Abscess and its treatment – diet, aromatherapy, herbs

An abscess, what does it represent

An abscess is a purulent inflammation of the tissue with the formation of a purulent cavity. It can occur in muscles, bones, subcutaneous tissue, in organs and between them. Abscesses can develop on their own or as a complication of other diseases (trauma, pneumonia, angina).

If a large amount of pus accumulates, the abscess may rupture, leading to pus coming out. This causes an inflammatory process, which can cause blood vessel sepsis and other, no less dangerous consequences.

Therefore, it is necessary to know how to treat an abscess at an early stage.

Accumulation of pus in the tissue bag occurs as a result of decomposed bacteria that the body destroys.

They form pus white blood cells fighting infection.

Abscess: causes and factors of development

Like any other purulent disease, an abscess develops due to a violation of the integrity of the skin and the penetration of pathogenic purulent bacteria into the body. In the reproduction of bacteria on the skin, pus appears and bumps form that fill with pus. It should be noted that some bacteria are capable of causing abscesses as part of the normal microflora of our organism. However, under certain conditions, these bacteria begin to multiply uncontrollably, creating purulent masses. A large number of these microorganisms inhabit the mucous membrane of the mouth, nasal cavity, genitals, mucous membranes of the eye, small and large intestines.

It should be noted that it is quite difficult to detect the pathogen of an abscess, and the effectiveness of treatment depends on the exact identification of the microorganism. There are a large number of pathogenic bacteria that can cause soft tissue abscesses.

The most common causes of abscesses are:


In most cases, skin abscesses are caused by staphylococci. According to recent medical studies, staphylococcus is found in 28% of cases of skin abscesses. About 47% of cases of abscesses that develop in the upper half of the body (abscesses of the neck, face, chest and armpits) are caused by staphylococci.

E. coli

One of the most common microorganisms that inhabit the large intestine and is excreted by microscopic examination of feces. This microorganism is often the cause of the development of abscesses in the lower half of the body.

Types of abscesses

Abscess – limited purulent inflammation of adipose tissue, accumulation of pus in the cavity.

Abscess in the Douglas space Douglas space is limited by the pelvic peritoneum, located in men between the rectum and the bladder, in women – between the wall of the uterus and the rectum. Abscesses in it most often occur due to the outflow of purulent-inflammatory exudate with diffuse peritonitis of various etiologies, with the pelvic location of the appendix.

Subphrenic abscess – accumulation of pus under the diaphragm. It is most often formed on the right side with peritonitis under the influence of the suction effect that occurs between the dome of the liver and the diaphragm.

Pulmonary abscess

Brain abscess


Some medications can cause sterile abscesses on the skin that look like cellulite.

In some cases, some diseases (eg pharyngitis, paraphyproctitis, nail ingrown, Crohn’s disease, osteomyelitis, etc.) can be complicated by the appearance of abscesses.

Symptoms and diagnosis of abscess

For superficial abscesses, the manifestations of acute inflammation are typical: redness of the skin, local pain, local fever, swelling, organ dysfunction. The general symptoms of abscesses are typical for inflammatory processes wherever they are: headache, malaise, fever, loss of appetite, weakness.

Herbal abscess treatment

Decoction of echinacea helps the body against bacterial infections: two teaspoons of the root are poured into a glass of water, after boiling it is boiled for 10 minutes. It is drunk 3 times a day.


Frequent ulcers with abscesses can be caused by a lazy stomach and untimely emptying. The following tips help flush out toxins and improve digestion:

• Limit the use of fatty foods, including meat, eggs and dairy products.

• Limit the use of sweets and carbohydrates (white flour and sugar).

• Increase the use of fresh fruits and vegetables.

It is recommended to take:

• Zinc: 45 mg. daily.

• Vitamin A: 50,000 iU daily for two weeks.

Aromatherapy for abscesses

Tea tree oil has an antiseptic effect. Prepare a solution of 2 drops in a cup of tea and smear the abscess with this solution several times a day.

Homeopathy for abscess

When the abscess is very mature and causes stabbing pain: sulfur (Hepar sulfphuris).

At the very beginning, when the abscess pulsates and becomes red and inflamed: Belladonna.

Take 1 tablet per hour to 4 doses and repeat if necessary

Chinese remedy for abscess

Abscesses are thought to be caused by excess body heat. Plants that lower the temperature are recommended: Chinese golden thread, abscesses of wild chrysanthemums and violets. They are prepared as tea.

Hydrotherapy for abscesses

Prepare a hot compress by dipping pure raw cotton in hot water. Keep it on the abscess to remove the pus.

Traditional medicine for apseces

Your doctor may remove pus from the abscess. recommend an antibiotic to prevent possible infection.

Preparations that help with abscesses

Polycystic ovary syndrome successful natural treatment!

Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common hormonal imbalance, affecting approximately 5-18% of women of reproductive age. This endocrine disorder is characterized by a heterogeneous clinical picture determined by different signs and symptoms, which makes diagnosis very difficult.

Menstrual cycle dysfunction (oligo / anovulation)

Clinical or biochemical hyperandrogenism (hirsutism, acne and / or alopecia).

Ultrasound criteria (polycystic ovarian morphology)

Polycystic ovary syndrome, symptoms:

Very irregular menstrual cycles


Absence of menstruation. It occurs in 70% of cases.


Decreased menstruation (long cycles, greater than 35 days).


Very frequent menstrual periods (short cycles, shorter than 25 days)


Prolonged, heavy and painful menstruation

Premenstrual syndrome

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is characterized by various physical changes (nausea, weight gain, fatigue, headaches, etc.) and mental (irritability, altered libido, depressed mood, behavioral changes …). These symptoms occur in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle (a week before menstruation) and women with polycystic ovary syndrome tend to have a harder time withstanding them.

Fertility problems

Anovulation is the absence of ovulation and is one of the most common causes of female infertility.

Excess androgens (hyperandrogenism) is an increase in the male hormone in the blood. Excess androgens can lead to hirsutism (increased body hair in areas such as the face or breasts), acne or seborrhea (excessive production of sebaceous glands) and / or acanthosis nigricans (presence of localized hyperpigmentation on the back of the head, armpits or wrinkles).

Overweight women are more likely to suffer from polycystic ovary syndrome. Women with normal weight (BMI 18.5-25) also suffer from this syndrome. Therefore, it cannot be claimed with certainty that there is a direct link between being overweight and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

Insulin resistance

Insulin resistance code Polycystic ovary syndrome occurs due to a defect or inability of the muscle insulin receptor to capture glucose, which leads to an increase in blood glucose. Therefore, women with polycystic ovary syndrome are at increased risk of complications such as diabetes mellitus, premature atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart attack, abortion and coronary heart disease.

The exact cause of polycystic ovary syndrome is unknown. Most experts agree that this is a multifactorial entity that is increasingly influenced by genetic factors. Genes associated with gonadotropins (hormones produced by the pituitary gland responsible for the release of the female hormones LH and FSH) and other hormones associated with insulin and its receptors have been identified.

The most common causes

Hormonal changes

The pituitary gland is responsible for secreting female hormones luteinizing (LH) and follicle stimulating (FSH). In the case of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, decompensation occurs in the production of these hormones and more LH is secreted than FSH (in normal situations, it should be the other way around). This decompensation leads to increased androgen production. Elevated levels of the male hormone can prevent the separation of the egg from the ovary (prevent ovulation) and disrupt the female menstrual cycle.


Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that is involved in the metabolic use of nutrients and is responsible for regulating the amount of glucose in the blood until it is converted into energy. In women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, changes in insulin receptors have been observed, leading to an increase in blood glucose. The pancreas as a compensatory response produces more insulin and this overproduction has direct effects on the ovary. Excess testosterone levels are produced and typical signs of the syndrome are generated (hirsutism, anovulation, acne, etc.)

It is important to consider other causes such as stress, emotions, diet and an inactive lifestyle because they can affect and cause changes in the hormonal system.

Fertility, pregnancy and PCOS


Women with polycystic ovary syndrome have problems with the menstrual cycle (anovulation is the leading cause of infertility in these patients). Insulin resistance and associated changes in endometrial development may adversely affect fertility. Approximately 85-90% of women who do not ovulate and want to get pregnant go to in vitro fertilization centers, although that does not mean that they cannot get pregnant naturally. 60% of women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome are fertile and can become pregnant in less than 12 months. The chances of getting pregnant spontaneously are reduced if you have oligoovulation.


Women with polycystic ovary syndrome have a higher risk of certain complications during pregnancy (gestational diabetes, hypertension, preeclampsia, premature birth). Common diseases such as metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance) and hyperandrogenism can increase the risk of pregnancy. Several studies claim that babies are more likely to be older for their gestational age and will suffer a spontaneous caesarean section or suffocation during birth.

Diet and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

The most effective treatment for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is to lead a healthy lifestyle accompanied by a balanced diet and regular physical activity.

Recommended diet

Whole carbohydrates

Consumption of whole grains can reduce the risks of inflammation and obesity that characterize the development of insulin resistance. Cereals contain fiber and a lower glycemic index, slightly raising blood glucose levels, unlike refined or simple sugars. It is advisable to include in your diet the consumption of cereals such as quinoa, buckwheat, millet, oats, amaranth.

What is the glycemic index (GI)? Can the GI of food be altered?

The glycemic index is the ability of foods to raise blood glucose.

Hydration, maturation and heat have the ability to increase the GI in food. It is recommended to avoid too long cooked foods: rice, white pasta and potatoes, sweet potatoes because they raise blood glucose faster (it is better to cook “al dente”).

Fruits and vegetables

Fruits and vegetables are rich in vitamins, fiber, minerals and antioxidants. Its consumption is necessary for a healthy and balanced diet. They have a very low caloric value, are well satiated, reduce appetite and are therefore recommended in all diets for weight loss.


The fruit has a very variable GI which can be high -medium -low. Fruits consumed with the skin (strawberries, blueberries, cherries) tend to have a lower GI than those fruits that are eaten without the skin (watermelon, pineapple, mango, etc.). It is recommended to avoid consuming dehydrated fruit, fruit in the form of syrups as well as natural juices with artificial sweeteners.


Vegetables can be classified according to their starch content. Starchy vegetables (pumpkin, peas, carrots) have a higher glycemic index, so they can raise blood glucose more than those that do not contain it (green leafy vegetables, peppers, zucchini, peppers, etc.)

Fruit juice is not equivalent to a portion of fruit, no matter how natural it is. When we process the fruit (cut it, peel it, squeeze it, etc.), approximately 50% of vitamins and minerals are lost along with the fiber.

The fruit contains natural sugar, but it also contains other nutrients that provide numerous benefits to our health if we consume it unprocessed. If we take it in the form of juice, because it does not contain pulp or fiber, it raises blood glucose levels faster.

We have to chew the whole fruit, it gives us more satiety than the intake of juice, which is quickly absorbed and digested. You should always give priority to consuming whole fruits over juices. You do not have to eliminate vegetables that contain starch from your diet, but it is recommended to include them in your diet in small quantities.



Legumes are rich in fiber and have a low GI, in addition to providing satiety, they are associated with weight loss. In several studies, it has been noticed that their regular consumption (at least 2-3 times a week) can help increase the levels of the transport protein SHBG (sex hormones), which would help reduce the levels of free testosterone in the blood.


Proteins do not raise insulin levels like carbohydrates. Their consumption is associated with weight and fat loss, as well as with the stabilization of blood sugar levels. Proteins are found in foods of animal and plant origin (legumes, nuts, tofu …). There is no standard protein intake. Your recommendation should be personalized, because it varies depending on the intensity and type of sport you play. Although not standardized, several studies have found that consuming about 1.8-2g / kg / day of protein has positive effects on weight loss.

Healthy fats

Omega-3 fats are essential because they improve insulin sensitivity and blood cholesterol levels. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome can have very high levels of prolactin (a hormone produced by the pituitary gland), which leads to changes in the menstrual cycle (anovulation) and possible fertility problems. It is necessary to include the consumption of healthy fats in order to increase the level of HDL cholesterol, which is necessary for optimal hormone production (all sex hormones come from cholesterol). Healthy fats are found in walnuts, seeds, egg yolks, avocados or extra virgin olive oil.

Not recommended foods:

Simple carbohydrates

Simple carbohydrates quickly raise blood glucose levels by increasing insulin resistance and body weight. We can find them in ultra processed products such as pastries, sweet cereals, chocolate, ice cream, pastries, sweets, soft drinks.

Refined carbohydrates

Refined carbohydrates are low in nutrients. They do not provide many nutrients other than starch. By purifying them, in addition to fiber, large amounts of microelements are lost, which makes them useless food. Like simple carbohydrates, they raise blood glucose levels, but not as fast. More energy is needed to process them. White bread, pasta, rice and sweet cereals would be examples of simple carbohydrates.


Pastries are enriched with sugars, saturated or trans fats and refined flour. They have a high GI that worsens insulin resistance, and its consumption is especially counterproductive in women who suffer from Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Examples are sweets, cookies and pastries.

Fruit juices

Fruit juices do not saturate, are easily digested, quickly raise blood glucose levels and contain almost no vitamins. It is better to opt for a whole piece of fruit and reduce the use of juices, regardless of whether they are natural or not.


There is a lot of controversy and discussion regarding milk consumption. There is evidence that milk, especially skim milk, can contribute to an increase in androgens, worsening acne and hirsutism. This association was not found in fermented dairy products, because they generate less activation of IGF-1. In conclusion, it is advised to limit the consumption of milk and increase the consumption of fermented dairy products (kefir) or herbal drinks without added sugar.

Soft drinks and alcohol

They raise the level of glucose in the blood, worsen insulin resistance and their consumption seriously harms our health.

Vitamins to consider


A substance that belongs to the B group of vitamins and provides numerous benefits: it helps regulate hormonal cycles (reduces the level of free testosterone and increases the level of LH), improves hirsutism and acne, and intervenes in the metabolism of sugar and fat in favor of weight loss. It has been determined that taking 3-4 g of inositol a day increases insulin sensitivity and improves ovulation. Foods that contain: citrus fruits, legumes, nuts.

Folic acid

Folic acid

Vitamin B9 supplementation can help treat ovulatory infertility. Several studies have shown that the addition of vitamin B9 together with inositol has a positive effect on women and regulates their menstrual cycle. Green leafy vegetables and legumes are rich in folic acid.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased insulin resistance and weight gain. Sun exposure is a major factor in the production of calciferol (vitamin D3). It can also be found in foods such as dairy products, oily fish and egg yolks.

Polycystic ovary syndrome and physical activity

The impact of physical exercise on women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome provides a number of benefits:

Improves emotional state (depression, anxiety, mood swings …)

Increases insulin sensitivity

Improves the hormonal profile of LH / FSH

Increasing SHBG helps reduce testosterone levels in the blood

Weight loss and body fat

Reduces and improves premenstrual pain

Biological therapies for cancer application research

Biological therapy uses living organisms, substances from living organisms or synthetic versions of such substances to treat cancer.

Some types of biological therapy use the natural ability of the immune system to detect and destroy cancer cells, while other types directly target cancer cells.

Biological therapies include monoclonal antibodies, cytokines, therapeutic vaccines, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin bacteria, viruses that kill cancer cells, gene therapy, and adopted T lymphocyte transmission.

Side effects of biological therapies can vary depending on the type of treatment, but reactions at the site of application are quite common with these treatments.

What is biological therapy?

Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms or laboratory-produced versions of such substances for the treatment of disease. Some biological cancer therapies stimulate the body’s immune system to act against cancer cells. These types of biological therapies, sometimes collectively referred to as “immunotherapy,” do not directly attack cancer cells. Other biological therapies, such as antibodies, attack directly cancer cells . Biological therapies that interfere with certain molecules involved in tumor growth and evolution are also called targeted therapies.

For cancer patients, biologic therapies can be used to treat the cancer itself or the side effects of other cancer treatments. Although many forms of biological therapy have already been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), others are still experimental and available to cancer patients primarily through participation in clinical trials (research studies involving humans).

What is the immune system?

Immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, organs and matter that they produce. It helps the body fight infections and other diseases.

White blood cells or leukocytes are primarily involved in the responses of the immune system. These cells perform many tasks necessary to protect the body from microbes and abnormal cells that cause disease.

Some types of leukocytes roam the circulatory system in search of foreign invaders and diseased, damaged or dead cells. These white blood cells provide a general – or non-specific – type of immune protection.

Other types of white blood cells, known as lymphocytes, provide targeted protection against certain threats, either from a specific microbe or from a diseased or abnormal cell. The most important groups of lymphocytes responsible for these specific immune responses are B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes.

B cells produce antibodies, which are large secreted proteins that bind to foreign intruders or abnormal cells and help destroy them.

Other types of lymphocytes and leukocytes have supporting functions to ensure that B cells and cytotoxic T cells do their job efficiently. These support cells include helper T lymphocytes and dendritic cells, which help activate both B lymphocytes and cytotoxic T lymphocytes and facilitate their response to specific microbial threats or diseased or abnormal cells.

Antigens are substances in the body that accompany their own cells and microbes that can be recognized by the immune system as harmful to our body. Normal cells in the body have antigens that identify them as “themselves”. Self antigens tell the immune system that normal cells do not pose a threat and should be ignored. In contrast, the immune system recognizes microbes as a possible threat that must be destroyed because they carry foreign antigens or they are not theirs. Cancer cells also often contain antigens, called tumor antigens, that are not present (or are present in lower concentrations) in normal cells.

Can the immune system attack cancer?

The natural ability of the immune system to detect and destroy abnormal cells probably prevents or suppresses the formation of many cancers. Immune cells can sometimes be found in or near tumors. These cells, called lymphocytes that infiltrate the tumor or TIL, are an indication that the immune system is responding to mutated cells. The presence of TIL in a patient’s tumor is often associated with a better patient treatment outcome.

However, cancer cells have a number of ways to avoid detection and destruction by the immune system. For example, cancer cells can:

They undergo genetic changes that reduce the expression of tumor antigens on their surface, making them less “visible” to the immune system.

They have proteins on their surface that inactivate immune cells.

They induce normal cells around the tumor (i.e. in the microenvironment of the tumor) to release substances that suppress the immune response and that promote cell proliferation and tumor survival.

Immunotherapy uses several methods to strengthen the immune system and / or help to overcome cancer defense against the immune system. The goal is to improve the ability of the immune system to detect and destroy cancer.

What types of biological therapies are used to treat cancer?

Several types of biological therapies, especially immunotherapy, are used or formulated to treat cancer. These therapies fight cancer in different ways.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors

How do they work? This type of immunotherapy releases the “brake” of the immune system, which usually prevents excessively strong immune reactions that could damage normal cells as well as abnormal cells. This brake involves proteins on the surface of T lymphocytes called immune checkpoint proteins. When immune checkpoint proteins recognize specific accompanying proteins in other cells, a shutdown signal is sent telling T lymphocytes not to trigger an immune response against those cells.

Two proteins that have been studied very extensively are PD-1 and CTLA-4. Some tumor cells express high concentrations of the accompanying PD-1 protein PD-L1, which causes T lymphocytes to “shut down” and help cancer cells avoid immune destruction. Also, interactions between B7 protein on cell antigen and CTLA-4 are expressed in T cells to prevent other T cells from destroying cells, including cancer cells.

Drugs called immune checkpoints (or modulators of immune checkpoints) prevent the interaction between immune checkpoint proteins and their accompanying proteins, facilitating a strong immune response. The current targets of checkpoint inhibitors are PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4.

How to use:

immune checkpoint inhibitors are approved for the treatment of various types of cancer, including skin cancer, non – lung cancer, small cell lung cancer, bladder cancer, head and neck cancer, liver cancer, Hodgkin ‘s lymphoma, renal cell carcinoma (kidney cancer type) and gastric cancer. An immune checkpoint inhibitor, pembrolizumab (Keitruda®), is used to treat any solid tumor that has high microsatellite instability or cannot be removed surgically. Another immune checkpoint inhibitor, nivolumab (Opdivo®), is used to treat repair abnormalities and major microsatellite instability and metastatic colon cancer that has progressed after treatment with fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan.

Immune cell therapy (also called adopted cell therapy or adopted immunotherapy)

How does it work? This method allows the patient’s own immune cells to attack tumors. There are two methods of cell therapy used to treat cancer. Both involve collecting the patient’s immune cells, multiplying a large number of these cells in the laboratory, and bringing the cells back into the patient.

Lymphocytes that infiltrate the tumor (or TIL). This method uses T lymphocytes that are naturally found in the patient’s tumor, called tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). TILs that best recognize a patient’s tumor cells in laboratory tests are selected, and these cells are grown in large numbers in the laboratory. The cells are then activated by treatment with signaling proteins of the immune system called cytokines and injected into the patient’s bloodstream.

The idea behind this method is that TILs have already shown the ability to target tumor cells, but there may not be enough of them in the tumor microenvironment to destroy the tumor or overcome the suppressive immune signals that the tumor emits. The introduction of huge amounts of activated TILs can help overcome these barriers.

T and CAR cell therapy

This method is similar, but the patient’s T cells are genetically modified in the laboratory to express a protein known as a chimeric antigen receptor or CAR, before being grown and injected into the patient. CARs are modified forms of a protein called the T-cell receptor, which is expressed on the surface of T-cells. CARs are designed to allow T cells to adhere to certain proteins on the surface of a patient’s cancer cells, which improves his ability to attack cancer cells.

Before receiving expanded T cells, patients also undergo a procedure called lymphatic depletion, which consists of a round of chemotherapy and, in some cases, whole-body radiation. Lymphatic depletion kills other immune cells that can interfere with the efficiency of incoming T cells.

How to use? The adopted T cell transfer was first studied for the treatment of metastatic melanoma because melanomas often cause a significant immune response, with many TILs. The use of activated TILs has been effective for some patients with melanoma and has given encouraging positive results in other cancers (e.g., cervical squamous cell carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma).

Two T and CAR lymphocyte therapies were approved. Tisagenlecleucel (Kimriah ™) is approved for the treatment of some adults and children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who do not respond to other treatments and for the treatment of adults with some types of non-Hodgkin’s B-cell lymphoma who have not responded or relapsed in at least two other treatments. In clinical studies, many cancer patients have completely disappeared, and several of these patients have been without cancer for a long time. Ciloleucel akicabtagene (Iescarta () is approved for patients with certain types of non-Hodgkin B cells who have not responded or have relapsed after at least two other treatments. Both therapies involve modifying the patient’s own immune cells.

