain in the cytosol or are further broken down into the nucleus through nuclear pores, through the membrane by carriers into the lumen of the organelle or vesicular transport. A neuron can release content into its environment through the process of exocytosis. During the endocytosis process, it can enter the content and further distribute it with the help of endosomes and lysosomes (the path of biosynthesis and secretion). ER and GA form a system of cisterns and cavities. Sometimes, a set of flattened and strongly perforated cisterns is observed along the edge of the cytoplasm à hypolemal cistern (Probably all neurons have it, but it is well visible in Purkinje fibers). Cisterns along the very edge of the membrane can also be seen, which, if found below the synaptic membrane, are called subsynaptic tanks. ER is the center of protein and most lipid synthesis and contains calciosome by storing Ca ions. Covalent addition of sugar (pre-prepared N-linked oligosaccharide from dolichol is transferred to the NH2-group of asparagine by oligosaccharyltransferase) to proteins is one of the main biosynthetic functions of ER.

Golgi apparatus

Golgi apparatus is the major site of carbohydrate synthesis and classification of the content received from the ER, and consists of the cis network (facing the core, more hollow), the Golgi stack (cis and trans subdivision), and the trans (facing the st membrane) network. Proteins are further processed in GA, and you can find two large groups of N-linked oligosaccharides on glycoproteins:

  1. Complex oligosaccharides contain more than two initial molecules of N-acetylglucosamine (obtained in ER) and a diverse number of residues of galactose, galactose, and sialic acid (has a negative charge).
  2. Oligosaccharides with a high mannose content contain only two original molecules of N-acetylglucosamine and numerous mannose residues.


Lysosomes serve the intracellular digestion of macromolecules. Their pH is about 5. It contains over 40 hydrolytic enzymes, H-pumps insert protons into the cytosol of lysosomes. Macromolecules reach them through autophagosomes, phagosomes, or endosomes. The contents are introduced into the cell from the outside by intussusception with endocytosis. We differentiate pinocytosis (in the intake of less liquid or dissolved content) I phagocytosis (intake of larger molecules). Neurons use pinocytosis, where they first form clathrin-coated vesicles, which fuse with early endosomes and form a late endosome that fuses with lysosomes. Neurons often have receptors (transmembrane proteins) to which molecules bind and enter as receptor complex – macromolecule. Some molecules remain bound to receptors. The recycling processor can expel them into a new cell membrane’s lysosomes and participate in the transcytosis process. Neurons process controlled exocytosis (controlled secretion pathway) store molecules derived from GA in the form of clathrin-coated vesicles (protein or smaller molecules) in secretory and synaptic vesicles, which are secreted in response to some external specific signal (constitutional exocytosis – used by all cells).

A neuron can act as an endocrine cell or as a neuron because it can secrete, e.g., oxytocin or vasopressin, into the bloodstream (hormone) or at the end of the axon at the synapse (neurotransmitter). This phenomenon is called neurosecretion/ neurosecretory cell / neurosecretory granules or vesicles. Most proteins are first synthesized as inactive precursors, which are subsequently proteolytically processed (cleaved into biologically active peptides) during travel through the trans-Golgi network, secretory vesicles and in the extracellular fluid (pre-pro-protein is cleaved in ER and pro-protein is formed, which is cleaved again before exocytosis into a secretory polypeptide). Secretory vesicles transfer content from the ER and GA to the axon’s presynaptic portion, where they are stored, and then empty bubbles travel back to be refilled ( axonal transmission ). Synaptic vesicles form where the secretory ones, but they are refilled locally, i.e., at the axon’s very end.

According to the type of vesicle coat, we distinguish two types of vesicles:

  1. Clathrin-coated vesicles – selective transmission of transmembrane receptors. Clathrin (3 large and three small subunits) forms a triskelion basket, and they combine into a basket network. Clathrin provides the necessary mechanical force to separate the vesicle and ensures that the contents remain in a separate compartment, i.e., vesicles. The receptor-ligand complex participates in the fusion of the vesicle with the membrane and stabilization adaptin and the “separating” ATPase in separating the mantle from the vesicle.
  2. Catrin-coated vesicles – non-selective transmission between ER and GA

The transfer of vesicles is controlled by GTP-binding proteins, monomeric GTPases, or polymeric GTPases (having multiple polypeptide chains). The active form has bound GTP and the inactive GDP.


Cytoskeleton allows the cell to migrate, transfer proteins (builds “roads”), move organelles and shape an individual neuron. All of these functions work with helper proteins. The cytoskeleton is made up of three types of protein filaments:

  • actin or microfilaments are made of actin, form polar, spherical polymers, and are essential for cell movement. They function as nets or bundles. They form the cell cortex and are especially pronounced in the dendritic joints. Actinium allows their interaction with the extracellular matrix.
  • Microtubules (microtubules) are made of tubulin (polymerization) and form the cytoskeleton’s backbone. Each monomer binds 2 molecules of GTP or one GTP and one GDP molecule, which bind to the β-subunit of tubulin (hydrolysis of GTP leads to depolymerization). Microtubules grow by the process nuclei (slower) or process extensions. They distinguish between the plus (fast-growing) and minus (slow-growing) end, which can be stabilized by a centrosome (centriole surrounded by a centrosome matrix). They are located in dynamic instability because they are constantly growing and shrinking, and individual tubulin molecules, whose lifespan is about 20 hours, participate in the construction of more mirkotubu. MAP proteins participate in microtubule stabilization and fetal neuron differentiation. MAP-1 is present in axons, and MAP-2 in catfish and dendrites.
  • Intermediate filaments are non-polar polymers made of vimentin or lamin (elongated fibrous molecules with a head – amino end and tail – carboxy end and with the dreadlocks, which connects the head and tail) and give mechanical resistance to the cell, and we divide them into three groups:
  1. Keratin filaments – epithelial cells, nails, and hair
  2. Vimentin filaments – vimentin, desmina (muscles), and acidic fibrous glia proteins – GFAP (astrocytes and Schwann cells).
  3. Neurofilaments – subunits are NF-L (low weight), NF-M, and NF-H (medium and high weight, present in axons and forming continuous ˝ narrow˝ lengths 1m). Silver impregnation methods paint them.

Motor proteins

Motor proteins enable organelles’ movement by constant hydrolysis of ATP and by pulling organelles along microtubules or actin filaments (kinesins – go towards the + end, cytoplasmic and ciliary dyneins – go towards the perm – end). They consist of two heavy (ATPases) and several light chains to tie their load. Proteins and organelles are transported along axons in both directions:

  1. Rapid anterograde transmission of newly synthesized ER and cell membrane materials, synaptic components, and vesicles – from the soma to the presynaptic part of the axon.
  • Type I – 100-400 mm / day
  • II. species – 20 – 70 mm / day
  • III. species – 3 – 20 mm / day
  1. Slow anterograde transmission components (0.1 – 4 mm / day) of the cytoskeleton and associated proteins, cytosolic enzymes of intermediate filaments. It serves to replace worn-out structural proteins. At a rate of 0.2 – 2.5 mm / day, subunits of neurofilaments and microtubules are transmitted. At a rate of 3-4 mm / day, molecules of the cytoskeleton and associated molecules and some enzymes.
  2. Retrograde transmission takes place at a speed of 300 mm/day. The content is transferred to the catfish, i.e., into lysosomes and contents for re-metabolic use. It matures this way NGF (neurotrophic growth factor), enzyme HRP and neurotropic viruses (herpes simplex, rabies, and poliovirus).