Heart transplantation

A heart transplant is a transplant of a complete human heart. Heart failure (or congestive heart failure) is a condition in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet other bodily organs’ needs. People with heart failure should not strain because they are short of breath and tired. They can also have life-threatening irregular […]

Learn all about anemia

Anemia  (hr.  anemia;  ICD-10:  D50-D64) is strictly defined as a decrease in red blood cell mass (erythrocytes, RBC from red blood cell) and is the most common blood disorder.  Erythrocytes’ role is to deliver oxygen from the lungs in tissues and carbon dioxide from tissues into the lungs. This is achieved using hemoglobin (Hb), a […]

Pneumonia infection

Pneumonia is an infection of the pulmonary alveoli or walls of the alveolar sacs. The diagnosis of pneumonia is quite obvious; however, as many organisms can cause pneumonia, determining the cause in a particular case can be very difficult. Numerous microorganisms can cause pneumonia, but they most commonly cause its bacteria. Common causes depend on […]

Menstrual cycle

The reproductive system of women, unlike the male system, shows regular cyclical changes that can be considered periodic preparations for fertilization and pregnancy. In humans and other primates, the cycle is called the menstrual cycle. Its most obvious feature is vaginal bleeding that occurs with peeling of the uterus’ lining (menstruation). The cycle’s length is […]

Vascular dementia

There is a loss of attention and concentration, mental and physical fatigue. Mood swings, depression or aggressive behavior, hallucinations, paranoia occur. Changes such as falling into unreasonable crying or laughing are characteristic. Speech is difficult, he cannot remember adequate words, he becomes simple, he uses phrases … There are several types of dementia, of which […]

CT scanner

A CT (computed tomography) scanner is a special machine that uses X-rays. Instead of sending individual X-rays through the body with a regular X-ray, multiple X-rays are sent simultaneously from different angles. How does a CT scanner work? Once they pass through the body, the X-ray beams are detected, and their strength is measured. Bundles […]

Anesthetic and anesthesia

An anesthetic is used to reduce or eliminate pain so that doctors can make painful procedures or surgeries.There are two types of anesthetics: general, leading to loss of consciousness. local, which reduces or eliminates pain in a part of the body Anesthesia-induced sleep is not the same as normal sleep but a form of a […]

What is Amniocentesis?

Amniocentesis is a serious diagnostic test that is performed during pregnancy. It is used to detect possible chromosomal abnormalities in the unborn baby that can cause Down syndrome or other congenital problems. This procedure takes a sample of amniotic fluid surrounding the fetus and analyzes it. This test is performed from the fifteenth week of […]


Angiography is a test that makes the arteries easily visible to X-rays with the help of an injection of fluid injected into the bloodstream. When is angiography used? Until recently, an angiogram was used to determine blood vessels’ condition. Today, non-invasive techniques provide the same information with less inconvenience and risk to the patient. These […]


A biopsy is a procedure of taking a tissue sample from an organism to examine. The tissue is examined under a microscope, and therefore microscopic samples are needed. Sometimes it is enough to scrape the tissue from an area (an example of this is taking a sample with the cervix ). During a bowel examination, […]