Therapeutic antibodies

How do they work? Therapeutic antibodies are laboratory-made antibodies that are designed to kill cancer cells. They are a type of cancer-targeted therapy – drugs specifically designed to interact with a specific molecule (or “molecular target”) necessary for cancer cell growth.

Therapeutic antibodies work in many different ways:

They can interfere with a key signaling process that promotes cancer growth and alerts the immune system to destroy cancer cells to which antibodies bind. An example is trastuzumab (Herceptin), which binds to a protein in cancer cells called HER2.

Adherence to the target protein can directly lead to the transition of cancer cells to apoptosis. Examples of this type of therapeutic antibody are rituximab (Ritukan®) and ofatumumab (Arzerra®), which attack a protein on the surface of B lymphocytes called CD20. Similarly, alemtuzumab (Campath®) binds to a protein on the surface of mature lymphocytes called CD52.

They can be bound to a toxic substance that kills the cancer cells to which the antibody binds. A toxic substance can be a poison, such as a bacterial toxin; small molecule drug; a light-sensitive chemical compound (used in photoimmunotherapy); or a radioactive compound used in radioimmunotherapy). Antibodies of this type are sometimes called antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs). Examples of ADCs used for cancer are ado-trastuzumab emtansine, ado-trastuzumab emtasine (Kadcila®), which is taken and destroyed by cancer cells that express HER2 on their surface, and brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris®), which are absorbed by lymphoma cells that surfaces express CD30 and destroy them.

They can bring activated T lymphocytes closer to cancer cells. For example, the therapeutic antibody blinatumomab (Blincito®) binds both to CD19, a tumor-associated antigen that is overexpressed on the surface of leukemia cells, and to CD3, a glycoprotein on the surface of T cells that is part of the T lymphocyte receptor. Blinatumomab contacts leukemia cells with T lymphocytes, resulting in activation of T lymphocytes and cytotoxic T lymphocytes against CD19-expressing leukemia cells.

Other immunotherapies combine other molecules of the immune system (which are not antibodies) and substances that destroy cancer. For example, denileucine diphthytox (ONTAK®) contains interleukin-2 (IL-2) bound to a toxin produced by the bacterium Corinebacterium diphtheria, which causes diphtheria. Denileukin diphtheria uses its share of IL-2 to attack cancer cells that have IL-2 receptors on their surface, allowing the diphtheria toxin to destroy them.

How are they used? Many therapeutic antibodies are approved for the treatment of a wide range of cancers.

Therapeutic vaccines

How do they work? Cancer vaccines are designed to treat existing cancers by strengthening the body’s natural defenses against cancer. The purpose is to slow or stop the growth of cancer cells; to shrink the tumor; stopping the recurrence of cancer; destruction of cancer cells that are not killed by other forms of treatment.

The purpose of cancer vaccines is to introduce one or more cancer antigens into the body that cause an immune response that eventually destroys the cancer cells.

Vaccines for the treatment of cancer can be made from the patient’s own cells (that is, they are modified in such a way as to create an immune response to characteristics that are unique to the patient’s specific tumor) or from substances (antigens) produced by certain types of tumors. , they generate an immune response in each patient whose tumor produces antigen).

The first FDA-approved cancer vaccine, sipuleucel-T (Provenge®), is tailored for each patient. It is designed to stimulate the immune response to prostate acid phosphatase (PAP), an antigen found in most prostate cancer cells. The vaccine is made by isolating immune cells called dendritic cells, which are a type of antigen-presenting cell (APC), from a patient’s blood. These cells are sent to a vaccine manufacturer, where they are grown together with a protein called PAP-GM-CSF. . This protein consists of PAPs associated with a protein called granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), which stimulates the immune system and improves antigen presentation.

Cells representing antigens cultured PAP-GM-CSF are the active component of sipuleucel-T. These cells are injected into the patient. Although the exact mechanism of action of sipuleucel-T is not known, APC cells that have occupied PAP-GM-CSF appear to stimulate T lymphocytes of the immune system to kill PAP-expressing tumor cells.

The first FDA-approved oncolytic viral therapy, talimogen laherparepvec (T-VEC or Imligic®), is also considered a type of vaccine. It is based on the herpes simplex virus type 1 and includes a gene that encodes GM-CSF. Although this oncolytic virus can infect both cancer cells and normal cells, normal cells have mechanisms to destroy the virus, while cancer cells do not. T-ECV is injected directly into the tumor. As the virus replicates, it causes the cancer cells to explode and die. Dying cells release new viruses, GM-CSF and various tumor-specific antigens. They can stimulate an immune response against cancer cells throughout the body.

How are they used? Sipuleucel-T is used to treat prostate cancer that has metastasized in men who have few or no symptoms and whose cancer is hormone resistant (does not respond to hormonal treatment). ECV-T is used to treat some patients with metastatic melanoma that cannot be removed surgically.

Substances that modulate the immune system

How do they work? Substances that modulate immunity strengthen the body’s immune response against cancer. These substances include proteins that usually help regulate or modulate the activity of the immune system, microbes and drugs.

Cytokines These signaling proteins are naturally produced by white blood cells. They help mediate and fine-tune immune responses, inflammation and hematopoiesis (formation of new blood cells). There are two types of cytokines used to treat cancer patients: Interferon Interferons (INF) and Interleukins (IL). The third type, called hematopoietic growth factor, is used to control some of the side effects of some chemotherapy regimens.

The researchers found that one type of interferon, interferon-α, can improve a patient’s immune response to cancer cells by activating some white blood cells, such as natural killer cells and dendritic cells. Interferon-α can also inhibit the growth of cancer cells or accelerate their death.

Researchers have identified more than a dozen different interleukins, including interleukin-2, also called T-cell growth factor. Interleukin-2 is naturally produced by activated T cells. It increases the proliferation of white blood cells, including cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells, resulting in a better immune response against cancer. Interleukin-2 also facilitates the production of antibodies by B lymphocytes for further attack on cancer cells.

Hematopoietic growth factors are a special class of natural cytokines. They promote the growth of different populations of blood cells that are depleted by chemotherapy. Erythropoietin stimulates the production of red blood cells, and interleukin-11 increases platelet production. Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) stimulate lymphocyte growth, reducing the risk of infection.

Granulocyte colony stimulating factor and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor may also enhance specific anticancer responses of the immune system by increasing the number of cancer-fighting T lymphocytes.

Bacillus of Calmette-Guerin (BCG). The weakened form of live TB bacteria does not cause disease in humans. It was first used in medicine as a vaccine against tuberculosis. When inserted directly into the bladder with a catheter, the Calmette-Guerin bacillus stimulates a general immune response that is directed not only at the foreign bacteria themselves but also at the bladder cancer cells. The exact mechanism of this anticancer effect is not well understood, but treatment is effective.

Immunomodulatory drugs (also called biological response modifiers). These drugs are powerful modulators of the body’s immune system. They include thalidomide (Thalomid®); lenalidomide (Revlimid®) and pomalidomide (Pomalist®), thalidomide derivatives having a similar structure and function; and imiquimod (Aldara®, Ziclara®).

It is not entirely clear how thalidomide and its two derivatives stimulate the immune system, but they promote the secretion of IL-2 from cells and inhibit the ability of tumors to form new blood vessels that support their growth (a process called angiogenesis). Imiquimod is a cream that is applied to the skin. It causes cells to release cytokines, especially INF-α, IL-6 and TNF-α (a molecule that participates in inflammation).

How are they used? Most substances that modulate the immune system are used to treat advanced cancer. Some are used as part of a support scheme. For example, recombinant and biologically similar forms of GM-CSF and G-CSF are used in combination with other immunotherapies to boost the immune response against cancer by stimulating white blood cell growth.

What are the side effects of biological therapies?

The side effects of biologic therapies generally reflect immune system stimulation and may vary according to the type of therapy and the way individual patients respond to it.

However, pain, inflammation, irritation, redness of the skin, itching and rash at the site of infusion or injection are quite common with these treatments. They can also cause a variety of flu-like symptoms, including fever, chills, weakness, dizziness, nausea or vomiting, muscle or joint pain, fatigue, headaches, occasional shortness of breath, and high or low blood pressure. Some immunotherapies that trigger an immune system reaction also cause a risk of hypersensitivity reactions (allergies), even fatal ones.

Long-term side effects (especially immune checkpoint inhibitors) include autoimmune syndromes and acute onset diabetes.

Possible serious side effects of immunotherapy are:

Immune checkpoint inhibitors

Reactions that damage organs caused by immune activity and include the digestive system, liver, skin, nervous system, heart and glands that produce hormones. These reactions can cause pneumonitis, colitis, hepatitis, nephritis and renal failure, myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle), hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

Immune cell therapy

Cytokine release syndrome (CAR and T cell therapy)

Capillary leak syndrome (TIL therapy)

Therapeutic antibodies and other immune system molecules

Cytokine release syndrome (blinatumomab)

Infusion reactions, capillary leakage syndrome and poor visual acuity (denileucine diphthotox)

Therapeutic vaccines

Flu-like symptoms

Severe allergic reaction

Stroke (sipuleucel-T)

Tumor lysis syndrome, herpes viral infection (T-VEC)

Immune system modulators

Flu-like symptoms, severe allergic reaction, low blood counts, changes in blood chemistry, organ damage (cytokines)

Flu-like symptoms, severe allergic reaction, urinary side effects (BCG)

Serious birth defects if taken during pregnancy, blood clots, venous embolism, neuropathy (thalidomide, lenalidomide, pomalidomide)

Skin reactions (imiquimod)

What are the current research on cancer immunotherapy?

Researchers are focusing on several important fields to improve the effectiveness of cancer immunotherapy, including:

Methods for overcoming resistance to cancer immunotherapy. Researchers are testing combinations of different immune checkpoint inhibitors, as well as immune checkpoint inhibitors in combination with a wide range of other immunotherapies, molecularly targeted cancer therapies and radiation, as ways to overcome therapeutic drug resistance. Tumors on immunotherapy.

Identification of biomarkers that predict response to immunotherapy. Not everyone receiving immunotherapy will respond to treatment. Identification of biomarkers that predict the response is the main field of research.

Identification of new cancer-related antigens – so-called neoantigens – that may be more effective in stimulating immune responses than known antigens.

Non-invasive strategies for isolating immune cells that respond to tumors that express neoantigens.

Understand better the mechanisms by which cancer cells avoid or suppress the immune response against cancer. A better understanding of how cancer cells manipulate the immune system could lead to the formulation of drugs that block these processes.

Proximity to infrared photoimmunotherapy. This method uses infrared light to activate targeted destruction of cancer cells in the body (December 14-14).

Where can I find information on immunotherapy clinical trials?

In clinical trials, they are evaluated and approved by the FDA and experimental immunotherapy for certain types of cancer. Descriptions of ongoing clinical trials examining the types of immunotherapy in cancer patients can be found in the List of Cancer Clinical Trials on the NCI website. The NCL clinical trial list includes all NCI-sponsored clinical trials conducted in the United States and Canada, including at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, Maryland. For information in English on other ways to search the list, see Help Find NCI-Supported Clinical Trials.

Otherwise, call the NCI Contact Center at 1-800-422-6237 (1-800-4-RAK) for information on clinical trials of immunotherapies.

Infertility and its natural treatment

Infertility in its symptoms, there are every tenth couple who want children. Fertility declines in both sexes after 25-30 years of age. More and more couples are delaying starting a family until they are in their thirties, so infertility is becoming more common in the developed world. If conception has not occurred after a year of regular unprotected sex, it is possible that one or both partners need to be treated for infertility.

About 8 to 10 couples who try to conceive a child succeed in that during one year. That number rises to 9 out of 10 couples over a two-year period. The problem of conception can be temporary, or the couple must treat infertility to have children. The problem of infertility also occurs in people who already have children.

Both partners must visit the doctor together if they are worried about the inability to conceive a child. In about half of couples with this problem, infertility exists in women, and in a third of couples, the problem exists in men. In some couples, however, the cause can be discovered.

Women’s problems that most often lead to infertility are: ‘Polycystic ovary syndrome, Endometriosis, Varicocele, Hypogonadism’ and others.

In many couples, the cause of infertility can be identified and treated. If a specific cause cannot be detected and treated, assisted (artificial) conception with modern medical techniques is advised.

Problems conceiving

fetal infertility
  • When pregnancy is not the result of regular unprotected sex for more than a year

On average, one couple trying to conceive a child takes six months, and 8 to 10 couples succeed in doing so over the course of a year. It is common for a couple to worry if the pregnancy does not follow in the first few months, but most young couples are advised to keep trying for a year before seeking medical help. Older couples, especially when a woman is older than 35, may seek medical help earlier because fertility naturally declines with age, especially in women.

What to do?

  • Modern medicine or look for a cure in nature?

If you have problems conceiving, you and your partner should see a doctor together. Your doctor will ask you questions about your sex life and whether you have any specific problems with sexual intercourse. They will probably ask you if you had sexual intercourse during the most favorable days – in the middle of the menstrual cycle when the chances of conception are usually the highest. Your doctor will look at your health record because previous illnesses or surgeries may be significant to your problem. It will consider how often you drink alcohol, whether you are a smoker, whether you use some medications prescribed to you, or some relaxation medications. Regular physical examination is mandatory, which includes an examination of the genitals.

If you are both relatively young and there is no obvious problem, your doctor will advise you on the measures you will take to increase the likelihood of conception and suggest that you keep trying. If you have not gone to healthy pregnancy counseling before, your doctor will talk to you about your health, diet, and lifestyle.

When the doctor suspects that there is a problem that prevents conception, or if the woman is older than 35, he will refer you to a specialist doctor to perform a series of tests.

Prognosis for infertility

Statistics performance

It is only a matter of time before conception occurs for most couples. 9 out of 10 couples manage to conceive a child within two years.

If a problem is found, the treatment and prospects will depend on the sample. Assisted conception, i.e., artificial insemination, may be suitable for couples in whom the cause has not been identified or the problem cannot be successfully treated.

How can you help yourself?

How to increase the chances of conception?

The overall health of both partners has an important effect on fertility. The following factors can play an important role in creating a conception:

  • Check your body weight – whether you are overweight or obese
  • Eat healthily
  • Don’t smoke
  • Reduce alcohol intake, which is known to reduce sperm count and can harm the fetus if pregnancy begins
  • Have sex every two days during a woman’s most fertile period (mid-menstrual cycle)
  • Try not to worry because stress can reduce fertility.
  • Do sports or recreation.
  • Men should avoid bathing in hot water, saunas, and hot baths or wearing tight and tight underwear.

Infertility in women

The inability of a woman to conceive with a partner of normal fertility

One of the factors that can affect women’s infertility is: ‘Age – more common in women over 35, hereditary factor, lifestyle – stress, excessive physical exercise and low or overweight’.

Nowadays, the percentage of infertility in women is still slightly higher than in men. To conceive, the ovary must release mature eggs that the sperm will fertilize, and the fertilized egg must pass through the fallopian tube to the uterus and implant itself in its mucous membrane. If one of the conception processes in a woman is endangered, a problem arises.

Causes of infertility in women

There are a number of infertility problems in women and they can affect one or more processes necessary for conception. Problems can arise at different stages of conception.

Ovulation problems

A common cause of infertility in women is ovarian failure to release a mature egg during the menstrual cycle. Complex hormone relationships control ovulation, so a healthy hormonal balance is essential.

One of the most commonly cured causes of infertility in women is polycystic ovaries, which can cause hormone imbalances that prevent ovulation.

Also, thyroid disorder (hypothyroidism) can cause ovulation failure.

In some cases where women use contraceptives, there may be a lack of cycles after using them.

Problems with egg transfer

Damage to one of the fallopian tubes can make it difficult for the egg to pass from the ovary to the uterus. The cause of damage to the fallopian tubes can be a pelvic infection, which can be a consequence of sexually transmitted diseases such as chlamydia. Such infections can go unnoticed in a woman’s body for a long time and can be detected in problems with conception. In some women, the egg cannot be fertilized because the mucus that the cervix naturally produces contains antibodies that destroy the partner’s sperm before they reach the egg, or is too thick to allow sperm to enter the uterus.

What women should do

Certainly, if there is a problem, the woman should consult a doctor who should conduct a basic and systematic analysis of the overall situation. Basically, each analysis begins with an overview of a woman’s general health, lifestyle, medical history, menstrual cycles, and analysis of sex life.

Most causes of infertility can be determined with the help of tests or with the help of ovulation prediction devices, which can be bought without a prescription in a pharmacy.

When all home methods do not give results, you should switch to professional medical blood tests, ultrasound examinations of the ovaries during the cycle, examining the uterus, hormonal analyses, and the like.

Success rate for treating female infertility

Treatment of infertility in women has significantly increased the chances of pregnancy. The success rate varies depending on the cause of infertility and the type of treatment. The drugs are used to stimulate ovulation in every third woman. Still, there is a risk of ectopic pregnancy Microsurgery, which cleans, i.e., bloating, blocked fallopian tube, sometimes successful, but increases the risk of ectopic pregnancy. The success rate in the assisted conception method varies from 15-30% per individual method.

What is happening nowadays is that after a detailed analysis of a woman, it is concluded that the problem is with a man—sperm he produces.

Infertility in men

What is male infertility?

A man’s inability to produce or deliver a sufficient number of healthy sperm to fertilize.

One of the most common causes of male infertility is hereditary factors, smoking, and alcohol. Age and chromosome abnormalities are less likely to be the causes.

Approximately every third couple who has difficulty conceiving the problem stems from male infertility. In men, fertility depends on the production of a sufficient amount of normal sperm and in part on men’s ability to deliver sperm to the vagina during sexual intercourse. If any of these conditions are not met, we can talk about infertility.

Causes of infertility in men

Unlike the cause of infertility in women, which is easier to determine, in some men it is difficult to find the cause of infertility. It is detected only in every third man examined.

Problems with sperm production

sperm and infertility

Decreased sperm count (Oligospermia) or the formation of defective sperm may have different patterns. Under normal conditions, the testicles have about 2 ° C lower body temperature than the rest of the body. All factors that increase testicular temperature can reduce the number of sperm produced.

Some aspects of life can damage sperm production, such as smoking, alcohol, certain medications and medications for relaxation, and even wearing tight clothing.

Some long-term diseases adversely affect the production of sperm, such as chronic kidney disease, infections, mumps after puberty, and the like. Male fertility can also be reduced by diseases of the urinary tract, diseases of the scrotum, or damage to the testicles during a surgical intervention. Also, hormonal disorders in men can lead to a decrease in the number of sperm as well.

Sperm ejection problems

Several factors can prevent sperm from reaching the vagina. The cause that is most easily blamed is impotence, i.e., inability to achieve or maintain an erection. Other factors include damage to the testicles and vas deferens. A sexually transmitted disease, such as gonorrhea often causes such damage. Also, the causes can be retrograde ejaculation – when the seminal fluid returns to the bladder because the bladder valves are not well closed, which can happen after prostate surgery.

What can be done

As with women, each doctor will immediately perform a basic analysis of general life, physical condition, sex life, and how a man lives. In addition to examining the genitals, laboratory analysis of semen – a program is mandatory. Semen analysis is performed microscopically where the number of sperm per milliliter is actually seen. The normal number of sperm is about 50 million, while the small number (oligospermia) is about 20 million per milliliter.

How to treat Oligospermia in men?

In addition to artificial insemination, there are drugs in modern medicine that act on a reduced number of sperm. They are mainly related to hormone therapies.

When it comes to natural therapy, there are various preparations, but the market has a completely natural tea blend of medicinal herbs Oligo. Oligo tea against male infertility is one of the premium products of domestic Serbian company Chamomilla from Banatski Karlovac, which has been selling and producing medicinal plant products on the Serbian market for 30 years. The family company Chamomilla produces teas, tea blends, tinctures, medicinal and essential oils, balms, spices, creams, and soaps. All the mentioned products are produced from medicinal herbs from our own production located in the heart of the Deliblato sandstone and by selecting the highest quality species from the network of associates throughout Serbia.

In addition to direct calls and orders, Chamomilla sells teas and other products online through www.chamomilla.rs.

Oligo tea mixture therapy acts on a reduced number of sperm and revives existing ones’ movement. The therapy consists of 60 cups of tea with a pleasant aroma and taste. Experience to date has shown improvements in programs after therapy by up to 70%, which results in an approximate number and motility of sperm per milliliter as in normal samples.

Red meat increases the risk of breast cancer

According to the latest studies, women who often eat red meat and red meat products have a high risk of breast cancer.
Doctors have been warning the general public for a long time that red meat increases the probability that you can get cancer of the intestines or pancreas. Still, so far, it has not been stated that breast cancer is also included.

In the latest study, Harvard University scientists analyzed data from a sample of 88,000 women between the ages of 26 and 45. The data were filled in a survey in 1991. Their diet and specifically red meat consumption, varied from never less, from once a month to six or more times a day. The initial results were published in 2006 and prove a direct link between red meat consumption and breast cancer, and the latest research has confirmed earlier findings.
Scientists from this sample conclude that women who used red meat in large quantities out of 1000 subjects had 8 cases more than those who did not use or used red meatless during the analysis.

In more developed countries where many chemical preparations are used in animal nutrition, women who eat red meat have a 12.5% higher risk of breast cancer.
Scientists have concluded that proteins in red meat accelerate cell mutation and tumor growth, chemicals such as nitrates in meat products have long been labeled as carcinogenic.
The study was mostly conducted among educated, white American women, and scientists say that these results are not currently applicable to women of other races. The National Institutes of Health also monitored this survey.

“This research emphasizes the importance of a healthy diet,” said Sally Greenbrook, a senior official at Breast Cancer Aid in the UK.
Dr. Valerie Beral, a cancer expert from Oxford University, said that vegetarians have the least chance of getting any cancer.

Chlorophyll and blood regeneration

Chlorophyll is present in most green vegetables, and some take it as a health supplement. Potential benefits of chlorophyll include improved health, increased energy, and disease control.
Here we consider the possible benefits of chlorophyll and the evidence that supports them. We will also cover ways to take chlorophyll as a supplement.

What is chlorophyll?

Chlorophyll is a substance that gives plants a green color. The chlorophyll molecule has a unique ability to convert solar energy into chemical energy (photosynthesis), which plants use to absorb carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water. After all, all forms of life from the plant and animal world draw energy from their environment, in this case through photosynthesis.

One of the primary ways to include chlorophyll in your diet is to eat green vegetables, such as alfalfa and spinach. Wheatgrass is especially rich in chlorophyll and is available for purchase online in powder, juice, or capsule form.

A popular way to include chlorophyll in your diet is to take supplements. They are available in the form of drops, pills, or capsules.

Most chlorophyll supplements contain chlorophyllin. Chlorophyllin is a water-soluble derivative of natural chlorophyll that is potentially better absorbed by the body than when it comes to other forms of chlorophyll.

Labels on chlorophyllin-containing supplements may state “sodium copper chlorophyllin” or “copper chlorophyllin complex” in the ingredients.


People have been using chlorophyll as a health supplement for many years. Various medical studies suggest that it may be useful for skin diseases, body odors, and the fight against certain types of cancer.

Chlorophyll is generally safe for people to try using if they are interested in its possible benefits. However, anyone who has a health problem or is taking medication should first talk to their doctor.

Some of the potential benefits of chlorophyll include:

An anti-aging agent

anti-aging agent

Topically applied chlorophyll can be used as an anti-aging agent. Research has shown that applying a gel containing chlorophyllin to the skin reduces the signs of aging that appear due to sun exposure. Skin samples from four healthy women for 12 days were used in the study.

The study results showed that chlorophyll-treated skin improved similarly to tretinoin-treated skin, a prescription cream that has been shown to help stop the aging process. The authors suggest that using a combination of chlorophyllin and tretinoin could be an effective treatment for changing the signs of aging on the skin.

Acne treatment

Local chlorophyll can also have potential as an acne treatment.

One study showed that a gel containing chlorophyllin helped reduce acne on the head and large visible pores. Ten subjects included in the study had mild to moderate acne and used chlorophyll gel for 3 weeks.

In another study, a comparison was made using chlorophyll and phototherapy with phototherapy for acne alone. People who received the combination had fewer acne lesions, less severe acne, and less oily skin than those who did not. However, all 24 participants were of Asian descent and darker skin types, so the results may not be relevant for everyone.

Blood building properties

blood construction

Chlorophyll is chemically similar to hemoglobin, a protein needed in red blood cells because it carries oxygen around the body.

Researchers suggest that wheat juice rich in chlorophyll may help treat hemoglobin deficiency disorders, such as anemia and thalassemia.

Refresher feature

Researchers have been researching chlorophyll for its potential as a deodorant for many years.

A study published in 1960. suggested that chlorophyll could reduce odors in people who had a colostomy. Later, a 1989 survey. Showed that chlorophyll was not effective in controlling odor in people who had a colostomy. However, a 1980 study. Showed that chlorophyll still improves lower body odor in older adults living in nursing homes.

Today, some deodorants and mouthwashes contain chlorophyll. Some people also take chlorophyll pills to alleviate body odor.

Help in wound healing

Researchers examined chlorophyll to aid wound healing during the ’40s and’ 50s. Some of these studies suggest that chlorophyll can heal surgical wounds and prevent infections.

More recently, testing was conducted in 2008. showed that a drug containing chlorophyll accelerates wound healing and alleviates odors. Some doctors today prescribe this type of treatment.

Cancer treatment

Chlorophyll has shown potential for healing cancer in some animal tests:

  • A year-long study showed that chlorophyllin could help prevent and slow cancer growth.
  • 2005 survey found that natural chlorophyll reduces colon cancer risk in rats. Rats ate foods rich in red meat and poor in green vegetables, directly related to the increased risk of colon cancer. However, the authors did not see the same results for chlorophyllin.
  • A study conducted in 2016 showed that chlorophyllin helps slow lung cancer progression in mice. The researchers gave chlorophyllin to mice in microscopic capsules known as nanocapsules.

Benefits that need more research

Although chlorophyll has a variety of potential health benefits, there are not enough adequate scientific studies to support them, and all of this requires further investigation. So far, most studies have been small and limited, and many of the potential health benefits are not effective in humans.

Other possible health benefits that require more research include the effect of chlorophyll on:

  • increase in energy
  • hormonal balance
  • arthritis and relaxation of fibromyalgia
  • weight loss

Chlorophyll and hemoglobin

Chlorophyll is not such a special biological structure despite its specific function. It is made in a biological form known as the porphyrin ring, which occurs in various organic molecules. A group of these molecules is involved in cellular respiration during oxygen transport and consumption.  One of these organic compounds is hemoglobin, myoglobin, and cytochrome.

Hemoglobin has a very similar structure to chlorophyll, and it is a substance in human blood whose role is to carry oxygen from the lungs to other tissues and cells in the body. Several studies compare these two substances.

Chlorophyll around us

chlorophyll liquid under a microscope

Can the chlorophyll that is abundant around us increase the body’s supply of hemoglobin, which is a component of our blood that is vital for our survival? This is a beautiful idea. Certainly, some research involving chlorophyll-rich foods to upgrade the blood can be used as a basis for such a statement.

After an exhaustive review of scientific research that included the relationship between chlorophyll consumption and hemoglobin supplementation in the blood, it was concluded that the relationship between these two compounds is extremely complex than the simple idea that the body will replace the magnesium molecule with an iron molecule to obtain hemoglobin from chlorophyll.

The exchange of oxygen for carbon dioxide occurs during the circulation of red blood cells. Red blood cells contain the pigment heme, bound to the protein globin, which gives hemoglobin.  Nutrients for maintaining healthy blood include iron, copper, calcium, vitamin C, B-12, folic acid, and pyridoxine.


In 1936, Dr. Artur Patek published a fascinating study. Fifteen patients with iron deficiency (anemia) received different amounts of chlorophyll and iron. It is already known that iron alone cures this condition. Still, in combination with chlorophyll, the results were much better. The number of red blood cells and the level of hemoglobin increased significantly and much faster compared to the use of iron itself. Such results were obtained only with the use of chlorophyll.

Dr. Patek stated the following:

“This study can encourage us to use this ingredient, which is rich in green plants and green protein foods, and with it, we can fill our depots, which will eventually activate a higher production of hemoglobin in our body.”

There are real indications that this compound stimulates the synthesis of proteins from which we get the hemoglobin molecule. These proteins obtained from chlorophyll molecules can accelerate the production of depths in our bodies. This may be a key explanation for chlorophyll’s effect on hemoglobin synthesis. “

Foods rich in chlorophyll

broccoli rich in hemoglobin

Most natural green vegetables contain chlorophyll. Among  foods that are especially rich in chlorophyll include:

  • spinach
  • kale
  • mustard
  • chlorella
  • spirulina
  • alfalfa
  • first
  • broccoli
  • cabbage
  • asparagus and peas
  • sword green tea

In addition to chlorophyll, these vegetables also provide various healthy vitamins and minerals.

Use of chlorophyll as a supplement

Chlorophyll supplements vary greatly in potency and formulation. Some supplements come in the form of drops that a person can add to water or another beverage, while others are available in capsule form.

Packaging containing chlorophyll usually includes instructions on how to use it. If this is not the case, consult a doctor or nutritionist for advice before you start taking it.

When it comes to liquid chlorophyll supplements, it is recommended to add about 1 teaspoon (5 milliliters) to the drink. If the taste is unpleasant, start with a smaller amount and gradually increase the dose.

For chlorophyll capsules, the recommended dose is in the range of 100 to 300 milligrams up to three times a day.

Chlorophyll supplements are generally safe to use and do not seem to have serious side effects. However, pregnant and breastfeeding women should talk to a doctor before taking chlorophyll in a supplement.

Some people may notice stomach upset or skin irritation after taking chlorophyll. People who experience disturbing side effects must stop taking the supplement and visit a doctor.


Chlorophyll has various potential health benefits, but the evidence for most of these is not enough, and more research is needed.

Some people may find that including more chlorophyll in their diet or taking supplements makes them better or helps with medical conditions, such as anemia.

There are many reasons why green plants should be included in foods that enhance the blood picture structure. Vitamins and minerals in this kind of food are essential during the synthesis and construction of healthy blood.

The connection and similarity between green food and blood and the structure of the two colored pigments, hemoglobin, and chlorophyll, are fascinating. Although investigated in the last 60 years, the biological connection between these two molecules is not completely clear.

However, it has been shown that small amounts of chlorophyll absorbed in the digestive tract can stimulate the production of heme or depths in both humans and animals.

Always consult your doctor about supplements, including chlorophyll, before using them.

Hormonal imbalance – Chronic stress is the most common cause of health problems

“If you really knew what was happening to you when you were under stress, you would totally go crazy. Then some horrible things happen “- this is my statement during a scientific conference, and I was not joking when I said this. I can write several books on how stress causes massive chaotic reactions in your body.

If you want to avoid stress, you were born at the wrong time. Chronic stress has become an epidemic in a society where the faster, the better we try to pack too many responsibilities into our schedule.

Hormones and stress

hormonal imbalance and stress

In all this chaos, one analysis involving 300 studies proved that chronic stress could harm your immune system. And that’s not all,  because a large dose of stress makes you fatter and affects the development of diabetes.

Scientists have known for a long time that stress causes higher blood sugar levels and also increases obesity. When the body is under chronic stress, insulin levels rise. This condition leads to metabolic dysfunction, which increases body weight. Over time, the body becomes resistant to insulin and, of course, diabetes.

When you are under stress, your adrenal gland releases hormones such as adrenaline and cortisol that overwhelm your body, increase your heart rate, increase blood pressure, increase blood density, and create blood clots, creating damage to the brain memory center increasing body weight. And generally creating chaos in your body.

Food and hormonal disbalance

food for the thyroid gland

This hormonal imbalance, as we see, creates negative consequences. For example, you stop to drink coffee in your favorite cafe on the way to work. Frozen in front of millions of requests and traffic jams, you realize that you haven’t had breakfast at all. You order a donut with coffee.

Looking at breakfast’s seemingly harmless situation, caffeine from coffee increases catecholamines, stress hormones. In response to stress, the body produces cortisol, which together with sugar increases insulin. Insulin increases inflammation, and this affects the complete condition of your body. Donut sugar increases cortisol and adrenaline, stress hormones. Sugar literally creates an explosion of stress hormones even though you are not under stress.

There is a good chance that he will continue to consume this type of food during the day. In that way, perfect conditions are created for hormonal imbalance, which leaves behind fatigue, unhappiness, and large fat deposits.

The right diet can reduce the impact of stress on your life and your body. When you eat whole, real food, you return the body’s resistance to insulin, cortisol, and other hormones to normal.

When you cleanse your diet of foods, you are addicted to, such as caffeine, alcohol, sugar derivatives, and regularly eat healthy foods to avoid short-term hunger stress, you will be able to maintain your body in a lower daily dose of stress.

If you replace this food with pure proteins, healthy fats, leafy vegetables, berries with many grains, and less gluten, you feel much better. Food is information that controls the expansion of genes, hormones, and metabolism. When you eat the right foods, you regulate your blood sugar level, restore balance to the hormonal system and reduce stress-induced damage.

Source stress

Stress is a real threat, although it is not real and tangible. If so, we should have complete control over stress because it does not happen outside, but it is inside us.

The definition of stress is as follows:

 “Stress  is a set of non-specific reactions of the human body to harmful factors from the work and living environment. Harmful factors from the human environment activate  adaptation mechanism  in the body to organism  protected by balancing the environment. “

Things get even more interesting here.  You can imagine your husband being mad at you. Regardless of other circumstances, your stress level will rise. However it works, the body creates a certain body response to certain external information.

Most people, when they focus on my life and analyze it, think I’m crazy and always ask me why I’m not stressed even though I’m constantly surrounded by dissatisfied people, even though I run a massive research campaign in various scientific fields, even though I’m opening a new clinical center. I am under constant obligations when procuring new means of work and discovering new technologies and treatment preparations. However, I am involved in improving health policy in our country and practical work with people and father, son, brother, partner, friend, boss, and many other roles in his life. The answer is actually straightforward. Don’t worry about things much. I wake up and do each new task the best I can.

Causes of the presence of stress

stress relief meditation

I manage these responsible responsibilities that I have listed with several techniques that help me get rid of stress. Among them, these 12 are my favorites.

1. Lack of magnesium, vitamin b12, increased mercury and aluminum levels, and gluten allergy can directly affect stress levels. By changing habits, you can change the state of your mind.

2. People are burdened to do something all the time. Even though you are not working, your mind is still functioning. Learn how to rest actively. To rest the powerful forces of mind and body, you must do something relaxing. You can sit and watch TV or read a book. You can breathe deeply or take a leisurely walk. It is important to find the type of relaxation that suits you.

3. Learn new skills such as yoga or progressive muscle relaxation, take a bath, make love, go for a massage, watch the sunset or take a walk in the woods or on the beach.

4. Exercise is a powerful, proven way to burn and flush stress chemicals out of your body and calm your mind. Studies have shown that exercise achieves much more than some medications to cure depression. Try workouts with strong intensity if you have little time and want a good result.

5. Take multivitamins and dietary supplements to help your body, vitamin c, b complex, zinc, magnesium.

6. Take various herbs such as Siberian ginseng, cordyceps, ashwagandha.

7. Use a steam bath or sauna to help your body get rid of toxins and relieve stress.

8. Examine your reactions and behaviors, responses in certain situations, and adjust to reduce stress.

9. Continuously build a network of friends and your harmonious community. You will need many allies to establish your harmonious balance.

10. Most of us have shortness of breath. Deep and slow breathing has a profound effect on reducing the body’s response to stress because the relaxation nerve passes through the diaphragm and is activated when you take a deep breath. Take a deep breath now and see how you feel different the next moment.

11. Meditate with exercises that suit you.

12. Get enough sleep because lack of sleep increases stress hormones.

Thyroid gland – 6 ways to improve its function

The thyroid gland plays a key role in your metabolism. Along with insulin and cortisol, your thyroid hormone is one of three hormones that control metabolism and body weight.

Treatment thyroid glands

Proper testing determines whether slowed thyroid function contributes to metabolic arrest and encourages other body problems. Once the right information is obtained, it can be helped through various ways in eliminating thyroid problems.

One young patient had more than 30% fat in his body, and no matter how hard he tried, he could not change this condition. Although he introduced a perfect diet, although he exercised every day, he did not show any signs of progress. This person was also very pronounced with symptoms of depression.

The person was treated with low doses of thyroid Armor ® natural thyroid hormone substitutes.

This man lost about 10 kilograms and improved his organism and mood. He also got rid of other symptoms.

How did he have such a low level of thyroid function? I asked him questions related to the symptoms. We examined the organism’s condition, and we identified potential problems caused by the poor functioning of the thyroid gland. Then I did a real test.

Functional medicine and thyroid hormone tests

Most doctors check something we call thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH, which doesn’t really give a true picture of the thyroid gland. More precisely, the interpretation of this test is incorrect in most cases.

According to the latest guidelines, a person who has a score over 3 is considered a patient who needs some treatment. Most doctors believe that results over 5 or 10 should be treated, which leaves many people suffering from this health problem without proper treatment.

Near TSH, functional medicine also performs other t3 and t4 tests and a thyroid antibody test. We also test for gluten intolerance, food allergies, heavy metals, and also a deficiency in such cases: vitamin D., selenium, vitamin A and omega 3 acids.

In the following text, I would like to deal a little deeper with the thyroid gland’s problem and the strategies of treatment.

An integrative approach is needed to correct these problems. There are more methods involved in solving this problem than just taking a few pills during the day. As you will see, this includes nutritional support, exercise, stress reduction, inflammation reduction, and sometimes the elimination of certain foods and detoxification of heavy metals such as mercury and lead, and petrochemical toxins.

To integrate all of these elements into a successful set of techniques for treating your thyroid, I recommend the following 6 strategies:

Strategy 1: Eliminate the causes of thyroid problems

Carefully consider what things can interfere with thyroid function and eliminate them. As you will see, many things can interfere with the thyroid gland’s optimal function.

Diet is a good start. Some foods have developed a terrible reputation for affecting thyroid function. These facts are, in many cases, not supported by relevant scientific research.

For example, food rich in soy, food from the family broccoli cause thyroid problems, so medicine claims. In one study, rats fed exclusively on soy had problems with their thyroid gland.

The following message should be drawn from this: if you are a rat, stay away from tofu. Clinical trials have proven that soy creates an optimal effect on people when consumed in normal amounts.

Thyroid gland and allergies

arteries of the thyroid gland

On the other hand, there are groups of substances that support autoimmune diseases thyroid glands and slow down metabolism.

One of them is gluten. If you think you have a thyroid problem, what you need to do is a blood test in which any hidden reaction to gluten found in wheat, barley, rye, oats should be discovered. Gluten sensitivity or allergies can cause various symptoms, from migraines and fatigue to weight gain.

In addition to a blood test, you can easily eliminate gluten from your diet for three weeks. If your symptoms go away, you have solved one of the sources of your thyroid problems. If you want to go a step further, re-incorporate gluten into your diet to see if symptoms recur. If this happens, it is a significant detail.

There are other food allergies besides gluten that disrupt the thyroid gland’s functionality. By cooperating with your doctor, you should eliminate food allergies.

In addition to certain foods and food allergies, toxins can also slow down the thyroid gland’s function. By testing for heavy metals, you can determine if a source in your environment may be critical to your current condition. Fluoride, associated with thyroid problems, and chlorinated water should be avoided.

Checking for pesticides is much more difficult, but it is possible to detoxify the body to these compounds by eating organic food, filtering your water, and increasing your detox food intake. This way, you will help your thyroid gland get rid of another factor affecting its functionality.

How to cure allergies and influence them to combat their aggressive action. You can read 9 ways to prevent an attack on yourself in the text.

Thyroid gland and stress

Stress has a very negative effect on the functioning of the thyroid gland. Military cadets subjected to intense stress during training had higher cortisol levels, higher levels of inflammation, lower testosterone levels, higher TSH, and very low T3.

The usual form of chronic stress causes exhaustion of the adrenal gland, one of the possible causes of hypothyroidism. Adrenal exhaustion occurs when the adrenal gland is no longer able to meet the physiological needs created by stress.

To get rid of stress, it is necessary to relax the organism, for which there are various methods.

You can read more about the impact of stress on our body in the article on how stress causes hormonal chaos.

Strategy 2: Regular exercise and saunas

Exercise stimulates the secretion of the thyroid gland and increases tissues’ sensitivity to thyroid hormones. Ideally, you will sweat a lot during intense exercise.

In addition to being a great way to relax your muscles and mind, you can expel large amounts of toxins from your body in saunas and steam baths. Saunas are an essential aid to the body in losing weight, reducing body fat, and expelling accumulated toxins such as PCBs and organic origin pesticides. Excretion of toxins lowers the level of T3.

For proper functioning, the thyroid gland requires detoxification if detoxification is not done, your ability to lose weight decreases due to the influence of accumulated toxins on the thyroid gland’s function.

Strategy 3: Eat foods that promote a healthy thyroid gland, eliminate foods that are harmful

food for the thyroid gland

Every step on the path to healing and weight loss depends on nutrition and food use to properly establish balance in the body. Thyroid treatment is no exception.

Choose foods that support your thyroid’s metabolism. The production of thyroid hormones requires iodine and omega 3 fatty acids. Selenium is needed to convert inactive T4 to active T3, vitamins A and D are needed to bind T3 to receptors on the nucleus, and zinc. To get the full therapeutic value of these nutrients, use the supplements from Strategy 4.

Foods to improve thyroid function are seaweed and iodine-containing seafood. Fish (especially sardines and salmon) contain omega 3, iodine, vitamin D. Dandelion, mustard, and other greens containing vitamin A, herring, shellfish, and Brazil nuts contain selenium. If you want to avoid foods that interfere with thyroid function, you should eliminate foods rich in gluten, you should use pure soy and soy proteins in moderate amounts, and you should avoid processed soy products.

Strategy 4: Use supplements that support the work of your thyroid gland

The main supplements for healthy thyroid function are multivitamin and multimineral complexes containing selenium (sodium selenite), iodine, zinc,  vitamins A and D, and omega 3 fatty acids.

Iodine can be obtained naturally or by using supplements:

Kelp algae

Iodine drops

Sodium selenite

You can also read good information on how you can treat your thyroid gland with kelp in the article Effects of kelp on the thyroid gland

If your adrenal gland is exposed to stress for a long time, it is impossible to treat the thyroid gland without supporting the adrenal gland with adaptogenic plants such as ginseng, Rhodiola, or Siberian ginseng.

We recommend working with an experienced nutritionist who will guide the diet and intake of certain nutrients that your thyroid gland and, if necessary, your adrenal gland need.

Strategy 5: thyroid testing

thyroid gland veins

There is no perfect way, neither symptoms nor test results, by which we will correctly diagnose low thyroid function or hypothyroidism.

The correct way is to look at the complete picture of symptoms and blood tests and then decide.

Doctors usually diagnose thyroid changes by testing TSH levels and T4 levels. Some doctors have questioned the normal levels of these two parameters.

The diagnosis of “subclinical” hypothyroidism depends on TSH levels, which should be greater than 5 m IU / ml and less than 10 m IU / ml in the event of a disorder. As I mentioned in the previous text, the new measurements show that anything over 3 m IU / ml is abnormal. As long as the parameters are within these limits, many doctors will miss this diagnosis segment, and many ill people will not be treated properly.

To get a complete picture, I recommend observing the following range of functions:

TSH should be ideally between 1 and 2 m IU / ml

Free T4 and free T3 (inactive and active hormone)

Thyroid antibodies search for autoimmune reactions, which generally remain undiagnosed if other tests are normal and if the doctor does not perform a routine examination of this parameter.

TRH stimulating test

A 24-hour urine test for free T3 that may be helpful in cases that are difficult to diagnose.

Based on these tests, an experienced doctor can get more information about how your thyroid gland works.

If you think you have not been diagnosed with a thyroid problem, ask your doctor to do these tests or find a doctor who will do them. They are essential when putting together a puzzle of your diagnosis that standard tests do not provide.

Strategy 6: Choose the right thyroid hormone replacement

To balance the thyroid gland that has been thrown out of balance, you will need thyroid hormone therapy.

By changing your diet and lifestyle, you will certainly improve your thyroid gland’s condition. Still, if the thyroid gland is not functioning, you will have to take some additional measures to supplement the production of thyroid chromones.

In my medical studies, I learned about Synthroid ® synthetic form of T4.

Why do doctors give this medicine? For that reason, he is the only one they know how to copy. But is this the only good treatment for everyone? In some people, it is effective, but the symptoms remain present to the same extent in some people. What exactly is the right treatment, then?

The answer is, it depends on the person.

Part of functional medicine’s truth is that no treatment can be functional for everyone. By combining experience, testing, testing, and even the mistakes we see, we achieve the right treatment.

Medications for thyroid problems

At the same time, I have found that most of my patients have a very positive reaction to the combination of T3 and T4 hormones. Synthroid® represents only T4, an inactive hormone. Many doctors believe that the organism itself will pick it up in T3 and that everything will be fine.

Unfortunately, pesticides, stress, mercury, infections, allergies, and selenium deficiencies block this process. While 100 percent of patients have pesticides stored in the body, mostly everyone will have a problem with this process and Synthroid ®.

The best treatment I use is Armor thyroid medicine, obtained from a dried pig’s thyroid gland. This preparation contains a full spectrum of thyroid hormones, including T4, T3, and T2. The last T2 is a little-known thyroid metabolism product, which can be very significant. Its dosage varies between 15 and 180 milligrams, depending on the person.

Many doctors have an outdated belief that such preparations are unstable and that dosing is complicated to monitor. Such is the case with the old Armor preparation, not with the new preparations.

One of the potentially good supplements that I can recommend to people who suffer from thyroid dysfunction and with which they can increase the metabolism of transforming T4 into T3 automatically and increase T3 is the T100 preparation, which can also stabilize the weight gain process. T 100 has shown remarkable results in thyroid problems.

After several decades of working in functional medicine, I can freely say that you can cure your thyroid gland even in the most severe cases. In some patients, this can be achieved through proper diet and dietary supplements, and lifestyle changes. In others, the use of some drugs is required under the expert supervision of a medical professional.

Advantages of serapeptase in the treatment of high blood pressure

Serrapeptase can help people who suffer from high blood pressure. When arterial plaques form in the arteries, they become narrow. As a result of the narrow arteries, blood cannot pass through them normally. This condition can lead to ischemic heart disease, decreased heart function. Lack of oxygen in the heart muscle can lead to a heart attack and coronary artery disease.
Coronary artery arteriosclerosis is caused by fatty deposits such as calcium, fibrin, and cholesterol, increasing blood pressure and leading to a heart attack.

Clinical studies have proven that serrapeptase can dissolve arterial plaques, and it is a non-toxic and safe treatment for the whole organism, healthy cells, and tissue.

There are many emergency invasive procedures used in a heart attack situation to break up plaque.

One of them is Chelation therapy, when a chemical solution is injected into the arteries. This fluid flows through the arteries and binds heavy metals.

Injecting a chemical into the arteries carries several risks. The chemical solution can damage the walls of the artery, leading to thinning of the arteries, which are prone to rupture.

Cholesterol is a fatty substance produced by the liver. Cholesterol is essential for the regeneration of the body. Higher cholesterol production creates a risk of coronary heart disease.

Hypercholesterolemia is a condition in which there is too much cholesterol in the blood, leading to the accumulation of fatty substances on the walls of the arteries, narrowing, and high blood pressure.

The proteolytic enzyme serrapeptase can prevent heart and blood vessel disease. People who suffer from chronic inflammation are a risk group for developing cardiovascular diseases.

Serrapeptase by burning certain activators of inflammatory processes can reduce inflammation and clean the arteries of plaque in a very safe way.

Serrapeptase is useful for people with high blood pressure because it dilutes the blood, and in that way, it can flow through the blood vessels more easily. Serrapeptase reduces the viscosity, blood density, thus allowing blood to flow more easily through the arteries.

Besides, by improving the diet, the intake of fish, omega 3 fatty acids can reduce the level of triglycerides and the level of blood clotting.

Antioxidants and other vitamins and minerals can prevent some heart disease.

Side effects from standard drugs are almost guaranteed. They include many chemicals that the liver cannot neutralize. The chemicals are toxic to the liver and can cause some of the benefits of the long-term use of drugs. For that reason, it is essential to protect the liver.

Anticoagulants such as statins can cause arterial blockages. However, they have several side effects. For example, they block key enzymes in the liver that serve for the biosynthesis of cholesterol, that is, the production of cholesterol necessary for our body. All organs in the body need cholesterol for optimal functionality. By using drugs that prevent cholesterol production, we can disrupt the long-term health condition of our organism. Serrapeptase does not inhibit enzymes that affect cholesterol production.

Our organism is a biological machine that, by ingesting unforeseen chemical compounds, can feel an improvement in terms of reducing the symptoms of certain diseases. This is a short-term approach, while long-term natural biological compounds give much better results without side effects. Serrapeptase is one of the gifts of nature that can successfully prevent heart disease development and prevent the cause of high blood pressure and inflammation in the body.

Addiction treatment naturally

Treatment of addiction in a natural way and preparations with which the addict can successfully cope with the problems and symptoms that arise due to withdrawal.

The term “addiction” is almost always associated with unbalanced, self-destructive behavior. The use of psychoactive substances can create an apparent state in which the user feels good, but on the other hand, he destroys himself mentally, physically, and spiritually. This article will focus on various natural preparations that can neutralize some widespread problems during withdrawal.

A number of metabolic processes are common to all types of addictions. Sugar is one of the most commonly used legal addictive substances. Several other types of drugs such as amphetamines, psychedelics, cocaine, caffeine, and nicotine increase sugar release into the bloodstream. This creates a metabolic process similar to when we take sugar or alcohol. These drugs also enhance the effect of releasing endorphins, chemicals that send a message to the brain to relax the nerve system, while the person returns a smile on his face and becomes in the mood. One of the most dangerous forms of addiction is pharmaceutical drugs.

Forms of addiction

There are many forms of addiction. Some people are addicted to one or two cups of coffee or a few teaspoons of sugar, while others need twice as much coffee and sugar. On the other hand, some people have to drink a certain amount of alcohol every day, consume heroin intravenously, and take large amounts of other heavy drugs.
It has been shown that individuals addicted to a substance have one or more metabolic disorders such as hypoglycemia, hypothyroidism, vitamin B deficiency, mineral deficiency, and depression. More serious disorders can occur cancer, diabetes, cirrhosis of the liver, heart disease and are very common among drug addicts and alcoholics.

Addiction treatment naturally

Addiction treatment naturally includes continuous nutritional support for the ultimate cure of addiction. It is not uncommon for those cured of alcoholism to replace their addictive substance with the increased use of other substances such as sugar, caffeine, or nicotine. This behavior is mostly an indication that there is some metabolic problem that the individual is trying to correct.

It’s a good idea to start treatment of addiction naturally to include diet, protein, complex carbohydrates, lots of fruits and vegetables in your nutrition program. You can start with one preparation, and you will notice that the progress with it is very little and almost negligible. Then use another preparation and you will get an intensified effect and a better effect. When you notice that you feel better, have more energy and desire for life, that is a good indicator that this preparation actually works great and has an effect.
These are some preparations and methods that can help you treat addiction naturally and help you with some standard problems that accompany the treatment of addiction.
Preparations associated with detoxification and strengthening of the liver and digestive tract

Vitamin C is the primary preparation used in the treatment of addiction. It helps in eliminating toxins in the body. It has been proven that small doses of ascorbic acid combined with vitamin B and proteins have helped heroin addicts to recover without strong side effects. A dose of 10 grams a day prevents cramps. The combined form of vitamin C with calcium and magnesium is most often used.

Selenium is a very important antioxidant and plays a very important role in the use of oxygen in the body. It has been scientifically proven that mice live longer without oxygen if the name was previously given selenium. Alcoholics have been found to have very low levels of selenium. Heart disease and cancer are more prevalent in people who have lower selenium levels. Selenium plays a vital role in detoxifying the body. People suffering from some autoimmune disorders have found salvation in selenium. The therapeutically safe dose is 100 mcg in larger amounts of selenium is toxic.

Zinc is a mineral that plays a significant role in carbohydrate metabolism. If someone uses large doses of sugar, caffeine, drugs, or alcohol, zinc will greatly benefit. Low zinc levels can lead to liver problems, reproductive organ dysfunction, immune system problems, skin problems. Zinc picolinate is the best biologically acceptable form, and the use of 15 to 20 mg per day is recommended.

Chromium is beneficial for people treated for addiction because it regulates blood sugar levels. In many cases, people who are being treated for addiction with the help of chromium have successfully regulated their carbohydrate metabolism and their need for sugar. A dose of 100 mg twice a day is good to start with.
Acodifilus and supplementation rich in this preparation help establish a healthy intestinal flora essential for digestion, reducing bad bacteria in the intestines, reducing candida, viruses, and parasites. It is used twice a day in the morning and the evening.

SOD or superoxide dismutase is an important enzyme for people treated naturally by addiction because this preparation eliminates toxins from your body. This is one of the very important enzymes in your body that helps the liver get rid of toxins and free radicals.

You can find more about how you can cleanse your liver naturally in the article Cleansing your liver and gallbladder with bitter salt.

Preparations related to relaxation and strengthening of the nervous system

Calcium is one of the most important minerals for strengthening the nervous system. Caffeine, sugar, alcohol, and other drugs often cause the body to eliminate calcium. Caffeine doubles urinary calcium extraction. In depressed people, calcium and magnesium levels are directly related to irritation. People treated for addiction should take about 1000 mg of calcium a day.
Magnesium and calcium are partners in keeping the nervous system strong and healthy. The drug lowers the level of magnesium in the blood. To recover, people who use drugs should use 500 to 1000 mg of magnesium during the day.

DLPA consists of two combined amino acids. This prepared nervous system is used to make PEA, which increases the body’s ability to use endorphins. DLPA is mostly used in people who are addicted to cocaine, because it helps the body restore the level of norepinephrine, a depleted neurotransmitter when using cocaine. DLPA is also an antidepressant. The recommended dose is 500 to 750 mg per day.

Preparations that are associated with increased energy

Vitamin B complex is highly deficient in people who use drugs and who are addicted to certain types of narcotics. Intake of 25 to 50mg of B complex will improve the energy level of addicts.
Low potassium levels are very present in the general population and even in addicts. Low potassium levels are associated with depression, heart disease, and high blood pressure. The best sources of potassium are oranges and bananas.

Natural addiction treatment of the plant to strengthen the liver and digestive tract, detoxification of the organism

Silybum marianum has incredible liver regeneration power. This plant has hepato-protective properties and is very good for use in people treated for alcoholism. This plant protects the liver from toxins. For serious recovery, it should be used in the form of an extract.
Hydrastis Canadensis root is a superior plant in detoxifying the blood and liver. This plant is a natural antibiotic. It also helps repair damaged liver and effectively treat perilous infections.

Dandelion root is an excellent liver detoxifier and diuretic.

Herbs are used to boost the immune system in people who are addicted.

Siberian ginseng is very good for restoring appetite and treating addiction naturally; it can also restore peaceful sleep and improve memory. It increases the mind’s sharpness, reduces nerve disorders, and increases energy levels.

American ginseng improves and speeds up metabolism and the overall endocrine system.

Astragalus improves the digestive system and affects the complete immune system. It is used to restore energy and balance a weak immune system.

As you can see, many minerals, vitamins, and herbs can be used to treat addiction naturally and can help eliminate symptoms. Proper therapy with these preparations will eliminate all the accompanying symptoms. Their use, therapy and strong will will cure addiction.

Gout symptoms diagnosis therapy

Gout (metabolic arthritis) is a type of joint inflammation (arthritis) caused by the crystallization of uric acid in tendons, surrounding tissues and joints, due to the high concentration of uric acid in the body. Crystallization of uric acid causes an inflammatory reaction.

Gout represents one of several types of arthritis when the cause of the disease is known. The disease’s cause is the crystallization of uric acid in the connective tissue of the joint, joint spaces, cartilage, tendons, or all the above places. Uric acid is a byproduct of the breakdown of urine consisting of waste and salt from our body.

In normal situations, uric acid is eliminated by urination and urination. When the body increases uric acid release, or if the kidneys do not function properly and remove uric acid from the body, its concentration in the blood increases.

This condition is called hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia is not a disease, and anyone can have it without any symptoms. However, as uric acid is poorly soluble in water, in the conditions of hyperuricemia, uric acid crystals form and thus develop gout, and disease occurs.

History of gout

gout inflammation of the joint
Crystallization of uric acid on the thumb joint

Gout is a disease that attacks older, genetically predisposed people and has always been known. Perhaps the oldest known form of arthritis, gout, was described as early as Hippocrates in the 5th century BC.

At one time, the term “gout” meant all arthritis forms. It was also known as the “disease of kings” because of the connection between gout and a rich diet full of meat delicacies and alcoholic beverages. The clear connection between the debauched life and gout was easily discernible. Since the cause of gout has been unknown for a very long time, it is no wonder that many patients who suffered from gout from their disease created special mythology.

Namely, it was considered that gout protects against other, more dangerous diseases, such as insanity. In the eighteenth century, gout was at the peak of its epidemiological prevalence and was considered a “sign of sublimity and nobility.” As a certain Lord Chesterfield put it, “gout is a disease of the Lord … while rheumatism is a disease of the stablemen.”

The connection between gout and uric acid was clear as early as the 19th century. Still, the exact biochemical mechanisms of uric acid production in the body were only known in the 1960s, which led to effective gout therapy. On the other hand, gout is the easiest form of arthritis to treat and control.

Epidemiology of gout

Gout on the legs

The prevalence of gout in Europe and the US is approximately 0.2%, although hyperuricemia in this population occurs in about 5% of cases. The prevalence of gout is increasing and is mostly seen in developed countries. Gout occurs more in men than in women (10: 1), rarely occurs before adulthood in young people indicates a defect of specific enzyme ), and rarely occurs in premenopausal women. The prevalence in older women increases with the increased use of diuretics.

Uric acid levels begin to increase after puberty and are higher in men than in women until menopause. There is a normal distribution of serum urate (SU) in the population with changes in the distribution at the upper end of the population spectrum.

Hyperuricemia is defined as a urate level higher than the two standard deviations from the mean (420 μmol / L in men, 360 μmol / L in women). This is a concentration close to the solubility limit of urate.

Gout pathology and pathophysiology

The underlying pathological substrate of gout is inflammation of the joints and surrounding tissue. Inflammation is caused by urate (uric acid) crystals located in the inflammatory area that the immune system recognizes as foreign bodies (a mechanism identical to inflammation around a thorn).

Uric acid is a normal component of the human body. It is a degradation product of purine bases (adenine and guanine). It is poorly soluble in water at the root of the disease.

If the level of urate in the blood reaches a value two to three times higher than normal, the crystallization of urate into tiny crystals begins. This crystallization occurs in the joints, primarily in the big toe joints. Sediments of tiny uric acid microcrystals are called tophi.
The concentration (“level”) of urate in the blood (actually the whole body, but measured in the blood) can increase for two reasons: increased urate production and decreased urate excretion.

If the breakdown of these bases is increased in the body, then an excessive amount of uric acid occurs and consequently an increase in its level in the blood (hyperuricemia). The causes of this condition can be defects in the enzymes of purine base metabolism, increased cell destruction due to radiotherapy or chemotherapy tumors. Also, certain types of food, such as offal, can cause increased uric acid production.

The mechanisms of glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and tubular secretion are involved in the kidneys’ excretion of uric acid. Of all the filtered uric acid in the urine, only 10% ends. Urinary uric acid excretion in the urine may be impaired due to kidney disease or drugs that block urate excretion (some diuretics, acetylsalicylic acid, pyrazinamide, nicotinic acid, and alcohol), and hyperuricemia may occur. These drugs should therefore not be used in gout or hyperuricemia.

How inflammation occurs

Even small amounts of urate crystals in the joints cause a strong inflammatory reaction, followed by the joints’ pain and swelling. Namely, leukocytes come to the area of urate crystallization and try to phagocytose the crystals, thinking that it is a foreign body. Phagocytosis increases lactic acid concentration, which further stimulates the crystallization of urate. Inflammatory reactions lead to severe pain and all the symptoms of gout.

Although gout is often mistaken for joint disease, it is not. Gout is, in fact, a disease of the whole organism. Patients suffering from gout often suffer from high blood pressure, disorders of sugar and cholesterol metabolism, early atherosclerosis, and liver and kidney damage. Gout occurs in about 0.25% of Europe and North America.

In gout, we distinguish between acute gout and chronic gout. In chronic gout, the attack’s intensity is lower, but complete cessation of symptoms rarely occurs. Toffee usually accumulates in the ears, hands, and feet.

Clinical picture of gout

Common gout symptoms are sudden attacks of severe pain, tenderness, redness, heat, and swelling of some joints. Usually, only one joint is affected per attack, especially the big toe joint, but the knee joint, ankle, foot, hand, wrist, and elbow can also be affected.

Uric acid deposits, called tophi, can appear as bumps under the skin around the joints and on the ears’ edges. Uric acid crystals can also collect in the kidneys and cause kidney stones. The inflammation that is part of a gout attack is systemic, so fever, fatigue, and malaise are not uncommon side effects.

As with other known types of arthritis, gout tends to attack certain joints. This is especially the case with the first metatarsal-phalangeal joint (the joint between the big toe and the rest of the foot), which was first attacked in 75% of patients, and was affected in over 90% of cases of this disease.

The ankle, other ankles, and knee are also common locations for gout, as is the elbow’s bursa. In the further course of the disease, multiple joints may be affected without treatment, including the joints of the fingers and wrists. The shoulder girdle is very rarely affected by gout, the hip rarely.

While some gout attacks will resolve quickly and on their own, most will persist for a week, a few weeks, or even longer if left untreated. Since seizures are usually quite painful and usually make it difficult to walk, most patients will seek treatment.

Diagnosing gout

Uric acid crystals

Since gout treatment is lifelong, it is essential to make a definitive diagnosis. In this case, the general practitioner will easily diagnose but can often become two or more possible causes of inflammation in which there are symptoms similar to gout. Ideally, the diagnosis can be made by identifying uric acid crystals in the joint fluid or the urinary fluid mass (tofus).

You can visualize these crystals in a droplet of liquid on a slide observed through a polarizing microscope, which takes precedence over how the crystals “bend” light (polarization). The fluid is aspirated with a needle from the wrist and sent for analysis to the laboratory. The gout crystals have a needle shape and are yellow or blue, depending on their arrangement on the slide.

There may be many circumstances where a test sample is not available, but a diagnosis needs to be made. Therefore, a set of criteria has been set to enable diagnosis. These criteria consider the advantages of gout symptomatology that differ from other types of inflammatory arthritis, such as rheumatoid arthritis.

For example, gout inflammation usually reaches a maximum within 24 hours, while in other types of arthritis, it progresses much more slowly. Similarly, the presence of redness on the skin above the joint, high uric acid levels in the blood, and others, make gout a much more likely diagnosis. A gout diagnosis is made if 6 of the 10 criteria listed in the box below are present.

Diagnosing gout when crystal identification is not possible (ideally, 6 of the 10 listed features will be present):

  • Inflammation reaches a maximum within one day (strong acceleration of inflammation).
  • The existence of a history of a similar episode of inflammation.
  • An arthritis attack on only one joint.
  • Redness above the affected joint (gout is a strong inflammation)
  • The big toe base’s involvement on one side (the most commonplace of gout attacks).
  • Involvement of the joints in the middle of the foot.
  • Elevated uric acid levels in the blood picture.
  • X-ray findings of joint swelling that are not symmetrical.
  • The joint fluid was tested for infection, and the result was negative.
  • An X-ray shows characteristic changes for gout, including bone cysts and erosions.

When gout is diagnosed, you should look at its complications. It would help if you looked for cerebral acid accumulations called toffee, which can be found in several locations (see the image gallery below).

The doctor should look at the existence of kidney stones for the history of the disease. Patients with kidney stones and gout are likely to require faster and more aggressive urate-lowering than patients without stones to prevent stones’ recurrence.

Studies have shown that patients with gout have a higher risk of coronary heart disease and should be evaluated for that risk (e.g., laboratory tests for cholesterol and triglycerides).

Treatment of an acute gout attack

Therapy for acute gout attacks:

  • Nonsteroidal antirheumatic drugs or COX-2 inhibitors. Examples of NSAIDs: Naproxen 500 mg twice daily, indomethacin 25 mg three times daily. Example of a COX-2 inhibitor: celecoxib 200 mg twice daily. Possible side effects: Increased blood pressure, swelling of the joints, nausea, ulcers (long-term use may increase the risk of heart attacks, but the treatment of gout usually lasts shorter). Use with caution in kidney and liver problems.
  • Corticosteroids. Examples: prednisolone 40 mg on the first day, 30 mg on the second day, 20 mg on the third day, 10 mg on the fourth day. Possible side effects: Increased blood pressure, elevated blood sugar, mood swings. Short-term use, such as this one for gout, is generally much better tolerated. Contraindications: diabetics.
  • Colchicine. Example: 0.6 mg of colchicine orally once per hour until improvement or diarrhea occurs. Do not exceed 4-5 doses. Possible side effects: Other choices are more commonly used due to frequent diarrhea problems (lower doses are often better tolerated for prevention). Use with caution in kidney and liver problems.
  • Topical steroid injections. Example: Different doses are used depending on the size of the affected joint, and many preparations are available. Possible side effects: in 1-2% of cases, local reactions to injections may occur, and the condition of the joint may temporarily worsen the next day. In diabetics, a single local injection can temporarily raise blood sugar levels.

Gout treatment

Gout is a chronic disease. Therefore, the key part of therapy is actually preventing disease attacks. Here, the therapy is causal. It tries to reduce uric acid production (reduction of meat intake) or increase its excretion in the urine (drugs and abstinence from alcohol and some drugs).

The second aspect is an acute attack of the disease, i.e., developing a disabling inflammatory reaction. Here is the backbone of anti-inflammatory therapy, and it is used to suppress inflammation. But without removing urate from the body, you cannot stop the inflammation completely.

In the treatment of gout, it is important to adhere to dietary measures – reduce the intake of foods rich in purines (meat, offal), abstain from alcohol, and drink large amounts of fluid so that the daily volume of urine is more than 2 liters so that uric acid is excreted as thoroughly as possible. Organism.

In gout’s medical treatment, we distinguish between drugs used to prevent gout and drugs for relieving pain in an acute gout attack when it has already occurred.
For prevention are used:

  • uricosurics that stimulate uric acid secretion (probenecid, sulfinpyrazone and benzbromarone)
  • uricostatics that block uric acid production from urate (allopurinol)

For the treatment of an acute attack of gout can be used:

  • nonsteroidal antirheumatic drugs (NSAIDs)
  • colchicine

The practice of treating an acute attack

Taking care of an acute gout attack is very different from preventing future attacks. Drugs used for prevention, such as allopurinol, can actually worsen an acute attack, so their application should be waited for until the attack resolves, sometimes for several weeks. Several measures can help deal with an acute gout attack.

One principle is that treating an acute attack should begin immediately after the onset of the attack, as rapid treatment is often rewarded with rapid improvement. If an acute attack is allowed to last longer than a day before treatment begins, the response to treatment can be much slower.

Physical measures can sometimes help with an acute attack. It is important not to strain the foot if the gout attack is located in the lower extremities. Ignoring an acute attack can lead to a prolonged duration of the attack. Applying ice topically proved to be useful (no longer than 10 minutes) not to damage the skin).

Nonsteroidal antirheumatic drugs and COX-2 inhibitors

Nonsteroidal antirheumatic drugs and COX-2 inhibitors are the main therapy in acute gout attacks in patients in whom, of course, they are not contraindicated. These drugs include agents like naproxen, ibuprofen, celecoxib, indomethacin, and many others. They reliably reduce inflammation and pain in gout. However, patients with ulcers, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and fluid retention must be cautious, even with short-term drug administration (3-7 days) required to resolve an acute attack.

The doses of NSAIDs needed to address acute gout attacks are slightly higher, as a complete anti-inflammatory effect is required (some examples are given in the text). For example, over-the-counter doses, for example, ibuprofen 200 mg, two tablets three times a day, are often not enough.


Corticosteroids, such as prednisone and methylprednisolone, are anti-inflammatory agents quite effective against gout attacks. Anti-inflammatory steroids differ in action and side effects from male sex hormone steroids.

Anti-inflammatory steroids have long-term risks, such as bone loss and infection, but the risk of short-term use (3-7 days) is relatively low. These agents can cause an increase in blood pressure and blood sugar so that they can be a problem for patients with uncontrolled hypertension or uncontrolled diabetes mellitus.


Colchicine has a greater role in preventing gout attacks than in the treatment of acute attacks. However, this drug is still used for seizures and is quite beneficial for some people. An essential characteristic of colchicine is its specificity. For example, it can help deal with an acute attack, but it does not help with a recurrent one rheumatoid arthritis.

Unfortunately, the use of colchicine for an acute attack requires a higher dose, often 0.6 mg every hour, and sometimes 6 doses are required. After receiving 3 or more doses, diarrhea is likely, universal in higher doses. Diarrhea makes oral colchicine a less effective alternative to acute attacks in most patients. Also, if a patient has abnormal kidney or liver function, colchicine can build up in the body and act toxic, such as suppressing blood cell production.

In the past, colchicine has also been used intravenously, in addition to oral administration. Intravenous use can be very effective and does not cause diarrhea in this way. Still, it must be used with extreme caution, as a dosing error can cause the cessation of blood cell production in the bone marrow, making the drug potentially fatal. This is why colchicine is so rarely used intravenously today.

Topical injections of corticosteroids may be a great option if the patient has only one joint attack. Preparations include methylprednisolone acetate, tramquinoline, and betamethasone. Of these drugs, betamethasone has the shortest effect in the joint, but gout tends to limit itself over a few weeks, so that this short-term option can be relatively successful.

The advantage of betamethasone is the reduced likelihood of a temporary flare-up of the disease the day after the injection, which is a common side effect of topical steroid injections. Local injections also carry a small risk of infection in the joint. However, it is advantageous if the disease has not yet been definitively diagnosed, as synovial fluid can be aspirated with the same needle for analysis.

Diet when gout occurs

Uric arthritis (gout) is a disease that can be significantly aggravated by a wrong diet and lead to an acute attack of the disease and severe pain. Your food should contain a sufficient amount of carbohydrates, you should avoid fats, and protein should be used within the limits of need (1 gram per kilogram of body weight).

In particular, avoid:
– all animal offal (liver, kidneys, heart, brain, lungs, pancreas), freshly prepared or already industrially processed
– all dishes and sauces made from animal offal
– canned meat
– dried meat and sausages
– fresh and processed (canned) bluefish
– hard alcohol

Avoid as much as possible:
– meat of beef, pork, mutton, and game
– beans, peas, lentils, spinach
– mushrooms (fresh, dried, and canned)
– wine and beer
– coffee, tea
– sharp spices, pickled food

Consume in moderation:
– veal, poultry, domestic rabbit meat
– Eggs
– milk, cheese, butter, margarine
– turnips, artichokes, celery, cucumbers

Allowed without restrictions:
– all other vegetables
– All fruit
– all types (fresh and dried) of cereals, bread, and flour products
– sugar
– all kinds of soups and cooked green vegetables

It is recommended:
– plenty of fluids (water and naturally drained juices)

Sweet juices cause gout

New research has shown that women who regularly consume drinks rich in fructose, such as sweetened soft drinks and orange juice, are more likely to develop gout.

Researchers at Boston University School of Medicine reviewed data collected on nearly 80,000 women who participated in one large study over a 22-year period.
Gout is an excruciating condition in which urate, a chemical substance produced in the metabolism of amino acids, is not completely excreted from the body but accumulates in the joints.

During the study, a diagnosis of gout was made in 778 women.

The researchers found that women who consumed sugar-fortified beverages daily had a 1.7-fold higher risk of developing gout than women who consumed such beverages less frequently than once a month.
They also observed that women who consume orange juice daily have a 1.4 times higher risk of developing this disease.
The research results were presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Rheumatology and were presented by Dr. Hyon Choi, a rheumatologist from the University of British Columbia.

“From a public health standpoint, we are particularly concerned about sugar-fortified beverages, as their consumption has increased significantly over the past few years,” explained Dr. Choi.

“Our research has shown that the risks associated with fructose-enriched beverages are comparable to the risks associated with alcoholic beverages, which are already known to cause gout,” he concluded.

Another study presented at the same meeting found that gout incidence in the U.S. is likely to have increased over the past two decades.


Gout is a common disease and seems to be becoming more common. For treatment to be effective, it is important to make the correct diagnosis as early as possible and start therapy as soon as possible. Other conditions (e.g., pseudogout), which can mimic gout, should definitely be ruled out by identifying crystals from the joint fluid whenever possible.

Treating gout without pharmacotherapy is very important, such as avoiding standing on the foot when it is inflamed and adhering to a diet to reduce purine intake and lose weight if necessary. For acute gout attacks, the key is to get treatment as quickly as possible and choose the least likely medications to cause side effects.

For chronic gout prevention, the essential message is that current treatments work in the vast majority of patients and are generally well tolerated. Patients must understand the four stages of gout because they are different for each stage. Patients must be consulted well and report any frequency changes in gout attacks.

A general practitioner can often act without the need to consult a rheumatologist. Still, you should consider consultation if the diagnosis is unclear, or there are doubts about the choice of therapy, or seizures continue, and related side effects.

Prostate – Problems with prostate cancer and how to keep it healthy

The prostate is a small nut-sized organ. It is located below the bladder (where urine is stored) and surrounds the tube (urethra) that carries urine out of the bladder. The prostate makes a fluid that becomes part of the semen. The semen is a white liquid that contains sperm.

Prostate problems are common in men aged 50 and older. Sometimes men feel the symptoms independently, and sometimes their doctors find prostate problems during routine checkups. Doctors who are specialists in urinary tract diseases (urologists) diagnose and treat prostate problems.

There are many different types of prostate problems. Many do not include cancer, but some include it. Treatments vary, but prostate problems can often be treated without affecting sexual function.

Signs of prostate problems

prostate problems

·  Frequent urge to urinate 
·  Blood in urine or semen 
·  Painful or annoying urination 
·  Difficulty urinating 
·  Difficulty in getting an erection 
·  Painful ejaculations 
·  Frequent pain or stiffness in the lower back, hips or thighs 
·  Inability to urinate, or 
·  Urine leakage

If you have any of these symptoms, see your doctor right away to determine if treatment is needed. 
There are several prostate problems, including: 

Acute prostatitis

Acute prostatitis is an infection of prostate-caused bacteria. It usually starts quickly and can cause fever, chills, or pain in the lower back and between the legs. It can also cause pain when urinating. If you have these symptoms, see your doctor right away. Antibiotics usually help treat the infection and relieve the symptoms. Your doctor may advise you to drink more fluids. 

Chronic prostatitis

Chronic prostatitis is a prostate infection that comes back occasionally. Symptoms may be milder than in acute prostatitis, but they may last longer. Chronic prostatitis can be difficult to treat. Antibiotics can work if bacteria are the cause of the infection. But if bacteria are not the cause, antibiotics will not work. Prostate massage sometimes helps to release fluid. Warm baths can also bring relief. Often chronic prostatitis disappears on its own. 

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)


Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)  is used to describe an enlarged prostate. BPH is common in older men. An enlarged prostate can block the urethra over time, making urination difficult. May cause leakage after urination or frequent urge to urinate, especially at night. Your doctor will perform a rectal test to diagnose BPH. Your doctor may also examine your urethra, prostate, and bladder. 

Prostate cancer

Prostate cancer:  Prostate cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in men from America. It is more common among African Americans than among white men. Prostate cancer treatment works best when the disease is detected early.

Carcinoma in the prostate arises from the epithelium of the glandular acini of the prostate’s peripheral part.

Etymology of prostate cancer

The tumor is older and rarely occurs in men younger than 40 years. Microscopically it will be found in 10% of the fifties and 80% of men older than 80 years, from which it can be concluded that the incidence of prostate cancer is directly proportional to age.

  • Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in men, after lung cancer,
  • geographically, it is more common in developed countries,
  • risk factors are likely to include smoking and fatty acids in the diet

Tumors most commonly develop from the prostate’s peripheral glands (70% from the peripheral zone, 15-20% from the central zone, and 10-15% from the transition zone); most are multifocal.

The first stage of development is preinvasive carcinoma (carcinoma in situ) called intraepithelial neoplasia of the prostate  (PIN). They metastasize to the small pelvis’s local lymph nodes and hematogenous to the distal organs, most often to the bones of the lumbar spine, where the metastases are osteoblastic in nature.

95% of microscopic prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas. According to Gleason, they are classified according to the degree of differentiation by gradation, and the clinical classification is TNM.

Simplified TNM classification is as follows:

  • T1 – clinically inconspicuous tumor, accidentally detected in the prostate removed due to  hyperplasia  – five-year survival of 95%;
  • T2 – tumor limited to the prostate, five-year survival 90%;
  • T3 – tumor expanded through the capsule, premature survival of 40%,
  • T4 – tumor spread to surrounding organs or metastasized, five-year survival 10%.

47% of prostate cancer cases are detected in asymptomatic patients. The diagnosis in such cases is made based on abnormalities in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels that are elevated in 75% of cases or digit rectal examination.

In patients who already have symptoms due to bladder obstruction, they are the most common change in the frequency of urination  (38%),  decreased urine output  (23%),  urinary urgency  (10%), I hematuria  (1.4%). None of these symptoms are unique to prostate cancer.

Prostate warning

About prostate cancer

Biomedical scientists at Monash University have discovered a new way to treat castration-resistant prostate cancer cells in patients.

The discovery showed that drugs that activate one of the two receptors, estrogens, can cause cell death. Most commonly, cell death in patients with prostate cancer is achieved by removing androgens (male hormones), which results in castration. Castration is removing testicles that produce 90 to 95 percent of male body testosterone. Decreased testosterone production will slow the growth of prostate cancer.

The team used a drug developed to selectively and specifically activate the prostate’s beta estrogen receptor. The only inhibits the growth of the prostate and also kills cancer cells that are resistant to conventional treatment such as androgen deprivation therapy, commonly known as castration therapy, and does so using mechanisms that are different from castration.

About BHP

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate that restricts urine flow from the bladder.

 – BPH is the most common prostate disorder and the most common diagnosis by urologists for male patients aged 45-74.
– 60% of men over the age of 60 have BPH.
– Half of all men in their 50s and 80 percent in their 80s have some BPH symptoms.
– About 8.4 million men over the age of 50 in the United States are candidates for BHP treatment.
3.0 million aged 50-59
2.6 million aged 60-69
2.8 million aged 70-79
– In 8 out of 10 cases, symptoms are related to changes or problems with urination, including frequent urination, leakage or dripping, and intermittent or weak urine flow that indicate the presence of BPH.

Dr. Simon Allen recently introduced the device to treat prostate disorders from Fine Treatment, a company that offers a completely natural treatment for various internal health problems. This device helps to calm the capillaries and stops their growth by normalizing the damaged area’s temperature.

Regular exercise will help stop the swelling and thus eliminate the prostate’s pressure. It also improves the metabolism of the gland, relieving the surrounding tissues from pressure. This is the next non-surgical way to treat prostate problems.

Prostate cancer antidotes

There are several options for treating prostate cancer widely available today. These include surgery, radiation, and hormone therapy. One surprising natural remedy is taking pomegranate juice. This fruit with antioxidant properties can prevent cancer cells’ growth and slow the progression of prostate cancer.

In 2010, prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death in American men. About one in six men has been diagnosed with prostate cancer in their lifetime. Prostate cancer is common in men over the age of 40. It is marked by a lump in the prostate created by abnormal cell growth.

A person with prostate cancer experiences the following symptoms:

  • Inability to urinate
  • Difficulty urinating
  • A tingling sensation at the tip of the penis
  • Needing to urinate immediately
  • Drip towards the end of urination
  • Urination several times during the night
  • Difficulty in starting a urine stream
  • Blood in urine
  • Interrupted urine flow
  • Painful ejaculation
  • Pain in the pelvis, thighs and lower back

The following tests are used to diagnose prostate cancer and include:

SA test
Digital rectal test
MRI scan
CT scan

A prostate biopsy is done to detect cancerous cells’ growth in the prostate. A person diagnosed with prostate cancer should receive treatment immediately because the delay can cause cancer cells to spread to other organs in the body.

However, if prostate cancer is diagnosed early, survival chances are very high. The treatment actually depends on certain factors such as age and how far the cancer cells have spread.

Prostate cancer treatment

There are four options for treating prostate cancer widely available today. These are surgery, radiation, and hormone therapy. In some men, you may use an active treatment retention approach. While treatment is denied, the patient will be closely monitored for signs of changes in his illness or the development of new symptoms. If it is detected that cancer is developing at any time, active therapy can then begin.

Alternatively, herbal supplements do not help certain people. Make sure you read about the product and the company that sells it. Go through the testimonies. Please share your insights with your doctor so that he monitors other supplements you consume.

Another natural remedy you may want to consider is pomegranate juice. Doctors often tell prostate cancer patients to drink pomegranate juice. Pomegranate is fruit-filled with red seeds and is used extensively as a medicine in many countries. This fruit with antioxidant properties can prevent cancer cells’ growth and slow down the progression of prostate cancer.

When consumed, it releases chemicals that kill cancer cells. It also provides an anti-cancer activity that limits the growth of cancer cells. According to Martins-Green, pomegranate juice compounds inhibit the bone marrow protein that causes prostate cancer and possibly other types of cancer cells that spread to the bone. Consult your personal physician for further advice. Keep a diary and set dates when you start taking pomegranate juice, and continue to monitor your PSA levels.

Start drinking pomegranate juice and embark on the path of a healthy life without cancer!

Stop – you may not need prostate surgery!

More than 500,000 men worldwide are diagnosed with prostate cancer each year. Radiotherapy and prostate removal are popular treatments for this deadly disease. However, as the world moves toward a natural healing process, more and more studies are being done on how nutritional medicine can help treat prostate cancer before the need for radiotherapy or surgery.

Prostate and vitamin D.

The ‘sun’ vitamin is one of the latest prostate cancer treatments. Recent research has found a close link between vitamin D deficiency and prostate cancer.

One study found that men with higher vitamin D levels derived from sun exposure had a lower risk of developing prostate cancer than those with lower amounts. Scientific research has also shown that vitamin D inhibits cell growth.

Another study found that adequate sun exposure can prevent 600,000 colon and breast cancer cases each year. Several studies link vitamin D deficiency and various types of cancer. Regular sun exposure for at least 15 minutes a day with at least 40 percent of the body exposed is recommended.

Vitamin K2

According to the European Prospective Cancer and Nutrition Survey results, which includes more than 11,000 men, increased intake of vitamin K2 can reduce the risk of prostate cancer by 35 percent. Many studies have published the potential health benefits of vitamin K for bones, blood, and skin.

A recent study on prostate health supports the growing belief in this vitamin’s healing power. Moreover, the potential benefits of K2 were most pronounced for advanced prostate cancer cases. Vitamin K has also been useful in fighting other types of cancer, including liver, bowel, stomach, nasopharynx, oral cancer, and is also used to prevent heart disease.


A new study shows that coffee can reduce the risk of a form of prostate cancer that most often ends in death. Lorelei Mucci is a senior researcher in this study. She is an associate epidemiologist at the Department of Medicine at Brigham and Women’s Hospital.

The Mucci-n team followed 47,911 men who recorded their 1986-2008 coffee consumption. Men with the highest amount of coffee consumption had a 60 percent lower risk of developing a deadly prostate cancer type. Men who drank six or more cups a day had a 20 percent lower risk of any form of prostate cancer. Even those who took only one to three cups a day had a 30 percent lower risk of deadly prostate cancer.

The compounds found in coffee (quinine, magnesium, and trigonelline) are believed to be responsible for the positive results. These compounds reduce inflammation and control insulin. Coffee contains antioxidants that fight free radicals and prevent harmful oxidation of cells. The researchers found that both normal and decaffeinated coffee provided the same reduction in prostate cancer risk.

Medicinal herbs in the treatment of the urinary system

The treatment of urinary tract infections from medicinal herbs is most often used: birch leaf, corn silk, bear grapes, rustic, Prostrate knotweed, primrose, mistletoe, white poplar bark, cherry stalks, nettle ginger, and dandelion.

Foods that help cleanse the urinary system are watermelon, lemon, cranberry, and pumpkin seeds. Increase vitamin B intake during therapy 2, B  and minerals Mg.

There are a large number of various herbal mixtures that are successfully used to cleanse the kidneys and urethra as well as against inflammation of the urinary system:

– For problems caused by kidney stones, watermelon seed tea is recommended, which is prepared as follows: grind a teaspoon of watermelon seeds and pour half a liter of boiling water, cover and leave to cool for 15 minutes. Strain the tea and drink 150ml three times a day. Always prepare fresh tea (for the day).

– You will soothe the inflammation symptoms with corn silk tea, which you will drink up to three times a day.

– Uvin tea slows down the growth of bacteria in the urinary system

– In case of kidney infection, echinacea and pyrethrum tea and the plant Buchu are recommended  (Agathosma (Barosma-older name) betulin) is native to South Africa which grows in the form of a bush up to 2m tall.

Teas and herbs

Teas for easier urination:

Tea 1: Take 25 g of Prostrate knotweed: field horsetail, rosehip, and birch leaves and mix. Pour three tablespoons of this mixture with 500 ml of boiling water, cook for 2-3 minutes, and then leave covered for 3 hours. Strain and drink 150ml of tea three times a day before meals.

Tea 2: Mix 25 g of bearberry, birch, rosemary, and primrose leaves. Pour three tablespoons of the resulting mixture with 500 ml of boiling water, leave covered for 3 hours. Strain and drink 150ml of tea three times a day before meals.

Tea against kidney inflammation:

Mix one tablespoon of corn silk, parting, primrose leaf, and aboveground part of the Prostrate knotweed. Pour 1 L of boiling water over the resulting mixture. Leave covered for 90 minutes. Drink three times daily before meals.

Anti-bladder tea:

Mix 30g of Field horsetail and 20g each sage leaves and birch, and 10g of marshmallow. Three tablespoons  Pour 500ml of cold water over the herbal mixture. After 4 hours, heat to boiling, cook for 5 minutes. Leave covered for 15 minutes. Drink 150 ml of tea three times a day before meals.

Cystic fibrosis is a disease of the exocrine glands

Cystic fibrosis, sometimes referred to as cystic fibrosis (ICD-10:  E84), is autosomal recessively inherited lethal exocrine disease, which primarily affects the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. It is characterized by pancreatic failure, recurrent and chronic lung infections, intestinal obstruction, and male infertility.

Cystic fibrosis is the most common life-threatening genetic disease in the white population. The incidence is 1 in 3200 births. Due to improved therapy, about 50% of patients with cystic fibrosis are adults.

Etiology of cystic fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis gene or cyst fibrosis transmembrane permeability regulator gene (CFTR). Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene ) is located on the long arm of chromosome 7 and as an autosomal recessive trait is present in about 3% of the white population.

More specifically, this gene encodes an epithelial protein chloride channel, a cAMP-regulated chloride channel that controls chlorine and sodium transport across the epithelial membrane. Epithelial channels for chloride transport in cystic fibrosis cannot be activated by cAMP, and such cells cannot excrete chlorine normally, resulting in its retention within the cells.

Epithelial sodium channels (ENaC), responsible for transporting sodium ions from the luminal secretion to the cells, are inhibited by the normal function of said chloride channels. If their function is not normal, the activity of ENaC will be increased, and a larger amount of NaCl and water will accumulate in the cell. As a result, there is an increased density of mucus that blocks the airways, pancreatic ducts, biliary ducts, and intestinal system, which is why cystic fibrosis was formerly called cystic fibrosis.

Contrary to the developments listed above, in sweat glands, CFTR mutations lead to a decrease in ENaC activity, causing NaCl accumulation in the lumen of the tubules and the formation of extremely salty sweat.


Almost all exocrine glands are affected by the disease, with a different distribution of involvement and degree of involvement. Glands may become obstructed by viscous or solid eosinophilic material in the lumen (pancreas, intestinal glands, intrahepatic bile ducts, gallbladder, and submaxillary glands); look histologically abnormal and produce too much secretion (tracheobronchial and Brunner glands); appear histologically normal but secrete excessive amounts of Na and Cl (sweat, parotid gland, and small salivary glands).

Respiratory system

The lungs are generally histologically normal at birth, but most patients begin to develop lung disease early in childhood. Mucosal plugs and chronic bacterial infections accompanied by pronounced inflammatory response damage the airways, possibly leading to bronchiectasis and respiratory failure. The disease’s course is characterized by episodic exacerbations with infections and a progressive decrease in lung function.

Lung damage probably begins with diffuse small airway obstruction with abnormally viscous mucous secretions. Bronchiolitis and mucopurulent airway obstruction occur secondary to obstruction and infections. Respiratory changes are more common than parenchymal changes, and emphysema is not prominent.

About 50% of patients have bronchial hyperreactivity that responds to bronchodilators. In patients with more advanced lung disease, chronic hypoxemia results in pulmonary artery muscle hypertrophy, pulmonary hypertension, and right ventricular hypertrophy. Most pulmonary damage can be caused by inflammation secondary to the release of proteases and proinflammatory cytokines from the airway.

Pathogenic bacteria colonize the lungs of most patients. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen early in the disease course, but as the disease progresses, it is most often isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mucoid variant P.aeruginosa is uniquely associated with cystic fibrosis and indicates a worse prognosis than the nonmucoid Pseudomonas.

The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus  (MRSA) in the respiratory tract is now higher than 25% – patients with MRSA have lower survival rates than those without MRSA. Colonization with Burkholderia cepacia complex occurs in about 3% of patients and may be associated with faster lung deterioration.

Potential pathogens are also non-tuberculous mycobacteria (e.g., Mycobacterium avium complex). The prevalence varies with age and geographical location and probably exceeds 10%.

Gastrointestinal system

The pancreas, intestines, and hepatobiliary systems are often affected by the disease. Exocrine pancreatic function is compromised in about 85 to 95% of patients.

The exception is a subgroup of patients who have certain “mild” mutations in cystic fibrosis, in which pancreatic function is consequently intact. Patients with pancreatic insufficiency have malabsorption of fat (and fat-soluble vitamins) and protein.

The duodenal fluid is abnormally viscous and shows signs of enzyme inactivation and decreased concentration of bicarbonate ion – trypsin and chymotrypsin are absent, or their concentration stool is reduced. Endocrine pancreatic dysfunction is less common, but diabetes mellitus is present in about 2% of children, 20% of adolescents, and at least 40% of adults.

The bile ducts’ involvement with the bile duct and obstruction of the bile ducts leads to asymptomatic liver fibrosis in about 30% of patients. About 2 to 3% of patients progress to irreversible multinodular biliary cirrhosis with varicose veins and portal hypertension, usually by 12—years of age. Hepatocellular failure is a rare and late event. There is an increase in cholelithiasis incidence, which is usually asymptomatic.

Abnormally viscous intestinal secretions usually cause meconium ileus in the newborn and sometimes meconium obstruction of the colon. Older children and adults may also have occasional or chronic constipation and intestinal obstruction.

Other gastrointestinal problems include intussusception, volvulus, rectal prolapse, perpendicular abscesses, pancreatitis or an increased risk of hepatobiliary and gastrointestinal tract cancer, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and esophagitis.

Infertility occurs in about 98% of adult men secondary to the development of vas deferens or other forms of obstructive azoospermia. In women, infertility is slightly lower by secondary viscous cervical secretions – many women have brought their pregnancies to term.

The outcome of pregnancy for both mother and child depends on the mother’s health. Other complications include osteopenia and osteoporosis, kidney stones, iron deficiency, anemia, episodic arthralgia, and arthritis.

Symptoms and signs

Globally, in fifty percent of newborns who have not been diagnosed with neonatal screening (genetic screening of CF is not done systematically in Croatia), lung manifestations are presented first, usually in early childhood. Recurrent or chronic infections are common and manifest by coughing, sputum production, and wheezing.

 Cough is the most common complaint, accompanied by sputum, vomiting, and sleep disturbance. Intercostal retractions, accessory respiratory muscles,  barrel deformity of the thorax,  batty fingers, and cyanosis occur with disease progression. Upper respiratory tract involvement involves nasal polyps and chronic or recurrent sinusitis.

Adolescents may have slow growth,  delayed puberty onset, and decreased physical exertion tolerance. Pulmonary complications include pneumothorax, non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections, hemoptysis, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and right heart failure secondary to pulmonary hypertension.

Meconium ileus due to the ileum’s obstruction by viscous meconium is probably the earliest sign and is present in about 15 to 20% of neonates affected by cystic fibrosis. It is typically manifested by abdominal distension, vomiting, and the inability to pass meconium. Some newborns have intestinal perforation, with signs of peritonitis and shock.

Newborns with meconium blockage have delayed passage of meconium. They may have similar obstruction signs or very mild and transient symptoms that go unnoticed. Elderly patients may have constipation episodes or develop recurrent and sometimes chronic episodes of partial or complete small or large bowel obstruction. Symptoms include cramping, abdominal pain, changes in the pattern of defecation, decreased appetite, and sometimes vomiting.

In neonates without meconium ileus, the disease’s onset may announce a delay in regaining weight at birth or inadequate weight gain at 4. to 6. weeks of birth.

Occasionally, malnourished infants present with generalized edema secondary to protein malabsorption.

Pancreatic insufficiency

Pancreatic insufficiency is usually clinically evident early in life and can be progressive. Manifestations include frequent voluminous passage, foul-smelling, fatty stools, and slowed growth with decreased subcutaneous tissue and muscle mass despite normal appetite. Clinical manifestations may occur secondary to a deficiency in fat-soluble vitamins.

Rectal prolapse occurs in 20% of untreated children. Gastroesophageal reflux is relatively common among older children and adults.

Excessive sweating in warm weather or fever can lead to hyponatremic/hypochloremic dehydration and circulatory failure. In dry climates, newborns may present with chronic metabolic alkalosis. The formation of salt crystals and the salty taste on the skin strongly suggest cystic fibrosis.

Diagnosing cystic fibrosis

diagnosis and analysis

Universal neonatal screening for cystic fibrosis is not carried out systematically in Croatia. Despite advances in genetic testing, the sweat chlorine presence test remains the standard for confirming cystic fibrosis diagnosis due to its sensitivity, specificity, simplicity, and availability.

In the sweating test, localized sweating is stimulated with pilocarpine, the amount of sweat and Cl ions concentration is measured.

The results are valid after 48 hours of life, but it can be difficult to collect an adequate amount of sweat (more than 75 mg on filter paper) before 3. weeks of life. False-negative results are rare but may occur in the presence of edema and hypoproteinemia or inadequate sweating.

False-positive results usually occur due to a technical error. Although the concentration of Cl ions in sweat increases slightly with age, the sweat test is valid at any age. A positive result should be confirmed by another sweat test or by identifying a genetic mutation.

A small proportion of patients have a mild or partial cystic fibrosis phenotype, and their Cl values in sweat are consistently in the middle or even normal range. Also, some patients have manifestations of cystic fibrosis on only one organ – pancreatitis, chronic sinusitis, or congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens, which may result from partial dysfunction of the CFTR protein.

In some of these patients, the diagnosis of CF can be confirmed by identifying two causative cystic fibrosis mutations – one in each of the CFTR genes.

The pancreatic function should be assessed at the time of diagnosis, usually by measuring 72-hour stool fat excretion or stool elastase concentration. The elastase test is valid even in the presence of exogenous pancreatic enzymes. In neonates who initially have a surplus pancreas and have two “severe” mutations, the pancreatic function should be measured serially to detect its insufficiency progression.

Cystic fibrosis – CT finding

Chest X-rays are done at the time of lung disease exacerbations and routinely every one to two years. CT can help more accurately assess lung damage. Both X-rays and CT scans can show hyperinflation and thickening of the bronchial wall as the earliest finding.

Subsequent changes include areas of infiltrating, atelectasis, and hilar adenopathy. As the disease progresses, segmental or lobar atelectasis, cyst formation, bronchiectasis, and hypertrophy of the pulmonary artery and right ventricle occur. Characteristic is the “branching,” finger-shaped opacities representing the mucous plugs of the dilated bronchi.

Pulmonary function tests are the best indication of clinical status and should be performed routinely four times a year, and certainly during the disease’s exacerbations.

They indicate hypoxemia, a reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV). 1 ) forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of the expired volume 25-75 ) and FEV 1 / FVC ratio; the residual volume and the ratio of residual volume to total lung capacity increase.

Fifty percent of patients have reversible airway obstruction as indicated by improved lung function after administration of aerosol bronchodilators.

Monitoring oropharyngeal or sputum culture should be performed 4 times a year, especially in patients who have not yet experienced  P.aeruginosa  colonization.

Newborn screening is not routine in Croatia. Screening is based on detecting elevated levels of immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) in the blood. A second IRT test can be done after detecting an elevated IRT level – if it is also elevated, a sweat test follows.

In the second case, the first positive IRT test may be followed by testing for CFTR mutations – if 1 or 2 mutations are identified, a sweat test is done. Both strategies have a sensitivity of 90 to 95%.


The disease’s course is largely determined by the degree of lung involvement by the disease. Deterioration is inevitable and leads to disability and eventual death, usually by a combination of respiratory failure and cor pulmonale. The prognosis improved, mainly due to aggressive treatment before the onset of irreversible pulmonary changes.

The average survival in Western countries is 41 years. Long-term survival is significantly better in patients without pancreatic insufficiency. The outcome is also affected by CFTR mutation profile, modification genes, airway microbiology, ambient temperature, exposure to air pollutants (including smoking), adherence to therapy, and socioeconomic status.

The best predictor of survival is FEV 1  (age and gender-adjusted).

Treatment of cystic fibrosis

cystic fibrosis genes treatment therapy

Treatment of lung problems is based on preventing airway obstruction and prophylaxis against lung infections (or control of lung infections).

Prophylaxis against lung infections is based on maintaining immunity to pertussis, Haemophilus influenza, varicella, Streptococcus pneumoniae, measles, and annual influenza vaccination. A neuraminidase inhibitor may be used prophylactically in patients exposed to influenza.

Airway cleansing consisting of postural drainage, percussion, vibration, and assisted coughing is recommended at the diagnosis time and should be done regularly. Regular aerobic exercise is also recommended, which can help clear the airways. Patients with reversible airway obstruction may be given aerosol bronchodilators (corticosteroids are not effective).

Oral corticosteroids can be given to children with prolonged bronchiolitis and patients with refractory bronchospasm, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and inflammatory complications (e.g., arthritis, vasculitis).

Prolonged use of corticosteroids (every other day) may slow the decline in lung function but is not recommended due to complications related to corticosteroids. Patients receiving corticosteroids should be monitored for potential diabetes or growth retardation.

Ibuprofen has been shown to slow the rate of decline in pulmonary function (especially in children 5 to 13 years of age) when given for seven years at a dose sufficient to achieve a plasma concentration of 50 to 100 μg / mL.

There is also ivacaftor, a drug that potentiates CFTR ion channels. Other drugs that can correct defective CFTRs or potentiate their function are studied.

Mild pulmonary exacerbations of the disease

A short antibiotic treatment based on culture results and susceptibility should be given for mild pulmonary exacerbations of the disease. For mild to severe pulmonary exacerbations, especially in patients colonized with P.aeruginosa, intravenous antibiotic therapy is recommended. Such patients often need hospital treatment. In patients with chronic colonization of P.aeruginosa, aerosol-administered antibiotics improve clinical parameters and possibly reduce the airways’ bacterial burden.

Chronic eradication Pseudomonas colonization is usually not possible. Nevertheless, it has been shown that early antibiotic therapy, at a time when the airways are initially affected by non-mucoid strains of P.aeruginosa, may be effective in eradicating the organism for some time.

Neonatal intestinal obstruction can sometimes be relieved with an enema containing hyperosmolar or iso-osmolar contrast material. Otherwise, surgical enterostomy may be required to expel viscous meconium from the intestinal lumen.

After the neonatal period, episodes of partial intestinal obstruction can also be treated with hyperosmolar iso-osmolar contrast material via enema or oral administration of intestinal lavage solution. Stool softeners such as sodium sulfosuccinate or lactulose can help prevent such episodes.

Patients with pancreatic insufficiency should be given a replacement pancreatic enzyme therapy with every meal.


Sufficient calories and protein must be included in patients with cystic fibrosis to allow for normal growth and development. The caloric amount usually has to be 30 to 50% higher than the general population’s recommendations.

Diet should also include normal to high fat intake, water-soluble multivitamin supplements double the recommended daily dose, salt supplementation during childhood, and periods of thermal stress and increased sweating. Children receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics and liver disease patients should take extra vitamin K.

Diabetes associated with cystic fibrosis is caused by insulin insufficiency and shares the characteristics of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Insulin is the only recommended treatment.

Patients with symptomatic right heart failure should be treated with diuretics, salt restriction, and oxygen.

Recombinant human growth hormone can improve lung function, increase bone height and mineral content, and reduce the frequency of hospitalizations. It is not usually used due to its high cost and inconvenient application.

Surgical procedures are indicated for localized bronchiectasis or atelectasis that cannot be effectively treated with drugs, nasal polyps, chronic sinusitis, bleeding from esophageal varices secondary to portal hypertension, gallbladder disease, and intestinal obstruction due to volvulus or introsusception.

Liver transplantation has been successfully performed in patients with end-stage liver disease. Bilateral lung transplantation has been performed successfully in patients with advanced lung disease, lobar liver transplantation, and combined lung and liver transplantation in patients with end-stage liver and lung disease.

Bilateral transplantation Lung for severe lung disease is becoming a slightly routine procedure, with greater success and improved techniques. About 60% of people survive 5 years after transplanting both lungs, improving.

Upper respiratory tract infections

We will briefly look at infections of the upper respiratory tract, including infections of the nasal passages, paranasal sinuses, and pharynx. These diseases are the common cold, rhinosinusitis, pharyngitis, and diphtheria. Except for diphtheria, viruses are the most common cause of all these diseases.


The common cold is caused by many organisms, and about 90% of cases are caused by viruses.

Etiology of the common cold

Most cases are caused by rhinoviruses; there are at least 100 immunologically distinct rhinoviruses.


Initially, the symptoms are a stuffy nose, sneezing, and headache. Then rhinorrhea occurs, which gradually worsens. Fatigue, lacrimation, sore throat, mild fever, and anorexia are common in the middle to severe colds. If organisms enter the trachea and bronchi, tracheobronchitis develops, and a cough and a feeling of substernal discomfort may occur.


  • The common cold occurs everywhere in the world.
  • Children under the age of 5 will develop five to seven colds a year, and adults one or two.
  • The common cold is seen mainly in the winter months (probably because most personal contacts occur more easily in the winter).
  • Viruses spread from person to person, usually during handling.

Pathogenesis of the common cold

Rhinovirus infects the nasal passages after direct contact with contaminated surfaces or by inhalation of infectious droplets. It then infects the cells lining the nasal passages and pharynx after capturing the host cells’ intracellular adhesion molecule. Inflammatory changes that occur are hyperemia, edema, and leukocyte inflammation. Cilia cells are destroyed and peeled off.

The peak of pathological changes occurs after the second to fifth day. Cell regeneration begins rapidly, and new cells form around 14. days. The acute phase of the disease begins with a runny nose, with clear discharge production. After one to two days, infection with the normal bacterial flora causes mucopullorent discharge secretion. If blockage of the sinus openings or eustachian tube occurs, paranasal sinusitis or otitis media occurs. Complications are usually associated with the spread of the infection to the lower respiratory tract, resulting in bronchitis.


The diagnosis of a cold depends on the symptoms, the localization and course of the disease, the season and the afebrile course. Laboratory virus cultures and serological testing are rarely performed.

Therapy and prevention

Treatment of the common cold includes supportive therapy to relieve symptoms, for example, a nasal gel containing zinc gluconate. Big doses of vitamin C. can shorten the duration of the disease and reduce the severity of symptoms. Washing your hands and disinfecting contaminated items can prevent you from catching a cold as well as avoiding contact with others during the cold season.

Acute rhinosinusitis

Acute rhinosinusitis

Acute rhinosinusitis is defined as inflammation or infection of the nasal passages’ lining and at least one paranasal sinus that does not last longer than four weeks. Rhinitis and sinusitis usually occur together, so medical terminology has now changed from sinusitis to rhinosinusitis.


Most acute rhinosinusitis cases occur due to respiratory viruses, which include rhinoviruses, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus. However, acute rhinosinusitis can occasionally be complicated by a bacterial infection and diagnosed as acute bacterial rhinosinusitis.

The two most common causes of community-acquired (CA) acute bacterial rhinosinusitis are Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenza. The table lists the bacteria that cause over 70% of paranasal sinus infections. Immunosuppressed patients are also prone to sinus fungal infections due to Aspergillus and Mucor species.


Acute rhinosinusitis is characterized by inflammation of the nose’s mucous membranes and paranasal sinuses. Symptoms include sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, runny nose, sinus pressure, feeling of pressure in the face and headache, sore throat, cough and fever, and myalgia. Viral infection of the upper respiratory tract usually occurs before bacterial rhinosinusitis, and the differentiation between bacterial infection and viral infection is difficult.


  • Respiratory viruses cause the most acute rhinosinusitis. Symptoms usually subside after 5-7 days, and most people recover without the need for medical treatment.
  • Sinus infection can occur after a cold, tooth extraction, rhinitis due to allergies, and water entering the sinuses after bathing (or, for example, diving).
  • During the winter months, sinus infections develop when the common cold occurs more often.
  • In approximately 2% of adults and 10% of children, acute bacterial rhinosinusitis may follow viral rhinosinusitis, allergic rhinitis, or other upper respiratory tract infections.
  • Predisposing factors for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis are listed on the side.
  • Patients with nosocomial infections are more likely to be infected with gram-negative organisms when they develop acute bacterial rhinosinusitis.
  • Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis due to anaerobic bacteria is usually associated with dental infections or procedures.


The most common precursor to acute bacterial rhinosinusitis is a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract followed by sinus obstruction due to mucosal edema. Obstruction of the paranasal sinuses’ mouth makes it difficult to drain mucous secretions. Bacteria grow in these secretions, irritating the underlying mucosa and producing more secretions. Mucosal cell death and exfoliation occur, but the cells will regenerate once the infection has passed.


The diagnosis of acute rhinosinusitis is based on the patient’s clinical signs and symptoms. Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis is diagnosed in half of the cases only on clinical signs. Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis and viral rhinosinusitis are difficult to distinguish because no clinical sign can accurately distinguish between acute viral rhinosinusitis and acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. However, acute bacterial rhinosinusitis has a higher chance of developing a chronic disease.

A diagnosis of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis is likely when the patient has rhinosinusitis symptoms that include purulent nasal discharge that worsens after 5 days and persists for more than 10 days or is out of proportion to the symptoms seen with viral upper respiratory tract infection.

Signs and symptoms considered closer to the bacterial pathogen include high and persistent fever (> 39), periorbital swelling, severe facial or dental pain, altered mental status, diplopia, and infraorbital hyperesthesia.

The four symptoms that appear to be most helpful in diagnosing a patient with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis are purulent nasal discharge, maxillary tooth pain or facial pain (especially unilateral), unilateral maxillary sinus pain, and worsening symptoms after initial improvement. The criteria for diagnosis are in the table.

Therapy and prevention

You can use several different treatments to aid in recovery. Symptomatic treatment is recommended for viral rhinosinusitis, but symptomatic and antibiotic treatment is required if the patient has bacterial rhinosinusitis.

Symptomatic treatment

  • Increase oral hydration using nasal solution and steam to encourage drainage;
  • antipyretics, analgesics, and decongestants may be required for fever, headache, and facial pain;
  • mucolytics are useful for “thinning” thick nasal secretions.

Antibiotic treatment

Initial antibiotic therapy recommendations in patients with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis include amoxicillin or cefdinir. If patients are allergic to beta-lactam antibiotics, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or azithromycin are antibiotics.

There is no vaccine for acute viral or bacterial rhinosinusitis. Still, patients can avoid future problems by avoiding jumping into the water without a stuffy nose, correcting septal deviations or removing polyps, and proper dental care.


Pharyngitis disease

Pharyngitis or sore throat is a common disease, and most cases are caused by viruses.


Pharyngitis can be caused by many different microorganisms, however, 90% of cases in adults and 60-75% of cases in children are caused by viruses. S.pyogenes (beta hemolytic group A streptococcus) is the most common bacterial cause of acute pharyngitis.

Manifestations of pharyngitis

Fever, inflammation, edema, and hyperemia of the tonsils and pharyngeal walls are commonly found in patients with viral and bacterial pharyngitis. Other findings indicating viral rather than bacterial pharyngitis include conjunctivitis, cough, nasal congestion, hoarseness, diarrhea, anterior stomatitis, small ulcerative lesions, and viral exanthema.

Patients with S. pyogenes pharyngitis (streptococcal pharyngitis, streptococcal angina, or purulent angina ) often present with fever and pain in swallowing (usually sudden onset). Headache, nausea and vomiting, and abdominal pain may be present, especially in children. On examination, patients have oculopharyngeal erythema, with or without exudate, and palpable enlarged anterior cervical lymph nodes (lymphadenitis). They may also have red and swollen uvula, petechiae on the palate, and scarlet fever rash. However, none of these signs are specific for S. pyogenes pharyngitis.

If left untreated, patients with S. pyogenes pharyngitis may develop suppurative and non-suppurative complications. Suppurative complications include peritonsillar abscesses, cervical lymphadenitis, and mastoiditis. A major non-suppurative complication is a rheumatic fever, which develops more frequently in children with S. pyogenes pharyngitis than adults with the same infection.

Rheumatic fever represents different sets of clinical manifestations with symptoms several days to five weeks after a streptococcal throat infection. Patients with rheumatic fever first have a fever and painful swelling of several joints such as the knees, elbows, or wrists. Severe rheumatic fever can result in damage to the heart valves.


  • Pharyngitis is common all over the world.
  • Pharyngitis due to S. pyogenes is usually a disease of children between 5 and 15.
  • It is most common in the temperate climate zone during winter and early spring.
  • Viruses are the most common cause of pharyngitis,
  • With a few ins and outs (e.g., diphtheria), pharyngitis is benign and self-limiting.
  • Viral pharyngitis is acquired by contact from person to person and after contact with infectious objects.
  • S. pyogenes are transmitted by contact from person to person.


In viral pharyngitis, the viruses come in contact with the nasopharyngeal mucosal cells and replicate in those cells. Host damage is usually damage to the cells in which the virus replicates.

In bacterial pharyngitis, S. pyogenes are captured by mucosal epithelial cells using M protein, lipoteichoic acid, and fibronectin-binding protein (F protein). It has a capsule composed of hyaluronic acid that prevents phagocytosis by host macrophages. Since the hyaluronic acid of the bacterial capsule is identical to the host’s hyaluronic acid, it facilitates the bacterium’s survival by covering the bacterial antigens.

Extracellular factors produced by S.pyogenes during infection include proteases and hyaluronidase. These extracellular factors help bacteria invade the mucosa. Direct spread to other sites may occur but is now relatively rare concerning antibiotic therapy.

Non-suppurative lesions resulting in rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis may still occur after S.pyogenes throat infections. Several bacterial antigens of S.pyogenes are believed to share epitopes with cardiac and renal tissue. The autoimmune reaction occurs in some patients after producing an immune response to these cross-reactive bacterial antigens and damages their hearts and kidneys. Note: Rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis may occur after an episode of pharyngitis; glomerulonephritis itself can also occur after a skin infection (e.g., impetigo).


Throat virus cultures are rarely performed due to the disease’s mild nature and the cost of culturing the pathogen itself. There are fewer cases of bacterial throat infection (compared to viral pharyngitis); however, delaying treatment of S.pyogenes pharyngitis for more than 9 days after the onset of symptoms increases the possibility of developing rheumatic fever and suppurative complications (e.g., peritonsillar abscess, mastoiditis).

Therefore, strategies for diagnosing acute pharyngitis primarily aim to identify patients with S.pyogenes pharyngitis who require antimicrobial therapy and avoid unnecessary treatment of patients diagnosed with acute viral pharyngitis.

The best way to determine the etiological agent is a throat swab and its planting on agar—beta-hemolytic colonies, negative catalase, i.e., gram-positive bacitracin sensitive cocci (bacitracin test).

Cultures are not necessary, and the diagnosis of all pharyngitis cases is especially true for adults. If the patient has clinical and epidemiological features of pharyngitis (cough, conjunctivitis, diarrhea,…) suggesting viral pharyngitis, no further testing is required. If there are suggestions on the bacterial etiology, it is necessary to make a culture.

Children under the age of 18 are more likely to develop S.pyogenes pharyngitis and are more likely to develop suppurative and non-suppurative complications if left untreated. Therefore, it is necessary to work cultures. If the test is positive, it is necessary to give penicillin.

Rheumatic fever is a non-suppurative complication of S.pyogenes pharyngitis and resembles several other diseases affecting the joints (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, SLE, serum sickness). The side table lists the diagnostic criteria for S.pyogenes pharyngitis.

Therapy and prevention

All patients with acute pharyngitis should be given appropriate doses of antipyretics, analgesics, and supportive care.

Viral pharyngitis

It is treated with analgesics (eg paracetamol). The patient should be encouraged to drink fluids to avoid dehydration. Susceptible persons should be warned to limit contact with an infected person.

S.pyogenes pharyngitis

It requires the use of antimicrobial agents, in addition to the therapies mentioned for acute viral pharyngitis. Antibiotics have been shown to limit the spread (e.g., peritonsillar abscesses, cervical lymphadenitis, mastoiditis); prevent the development of acute rheumatic fever (if given within 9 days of symptoms); improve clinical signs and symptoms (if given within 2 days of symptoms); they quickly reduce infectivity and reduce the transmission of bacteria from person to person and speed up recovery. Penicillin is the antibiotic of choice and erythromycin for patients allergic to penicillin.

Rheumatic fever

Treatment includes antimicrobial drugs to eliminate S.pyogenes from the pharynx and anti-inflammatory drugs to suppress the disease’s clinical manifestations. Recurrence of rheumatic fever is more likely in patients who have had a previous episode of S.pyogenes pharyngitis.

Patients who have recovered from rheumatic fever should be protected with chemoprophylaxis in the form of a monthly dose of penicillin, and this chemoprophylaxis should be given throughout childhood. If permanent damage to the heart occurs, chemoprophylaxis should be continued throughout life.



Diphtheria is a bacterial disease rarely seen today due to a successful universal vaccine. Vaccination does not affect bacteria’s ability to colonize the oropharynx but rather induces the production of antibodies to inhibit diphtheria toxin.


Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a gram-positive stick that is irregularly stained by Gram. Only strains of C. diphtheriae with beta phage, i.e., a toxin-producing lysogenic bacteriophage, can cause diphtheria.


Diphtheria results in pharyngeal pain, forming pseudomembranes seen on the tonsils and posterior wall of the oropharynx, regional lymphadenopathy (“bull neck pictured right”), edema of surrounding tissues, bad breath, low-grade fever, and cough. Respiratory obstruction, tachypnea, stridor, and cyanosis may occur. The toxin can cause damage to the cranial nerves and heart, causing neurological abnormalities (e.g., palatine paresis, difficulty swallowing, nasal fluid regurgitation) and myocarditis.


  • The disease occurs worldwide. however, in vaccinated areas, very rarely (eg, only 1 or 2 cases per year occur in the US)
  • The largest epidemic in recent history occurred in the former Soviet Union in 1994. year, with over 48,000 cases of diphtheria and over 1,700 deaths.
  • C. diphtheriae can colonize the oropharynx and skin of persons immune to the disease without causing the disease, and thus C. diphtheriae maintains its population.
  • Humans are the only known reservoir of C. diphtheriae.
  • The most common cause of death is heart damage due to diphtheria toxin.
  • Droplets and skin contact transmit C. diphtheriae. Healthy carriers and patients in the incubation phase are the best carriers.


C. diphtheriae colonizes the oropharynx and remains localized on mucosal surfaces. Only C. diphtheriae lysogens for bacteriophages carrying the toxin gene can cause diphtheria. Damage to the pharynx is caused by a toxin that kills mucosal cells by adenosine diphosphate ribosylation of elongation factor II and termination of protein synthesis.

Pseudomembranes produce the inflammatory response to cell death and dead cells. Thotoxin can also bind to and damage heart cells and nerve cells. Major complications of diphtheria are myocarditis and damage to the cranial nerves. Myocarditis is more important than the two complications and causes the highest mortality. The cranial nerves are most sensitive to the toxin, resulting in difficulty swallowing and nasal fluid regurgitation.

There is also a cutaneous form of diphtheria – a cut in the skin can open the way for C. diphtheria to enter the subcutaneous tissue, leading to the formation of a chronic ulcer that does not heal has a gray membrane. Rarely, exotoxin production leads to tissue degeneration and death.


Diagnosis of diphtheria includes observation of pseudomembranes and bleeding after membrane removal and severe cervical lymphadenopathy. Neurological abnormalities such as palate paresis, difficulty swallowing, and nasal fluid regurgitation are important signs for a correct diphtheria diagnosis. It would help if you took an oropharyngeal swab and culture made. Whether a strain produces a toxin can be deduced, for example, from PCR.

Treatment and p revenge

A diphtheria patient should be hospitalized, placed in isolation, and treated immediately with a toxin antiserum. The most important task is to provide an antiserum to neutralize diphtheria toxin’s toxic effects. Another urgent task is antimicrobial therapy with penicillin or erythromycin. The patient should also be vaccinated to ensure immunity to the disease.

Heart transplantation

A heart transplant is a transplant of a complete human heart. Heart failure (or congestive heart failure) is a condition in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet other bodily organs’ needs. People with heart failure should not strain because they are short of breath and tired. They can also have life-threatening irregular heart rhythms.

Last year, more than 41,000 Americans died of congestive heart failure, and as many as 4.8 million of them live with it.

Scientists have made progress in identifying diseases that cause heart failure. Medications for the treatment of congestive heart failure are also being worked on.

Still, when the heart is so damaged that it is impossible to repair, current treatment methods are sometimes unable to alleviate symptoms and prolong life. When all hope of improvement is lost, a more drastic approach should be considered – such as a heart transplant.

In heart transplantation, the diseased heart is removed and replaced with a healthy human heart. In special cases, the diseased heart does not have to be removed, but the surgeon can place a healthy heart next to the diseased one (so-called ‘transplant’ heart transplant) to act as a supplementary pump.

Medical science has made great strides over the past 20 years. Once a science sensation and a science fiction dream, heart transplantation have become a reality today. For those who do not respond to other heart disease treatment types, a heart transplant can be a miracle that will save their lives.

Problems in the first years

The first human heart transplant was performed by Dr. Christian Barnard 3. December 1967 in a celebrated operation in Capetown, South Africa.

In the first years, heart transplants were usually not successful because the patient’s body often ‘rejected’ the new heart. This happened because of the human body’s immune system, made up of white blood cells and other cells that recognize ‘foreign’ material and react to it.

Take the example of a person who cuts a finger. If bacteria enter the incision, white blood cells move toward the incision to destroy them before the infection begins. This is a normal defensive response.

A similar response occurs toward a newly donated heart after a transplant. It is exposed to attacks. At the time of the first proceedings, heart transplantation medical science could not interpret how the body’s immune system ‘sees’ the transplanted heart as foreign. Today, survival rates after heart transplants have gradually improved thanks to an understanding of how the immune system works. 

Today’s heart transplant results

heart transplant pulse

Today heart transplantation is performed in more than 2,300 Americans each year at over 150 heart transplant centers. Over two out of five of these patients are expected to survive for a year, and over seven out of ten will be alive three years after surgery.

  • Heart transplants are performed each year in more than 2,300 Americans.
  • The one-year survival rate is 89%
  • The three-year survival rate is 84%

Patients with the longest survival live more than 20 years after transplantation.

Quality of life also improves dramatically after a heart transplant. Many activities – walking, dancing and even running – can return to normal. Rather, heart transplant recipients competed in a marathon, and one person became a professional athlete (in the Grand Futsal League).

Transplant recipients must take lifelong medications (known as immunosuppressive or anti-rejection drugs) to prevent organ transplant rejection and deal with these drugs’ side effects.

The transplanted heart is ‘denervated’ for at least a year after surgery. This means that it is not connected to the rest of the body via the nervous system. The network of fine nerves broken during the old heart’s removal cannot be reconnected surgically. The denervated heart normally works, which does not cause any recipient problems. However, it can cause a faster pulse after transplantation. A normal resting heart regularly beats 60 to 80 times per minute, while a transplanted heart can beat 130 times per minute.

Indications for heart transplantation

Heart transplantation is performed when congestive heart failure or heart injury cannot be treated by any other medical or surgical method. Heart transplantation is reserved for people at high risk of dying from heart disease within one to two years.

Most patients who undergo a transplant have either of two problems. The first is irreversible heart injury due to the arteries’ calcification (coronary heart disease) and multiple heart attacks. Another problem is heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy). In this condition, the heart cannot contract normally due to damage to the heart muscle cells.

Sometimes heart transplants are performed in people with other forms of heart disease, and these include the following: 1) heart valve abnormalities that cause damage to the heart muscle; 2) abnormalities of the heart muscle or other structures present at birth (congenital heart defects); or 3) rare conditions such as heart tumors.

Until recently, anti-rejection drugs’ side effects prevented heart transplants in very young or older people. That, however, has changed. Now transplantation can be performed in people of all ages, from newborns to those in their seventies.

The chances of successful heart transplantation, in the long run, depend in part on the extent of damage or disease to other organs that cannot be cured. (This may include a fatal stroke, chronic lung, liver, or kidney disease.) In people with these conditions, transplantation would be of little or no benefit. If the pulmonary arteries’ blood pressure rises too much and cannot be lowered, it can prevent a heart transplant. This is because a normal, gifted heart may be unable to cope with the flow of blood through diseased blood vessels. A ‘transplant’ heart transplant can be applied in such a case.

Other medical issues are also considered when deciding whether a person is a good candidate for a heart transplant. These include a proven active infection, diabetes, or blood clots in the lungs.

As recipients must withstand the emotional burden of transplantation and its consequences, a support network among family members and friends plays an important role. The recipient must also be able to deal with potentially serious drug side effects and the need for lifelong treatment and medical care.

Selection and recruitment of providers

It is estimated that 16,000 people in the United States would benefit from a heart transplant each year. However, only about 2,300 surgeries are performed each year because too few hearts are donated.

All in all, it is a matter of public awareness and legislation. Some families of potential donors refuse to give consent to donate organs to their loved ones because they think they will have to pay the cost of organ harvesting. That is not correct!

Hospitals today are required to develop policies and procedures to explain to families organ donation. Legal provisions for this ‘requested application’ have been adopted in 42 states and in the District of Columbia (DC). Likewise, hospitals with Medicare and Medicaid programs must have written provisions in place to identify potential organ donors and report them to the procurement authority (OPO). Since January 1988. all hospitals must have elaborate policies and procedures in place to identify potential donors. Sometimes the hospital is unable to identify a good donor despite the hospital requirements. If the donation is not requested from the family of a potential donor, and the family would like to give someone else a chance at life, they should consult a doctor or nurse.

When a hospital or OPO as a member of the Unified Organ Donation Network ( United Network for Organ Sharing / UNOS / ) identifies the donor, the person in charge of identifying the donor should do two things: determine whether the donated organ is suitable for transplantation and coordinate the distribution of the organ. However, all this depends on the family of the potential donor. If the family does not allow the use of organs, the organs will not be removed.

Most donors donate multiple organs. For example, the heart, liver, kidneys, pancreas, and lungs can be obtained from the same donor.

Donated hearts are given to patients based on the donor’s blood type and body weight, and the blood type, body weight, disease severity, and geographic location of the potential recipient. All this data is stored in the UNOS computer. Preference is given to seriously ill recipients at the nearest transplant center.

A suitable donor is a young to middle-aged person for whom brain death has been reported based on standard criteria whose heart is still working well. All donors are tested for the presence of hepatitis B and C viruses and human immunodeficiency virus (which causes AIDS). Any evidence of these infections means that the person in question is not eligible as an organ donor.

When the transplant team at the recipient’s hospital receives notification of a suitable heart, they travel quickly to the donor’s hospital. There the heart is taken out and placed in a special cold solution to keep it alive (though not beating). The heart can be disconnected from the donor’s bloodstream in about four hours without losing its ability to function normally. Time, then, is crucial. When the heart is removed, the team returns to their hospital and performs surgery.

The process of donating the heart

  • The potential donor signs the organ donor card.
  • After brain death, contact with the donor’s relatives is made.
  • The closest relative gives consent.
  • The acceptability of the heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, cornea, bone, and skin for possible transplantation is determined.
  • Recipients are identified and prioritized via a local program or UNOS computer.
  • The recipient is notified and admitted to the hospital.
  • Surgical teams from the transplant centers arrive at the donor’s hospital at a pre-arranged time.
  • Surgical removal of the donor’s organs begins.
  • The recipient is brought to the operating room, where the removal of the diseased heart is coordinated with the donor organ’s arrival.


 Heart transplantation is a treatment method for those people whose life expectancy is minimal and in whom there are no other options. It is not a ‘cure’ because a new heart requires lifelong care. Complications can occur after transplantation. Despite the complications, in most people, the quality of life after transplantation is excellent. Those who worked before a heart transplant usually return to work after a short recovery period.

The most common early complications after heart transplantation are organ rejection and infections. Strict precautions are needed to prevent them from occurring.

All adult patients undergo a heart biopsy procedure, taking small heart tissue pieces. The procedure is performed under local anesthesia, after which a long instrument is inserted through a vein. The pieces of tissue are then examined under a microscope. Identifying the white blood cells that cause the immune response is the only available method to diagnose rejection.

In most cases, doctors may detect rejection before the patient begins to feel unwell or some active sign appears that the heart is not working normally. Rejection is treated by increasing the dose of the immunosuppressive agent. Six to eight months after a heart transplant, the body’s effort to reject the donor’s heart decreases. A certain form of ‘submitting’ a new heart develops. Although anti-rejection drugs should be taken continuously and for life, their dose may be reduced after this high-risk early period. This, in turn, will help eliminate the side effects of these drugs.

Two-thirds of deaths in the first year after transplantation occurs in the first three months. The vast majority of them are caused by early rejection or infection.

Drug side effects

Side effects of anti-rejection medications are common. Corticosteroids, especially prednisone, cause many side effects when given high doses early after transplant surgery. Patients may gain weight, retain fluid, or have an unusual distribution of body fat. (Weight increases more in the abdomen and hips than in the arms and legs.) There may be a strangely rounded shape of the face (moon face), weakening of the skin and hair, diabetes (which often needs to be treated), Gallstones, bone weakness, stunted growth (in children), joint damage, and infections. Often these problems are sought to be reduced by interrupting or lowering the steroid dose.

Azathioprine (Imuran) is another drug given to many organ recipients. It can cause abnormalities in kidney or liver function, and lower white blood cell counts. This, in turn, facilitates the development of infection in the recipient concerned.

Cyclosporine is an immunosuppressive agent. He is partly responsible for the dramatic improvement in survival rates in recent years. Cyclosporine causes an increase in blood pressure (hypertension), which needs to be treated in most cases. Abnormalities of renal and hepatic function may also occur, and these side effects may be alleviated by lowering the dose of the drug. Cyclosporine interacts with many other medicines that the person may be taking, so it should be closely monitored for successful use.

Immunosuppressive therapy

Heart transplant patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy have a higher incidence of cancer than the general population.

Infection is also a major problem after transplantation in all people taking anti-rejection drugs. The reason for this is simple. The same white blood cells that attack the transplanted heart are responsible for removing foreign particles (such as bacteria) from the bloodstream. Thus, measures taken to protect against rejection may increase infection risk. This is especially true in the event of rejection when it is necessary to increase the dose of anti-rejection drugs.

After the first year, the main threat to survival comes from blockages in the arteries of the transplanted heart. Clogged heart vessels generally do not cause chest pain because the heart is not connected to the nervous system. Most centers perform cardiac catheterization and angiogram (examination of the heart and blood vessels using dye) at a certain time after transplantation.

This form of vascular disease develops in about 25 percent of heart transplant patients within three years of transplantation. If this blockage continues, abnormalities in the work of the heart muscle or irregular heartbeat can occur so that another transplant may be considered. Intensive medical research is being conducted to determine the causes of this serious complication and find ways to prevent them.

Heart transplantation in the future

Heart transplantation has seen a dramatic improvement over the last 20 years. It has benefited, extended, and enabled many people to live a more active life. With new scientific advances, long-term survival is becoming increasingly likely.

Medical science has made great strides in diagnosing rejection and developing immunosuppressive drugs. Several new anti-rejection drugs are in the early stages of development. Several new rejection prevention options with fewer side effects are expected to be available soon.

New techniques are also being developed to diagnose rejection without a heart biopsy. Researchers are focusing on blockages in the blood vessels that form in the new heart. They work tirelessly to identify the causes of this serious complication and learn how to treat and prevent it most effectively.

Even if these problems are addressed, the current lack of donated organs prevents a new heart transplant from anyone who needs it. Other methods will be needed. Artificial heart pumps or mechanical support systems could be permanently installed instead of a new heart in some people. Likewise, a better understanding of the immune system may allow physicians to transplant organs of other types (xenotransplant) instead of selectively using human organs. These technologies will be more widely available within the next 20 years.


  • New anti-rejection drugs
  • A better understanding of vascular disease
  • Greater availability of donated organs
  • Other heart replacement options

The research will also focus on identifying people with early heart disease. Better medical treatment may prevent the disease from reaching a point when a heart transplant is needed.

There is still a reason for optimism in cases where this does not happen. As medical scientists become more aware of immune responses, donated organs will be applied with increasing success. In turn, that will result in increasing improvements in heart transplantation.

High Blood Pressure – Treatment Review Causes of Alternative Methods

High blood pressure or otherwise known as hypertension, is one of the diseases that are silent killers of man. To understand the way blood pressure works, it can be described as the force of flow as blood flows through the arteries. Therefore, blood vessels have a level of resistance that allows only a certain blood volume to flow through them. It is important to know the two components that produce hypertension: blood flow versus vascular resistance.

The body’s arteries and veins can burst when too much pressure is created by blood rush within these natural channels of life. Consider this scenario: the only way out of blood vessels’ walls to release this pressure overload is through cracking or tearing. Attempts to reduce hypertension should be made because once a blood vessel ruptures and opens, serious consequences can occur. With a milder attack, the person may experience pain, and an even stronger attack of hypertension can cause instant fatality, meaning death. 

However, the abundance of information about high blood pressure has already been spread to the public about the risks of this common disease. Thus, high blood pressure medications are available through synthesized medications and natural high blood pressure medications.

Causes of high blood pressure

high blood pressure

What causes this disease? According to various studies, certain factors cause a predisposition to high blood pressure, such as:

  1. Genetic predisposition – The incidence of hypertension is usually higher in certain families.
  2. Weight – Overweight may be the reason for a greater tendency to high blood pressure.
  3. Aging – Individuals who get older with age are more likely to suffer from this condition.
  4. Pre-existing medical conditions – if a person has a serious illness type, it can also affect an individual’s normal blood pressure. Conditions such as thyroid disease, chronic kidney disorders, and many others can become a major trigger.
  5. Medications for Certain Diseases – Medications can also cause hypertension. Asthma medications contain corticosteroids that can cause a rise in blood pressure. For others, some types of cold products may be the culprit for high blood pressure.
  6. Unhealthy lifestyle and diet – Too much salt intake, alcohol, and smoking can give a higher risk. Add to that dangerous combination a sedentary lifestyle in which a person does not exercise.
  7. Gender – It has been found that men suffer more from high blood pressure than women.

Visible symptoms and complications

You can detect the onset of high blood pressure immediately. Only when the disease progresses can the following signs be noticed: 

•  Headache
•  Blight sight
•  Dizziness
•  Nausea / Vomiting

Failure to treat hypertension can lead to more severe organ dysfunction. Kidneys, hearts, and blood vessels will all bear the consequences. Therefore, there are coronary heart disease cases, cardiac congestion, heart failure, arterial disease, aortic aneurysms, and renal failure, reported as a result of increased pressure within blood vessels.

The blood vessels in the kidneys will constrict when strong pressure is present. Moreover, persistently high blood pressure can make the heart increase or become weak. Also, arteries can swell and rupture, causing an aneurysm. The eyes can also become blurred or eventually lose sight because the blood vessels have already erupted. 

Treatment of high blood pressure

high blood pressure treatment

Possible treatment for high blood pressure includes seeking appropriate medical attention. In case the condition is severe, you may require emergency hospitalization. However, the best type of hypertension treatment is by taking medications with natural ingredients. Some herbs and herbs have been used for centuries to control blood pressure. The presence of blood in the human body allows it to perform various functions. Thus, having healthy blood will allow the organs to perform normal bodily processes. 

You can benefit now if you use our treatment for high blood pressure. Maintaining a healthy blood flow produces healthy arteries, heart, and good circulation. Be wise in taking your healing resources for a healthy body. The best rule is: take them from a top health provider – take ingredients from nature itself. 

Alistrol has been included in the list of agents for high blood pressure and treatment of high blood pressure since 2000. It is clinically tested, recommended by a doctor, and 100% natural.

How to reduce high blood pressure

There are many different ways to lower blood pressure. Some experts say you need to consider some things to achieve your goal – reducing high blood pressure. It is also advisable that you limit yourself to any foods with very high sodium content. This can absolutely help reduce hypertension.

However, if the situation gets worse, you can consult your trusted doctor directly for direct medication. That way, it will be a great help for you to treat yourself right away. Consulting your trusted doctor can also give you the best treatment regarding this issue. You can have it only once, so you will be able to insure yourself and have good health.

Ways you can have appropriate treatment

There are several methods and ways you can have proper treatment with your hypertension. It is very necessary to know all these remedies so that you can find the best cure for all your problems.

‘Water pills’

One of the things you need to know about proper treatment is water pills. They are also known as diuretics. Many people use these water pills to control growing hypertension. Also, it could be the reason for the absence of high blood pressure, which will lead to other complications in your body like heart attack, stroke, and more. Furthermore, through water pills, you will pass more urine, and eventually, your blood volume will decrease.

Diuretics have many common forms. Some of them are hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL), metolazone (Zaroxolyn), and also with a combination or mixture of hydrochlorothiazide (Dyazide) and triamterene. These types of diuretics are recognized by many people, especially by experts. It is also a reality for each individual to help reduce high blood pressure.

Beta blockers

beta image blockers

Another type of treatment is taking some medications that can help you with your hypertension problem. Such specific medications that you can use are beta-blockers. This can absolutely help you if you have high blood pressure. A person with high blood pressure can automatically take this type of medication.

However, there is a need to consult with your trusted doctor to avoid some conflicts in your health. Some experts recommend these types of medications to their patients to ensure safety and great effectiveness for their condition. Some examples of beta-blockers are atenolol (Tenormin), metoprolol (Lopressor), and carvedilol (Coreg). These medications can give you many benefits given your condition.

Calcium channel blockers and other drugs

Another type of treatment for your hypertension is taking a calcium channel blocker (CCB). They can regulate the normal contractions of your heart muscle. They can also help keep you from getting high blood pressure.

There are also so-called ACE inhibitors that stop the production of angiostene II. Angiosten II causes blood vessels to contract. If the blood vessels are contracted, the blood pressure may increase. Some examples of ACE inhibitors are lisinopril, fosinopril (Monopril), Captopril (Capoten), and Accupril. These types of inhibitors can help you prevent high blood pressure.

Some of the medications generally include blockers commonly used for hypertension. These blockers are for body and heart muscle regulation. In fact, there is a type of treatment that lowers blood pressure. Some of them are blockers for the autonomic nervous system. This can ensure that your blood vessels relax. Also, blockers for the autonomic nervous system are critical. This is because the nervous system controls and regulates heart rhythm, and this is why your body functions. It is essential to focus on the central nervous system because the heart is the main organ present here.

It is also a fact that there are many ways and remedies to prevent and treat hypertension. You will use some of the above information to reduce high blood pressure. Also, if you already know about these ways, there is a certainty that you will have a good heart rhythm, and this will give you the best support for good health. If somethings worsen, the best thing you can do is consult your trusted doctor. This will help you a lot if you ask for help and some suitable medications or treatments.

High blood pressure and alternative medicine

There are many alternative and complementary medications that have been considered useful in treating high blood pressure. In fact, scientific studies indicate that engaging in physical activity, a diet rich in complex carbohydrates and low in salt and saturated fat, and regular relaxation techniques such as Taichi, Qigong, and Yoga can help reduce high blood pressure.

Many people are aware of the strong link between a healthy diet and the prevention of certain diseases. It just means that what you eat can prevent or reduce high blood pressure. If you are obese or overweight, a healthy diet and weight loss is an effective and safe way to lower your blood pressure. Changing your eating habits, such as taking care of portion sizes, can help encourage weight loss, which can help you achieve normal blood pressure.

Proper nutrition to help reduce high blood pressure

As already mentioned, eating healthy foods is one of the most effective and easiest ways to lower your blood pressure. The DASH diet is a useful diet you can try to achieve normal blood pressure. Doctors recommend eating foods that contain high levels of calcium, magnesium, and potassium.

Eating smaller amounts of sweets and red meat is also recommended. Also, those looking to lower blood pressure should eat more vegetables, fruits, low-fat dairy foods, poultry, nuts, and fish, as well as whole-grain products. Limiting your intake of foods high in cholesterol, total fat, and saturated fat is also recommended.

Physical activity can help lower blood pressure

Physically active people have a lower risk of high blood pressure. It just means that participating in physical activities can help reduce high blood pressure. Findings from numerous studies show that exercise can benefit those who want to have normal blood pressure. People with moderate to mildly high blood pressure and who exercise for thirty to sixty minutes, 3-4 days each week, can significantly lower their blood pressure. These exercises can be in the form of walking, cycling, or running.

Stress management and relaxation techniques

Blood pressure rises when a person feels tension or stress. Recent studies show that ancient relaxation techniques that include controlled breathing and mild physical activities such as Qigong, Tai Chi, and Yoga may help lower blood pressure. People who suffer from mild hypertension and have practiced these techniques regularly for 2-3 months have experienced a significant reduction in blood pressure. They also experienced lower levels of stress hormones and became less anxious.

A recent small study showed that slow breathing daily brings a significant reduction in blood pressure. On the other hand, these results still need to be confirmed in better designed and larger studies before these ancient techniques can be recommended as effective non-pharmacological approaches to treat high blood pressure. Still, the possible benefits make these techniques worth an activity that you can incorporate into a healthier lifestyle. For inactive older adults suffering from chronic health problems, it is important that a doctor first assesses them before beginning any program that includes physical activities, including Yoga, Tai Chi, and Qigong. 
Herbal therapies for the treatment of high blood pressure

The safety and efficacy of herbal therapies such as tetrandrine (Stephania tetrandra), water thistle (Rauwolfia serpentine), hawthorn (Crataegus species), and ginseng (Panax notoginseng), as alternative medicines for the treatment of high blood pressure, have not been comprehensively studied. Because of the possible risks associated with these herbs, it is important to inform your doctor before trying them. This is even more necessary if these herbs are used to combine medications for high blood pressure. Some herbs such as yohimbine, licorice, and ephedra should not be used by people suffering from high blood pressure as these herbs can trigger high blood pressure.

Supplements to reduce high blood pressure

Some supplements have been evaluated to help lower blood pressure. One such supplement is Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). People who suffer from hypertension and have taken Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) were found to have had a noticeable drop in blood pressure without significant side effects. Furthermore, Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) appears to lower blood pressure through various mechanisms, unlike other major anti-hypertensive drugs.

Another supplement that can help lower blood pressure is omega-3 fatty acids. Some studies show that DHA and EPA can help lower blood pressure in people suffering from mild hypertension. On the other hand, other studies have contradictory results. Current evidence suggests that moderate lowering of blood pressure can occur with significantly higher doses of omega-3 fatty acids.

Amino acids are also claimed to help lower blood pressure. The addition of L-arginine, which can lower blood pressure, is also recommended. In contrast, several studies conducted so far are only a small plus, as they are not well controlled. These studies show that L-arginine can lower blood pressure for only a short period of time. L-taurine, another amino acid, may also have properties that help lower blood pressure.

On the other hand, it is imperative that you first talk to your doctor before taking any medications. This could also apply to supplements, which you can purchase without taking a doctor’s prescription. You should carefully weigh each drug’s benefits and risks before actually taking each.

Acupuncture for hypertension

Extensive research on the effectiveness of acupuncture in lowering high blood pressure has been reported, although several studies have significant weaknesses. Nevertheless, more controlled research is key to knowing the value of acupuncture as one way to treat hypertension. To date, there is no evidence that acupuncture can reliably lower blood pressure.

In principle, various ways can help treat hypertension. However, the individual still needs to take the necessary measures to make sure that his condition does not worsen further and effectively treat high blood pressure.

More information

High blood pressure, also called the silent killer, is extremely alarming. This health problem is one of the main causes of the mortality rate increase. To protect your loved ones from getting this condition, you should fully know a few things about high blood pressure. Basically, blood pressure is a coordinated pressure of blood force that acts on blood vessels’ walls and is one of the main vital signs.

Hypertension is another name for high blood pressure. This health problem is hazardous because it makes the heart strain more as it pushes blood through the body. It also contributes to the hardening of atherosclerosis and heart failure arteries. The main question is, what are the real causes of high blood pressure? A simple question but requires completely accurate and detailed answers. Before explaining its various causes, you should first understand the concept of normal blood pressure.

As doctors claim, normal blood pressure should not be less than 120/80. If you have reached 120-139 / 80-89, you are experiencing pre-hypertension. Blood pressure measured 140-159 / 90-99 was considered grade 1 high blood pressure, and grade 2 was 160 and more / 100 and more. Those individuals who have blood pressure above normal should seek full advice from their doctor. The question for recommendations on how to lower blood pressure can help significantly.

Causes of high blood pressure

Causes of high blood pressure

The exact causes of high blood pressure are still unknown. This health problem can occur depending on several factors and conditions. High blood pressure can develop if you practice an unhealthy lifestyle. For example, smoking and lack of physical activity are some of the main causes of high blood pressure. Excessive alcohol intake is also one way of developing high blood pressure.

Since alcohol consumption is complicated to refuse, you can take at least 1 to 2 drinks a day. Furthermore, stress and obesity or being overweight can also cause high blood pressure. Experts claim that high blood pressure causes include family history, genetics, old age, chronic kidney disease, and thyroid disorders. Also, an unhealthy diet affects the state of blood pressure. It is necessary to get rid of taking too much salt in the daily diet. 

If you want to get rid of your high blood pressure, you must be aware of your daily activities and diet. Through understanding these causes, you can live your life as healthy as possible. You do not have to suffer from any inconveniences and risky conditions.

Essential hypertension

This form of hypertension accounts for 95% of all cases in the United States. However, its underlying causes are still unknown. This type of high blood pressure is widely known as essential hypertension.
Although essential hypertension is still unexplained, this health problem is usually associated with several risk factors. Both men and women are prone to high blood pressure. As studies show, race and age play a key role in high blood pressure. In the United States, most residents experience this health problem at 44. At age 65, black women are more prone to high blood pressure. Essential hypertension can also be triggered by lifestyle and diet.

It is stated that essential hypertension is often present on the North Island of Japan compared to other countries. Most people in this country take more salt in their diet, which causes high blood pressure activation. According to experts, people prone to essential hypertension are “salt-sensitive.” Other factors leading to essential hypertension include stress, obesity, inadequate intake of potassium, magnesium, calcium, lack of physical activity, diabetes, and continuous alcohol consumption.

Secondary hypertension

If the cause of high blood pressure is identified, this condition can be described as secondary hypertension. One of the known causes of this secondary hypertension is kidney disease. It can also be activated by tumors and other abnormalities, causing the adrenal glands to emit unnecessary amounts of hormones to increase blood pressure. Also, birth control pills, especially those containing estrogen, can develop high blood pressure.

Who is prone to high blood pressure?

High blood pressure can be experienced by millions of people depending on their daily life activities. In most cases, this health problem is predisposed to by some individuals with family members who have high blood pressure and those who smoke cigarettes. Also, pregnant women and those women who always take birth control pills may experience high blood pressure. Other people who may encounter this health problem are African Americans, obese and inactive people.

By getting more information about this hypertension, you can easily get rid of its risky effects. The best remedy for high blood pressure is in your hands. When you feel any discomfort, all you have to do is visit your doctor as soon as possible. That way, you can get as many possible answers on lowering your blood pressure.

Diabetes – Causes Symptoms and How to Regulate Sugar

Diabetes, i.e., diabetes, occurs due to insufficient secretion or insulin action, which is responsible for carbohydrate metabolism, i.e., sugar. We call this chronic disease a condition when the amount of sugar in the blood is higher than 7.0 mmol. It most often occurs in old age due to general degenerative and sclerotic changes in the body. In younger people, it occurs due to genetic disorders or damage to the pancreas.

A defect in the immune system characterizes type 1 diabetes. It attacks and destroys the cells that produce insulin, which is necessary to transfer sugar from the blood to the cells.

Type 2 diabetes occurs in 90% of cases. The cause of this type is an insufficient amount of insulin produced by the pancreas.

In both cases, the blood glucose level remains elevated.

Diabetes is a chronic disease in which the glucose level (sugar) in the blood is too high. The hormone insulin produced by the pancreas regulates blood glucose levels. In diabetes, the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or there is a problem with how the cells respond to it.

The prevalence of diabetes between the ages of 18-65 in Croatia is 6.1%. The risk of diabetes increases with age, from 2.5 percent in people aged 35-45 to 23.6 percent in people over 75.

How is glucose utilized in the body?

glucose picture
Glucose molecules

Glucose is the main source of energy in the body. Glucose comes from foods rich in carbohydrates, such as potatoes, bread, pasta, rice, milk, and fruit. Glucose is released into the bloodstream after the digestive process. 
Glucose from the bloodstream enters the cells that use it for energy. Excess glucose is stored in the liver or converted to fat and stored in other tissues.

The pancreas produces insulin, a hormone that opens doors (channels) that allow glucose to enter cells. It also allows glucose to be stored in the liver and other tissues. This is part of a process known as glucose metabolism.

In diabetes, the pancreas cannot produce insulin (type 1 diabetes), or the cells do not respond properly to insulin and develop insulin resistance. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas does not produce enough insulin for the increased needs of the body.

When insulin does not do its job properly, glucose accumulates in the blood instead of being converted into the cells’ energy. High blood glucose levels can cause the health problems we associate with diabetes.

Symptoms of diabetes

diabetes symptoms

The main symptoms are increased excreted urine, frequent urination, fatigue, weakness, weight loss, severe thirst, blurred vision. Some people have an increased desire for sweets and some complaint of itching on the genitals and ulcers on the skin. In some cases, the symptoms are not pronounced, so the disease is discovered accidentally during an examination. A medical examination is performed by analysis of blood and urine.

When part or all of the glucose is retained in the blood and is not used as a fuel to produce energy, the symptoms of diabetes appear. The body tries to lower the glucose level by expelling excess glucose from the body in the urine.

Some types of diabetes can have very few symptoms and are difficult to diagnose. Common symptoms are as follows:

  • Excessive urination
  • Excessive thirst
  • Weight loss
  • Blurred vision
  • Fatigue and lethargy
  • Slow wound healing
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Mood swings
  • Itching and infections, especially in the genital area 

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes are obvious and develop rapidly in just a few weeks. The symptoms pass quickly when treatment is started.
In type 2 diabetes, the symptoms are not so obvious.

The disease develops slowly over several years and can only be diagnosed by a medical examination. After treatment, there is a rapid relief of symptoms and control of this type of diabetes. Early diagnosis is beneficial.

What after symptoms appear?

If you notice any of the above symptoms, consult your GP. Early diagnosis, treatment, and control of diabetes are key to reducing the chances of developing serious complications.

What can happen if you ignore the symptoms? 

Untreated type 1 diabetes can lead to serious health problems such as diabetic ketoacidosis, leading to a potentially fatal coma. 

Type 2 diabetes is more difficult to diagnose, especially when it is at an earlier stage when the symptoms are not obvious. Diabetes affects most major organs such as blood vessels, nerves, heart, kidneys, and eyes.

Early diagnosis is essential for quality control of blood glucose levels and the prevention of potential complications.

Types of diabetes

The main types of diabetes are type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. There is also gestational diabetes, gestational diabetes and pre-diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes occurs due to toxic or infectious factors from the environment that activate the immune system in people with a genetic predisposition, destroying beta cells. Factors from the external environment include viruses and toxic chemical agents. Family predisposition largely depends on the gene on the short arm of chromosome 6.

Decreased insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes is associated with: a genetic factor that gains in importance over time, obesity, fatty or high-calorie diet, high blood pressure, pregnancy …

Type 1 diabetes most often occurs in young people under 30. Type 1 diabetes causes the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing cells and stops producing insulin. It is one of the most common chronic diseases in the developed world. It is sometimes referred to as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, although these terms are increasingly falling out of use. 

There is no cure for type 1 diabetes, but you can control it with insulin injections, diet, and exercise.

Suppose a person with type 1 diabetes skips a meal. Excessive exercise or taking too much insulin will drop their blood sugar levels. This can lead to a hypoglycaemic reaction.

Symptoms include dizziness, hunger, sweating, headache, and mood swings. This can be fixed by a quick intake of sugar (such as candies or glucose tablets) or something more important like fruit. A person with type 1 diabetes should have something sweet available at all times.

Type 2 diabetes

diabetes mellitus picture

Type 2 diabetes is often described as a lifestyle disease as it is more common in people who do not have enough physical activity and are obese. It is associated with high blood pressure, elevated cholesterol levels, and an apple-shaped body in which excess weight is retained in the waist area.

Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes, affecting 85 to 90 percent of people with diabetes. It mostly affects adults (over 40 years of age), but recently, more and more young people are diagnosed with this type of diabetes. The reason for this is the increase in youth obesity. This type of diabetes was once called non-insulin diabetes.

Research has shown that type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed with lifestyle changes. But, unfortunately, there is no cure.

Gestational or gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy and affects three to eight percent pregnant women. After the birth of a mother, the glucose level usually returns to normal, but women who have had gestational diabetes have a higher chance of developing type 2 diabetes. 

Gestational diabetes can cause a child to overgrow and gain weight. If the mother’s glucose levels are not lowered, the baby may be higher than normal. After birth, the baby may have low glucose levels
The following groups of women have an increased risk of developing gestational diabetes:

  • women older than 30
  • overweight women and obese women
  • women with a family history of type 2 diabetes
  • women of specific cultural groups such as women of Indian, Chinese, Malaysian, Vietnamese, and Polynesian descent
  • Aborigines and residents of some islands
  • women who already had gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy.

Gestational diabetes can be controlled and treated, and with proper control, the risks are greatly reduced. A child will not be born with diabetes.


Pre-diabetes is a condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal but still insufficient to be classified as diabetes. There are no specific symptoms, but there are several risk factors such as obesity, smoking, heart disease, polycystic ovary syndrome, and high blood pressure. Without treatment, one-third of people with pre-diabetes develop type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes insipidus

Symptoms include severe thirst and large amounts of urine. It is caused by an insufficient amount of vasopressin, a hormone produced by the brain, which orders the kidneys to retain water. Without a sufficient amount of vasopressin, the body loses too much water in the urine, causing the affected person to drink large amounts of fluid in an attempt to maintain fluid levels.

In the most severe cases, a person can pass up to 30 liters of urine. Treatment is necessary because otherwise, dehydration occurs and eventually coma due to salt concentration in the blood, especially sodium. 

Elevated blood sugar levels do not cause this type of diabetes. It is treated with medications, a vasopressin supplement, and a low-salt diet.

Sudden diabetes

There are cases when diabetes appears suddenly. It is mostly typed 1 diabetes. This leads to ketoacidosis, a condition that requires urgent medical treatment.

Ketoacidosis symptoms include loss of appetite, weight loss, excessive urination, vomiting, loss of consciousness, and finally, coma. 
If any of these symptoms occur, seek medical advice immediately.

Complications in case of untreated diabetes

diabetes treatment

When left untreated, diabetes can cause severe complications such as:

  • kidney damage (nephropathy)
  • eye damage (retinopathy)
  • heart disease (heart attack or angina), problems with circulation in the legs, and stroke
  • nerve damage (especially of the feet)
  • problems of a sexual nature, including erectile dysfunction
  • ulcers and foot infections caused by circulatory problems and nerve damage.

Diabetes treatment

The most common test for determining blood glucose and is most reliable when done in the morning. Today, experts recommend regular annual blood glucose measurements for all people over 45. Younger people should be tested if their weight is 20% higher than ideal. If they have high blood pressure, close relatives suffering from this disease if it is a pregnant woman who has gestational diabetes or the mother of a newborn who weighs more than 4 kg.

There is no cure. The goal is to prevent complications by controlling blood glucose levels, blood pressure, cholesterol, and body weight.
Treatment includes:

  • Taking insulin with daily insulin injections or an insulin pump
  • Self-monitoring of blood sugar levels by testing using a meter  glucose
  • Self-testing of urine when problems are suspected
  • Adjusting diet to insulin and physical activity
  • Increase slow carbohydrates in the diet, such as fruits and legumes that need more time to absorb
  • Regular physical activity and exercise
  • Drugs and insulin
  • Weight management
  • Smoking cessation
  • Regular medical examinations

Self-management of diabetes

The main goal of therapy is to eliminate the problems and prevent acute and chronic complications of diabetes. To improve patients’ quality of life, the aim is to achieve normal glycemic values. Diet and increased physical activity are generally not enough to normalize blood sugar. In many cases, the therapy must include drugs that will facilitate glucose entry into the cells, and often you must take insulin.

  • Regularly check your blood glucose levels.
  • Strict adherence to medication instructions.
  • Frequent physical activity.
  • Regular visits to the doctor and liaising with associations for people with diabetes.
  • Healthy diet. Choosing healthy foods in appropriate quantities.
  • Positive attitude. In case of depression, seek help from a doctor or diabetic association.
  • If you feel unwell, seek medical advice.
  • Join support groups.

Coprinus Comatus is a medicinal fungus regulating blood sugar levels by about 40%. Because it belongs to medicinal mushrooms, it controls blood sugar by regulating it, raising those with low levels, and lowering blood sugar levels for those with elevated levels. Coprinus Comatus acts on sugar indirectly, not treating the symptoms but healing the islets of Langerhans on the pancreas, which are responsible for the production and regulation of insulin levels in the blood. You can use it along with other diabetes medications.

How Lifestyle Affects Type 2 Diabetes

Overweight and obesity are significant factors. Especially weight gain around the waist. Important factors include poor physical activity, excessive television watching and sitting at a computer, an unhealthy diet high in fat, sugar, salt, low-fiber foods, and smoking.

People at risk should have a laboratory glucose test to check for diabetes. It is important not to wait for the symptoms to appear, as they can only appear when the blood glucose rises significantly. 

Nutrition in diabetes

diabetes diet image

To help control your diabetes, make sure your meals are regular, low in fat, especially saturated fat. Eat high-fiber carbohydrates such as whole-grain bread and cereals, beans, lentils, vegetables, and fruits.

It is important to balance food intake with energy expenditure. It is important not to overeat.

In addition to a healthy diet, regular physical activity helps maintain blood glucose levels, reduces blood fat (cholesterol and triglycerides), and maintains healthy body weight.

Stroke, how to prevent it

A stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures or becomes clogged. The affected part of the brain does not get the necessary blood, and within a few minutes, it begins to die.

If you have a stroke, you may die, remain paralyzed, or have difficulty speaking or understanding speech. And you can damage your eyesight. You may also lose emotional control or fall into it depression. Each stroke causes unique effects.

If you notice warning signs of a stroke, don’t wait. Call the emergency number or anyone to immediately take you to the nearest hospital. Every second count!

What can I do to prevent a stroke?

Stroke is the leading cause of disability and the third most common cause of death in the United States. It is a fatal disease, and it is essential to minimize that risk.

Aging, male, then African-American, Hispanic or Asian, diabetes, a history of stroke, or a family history of stroke increase stroke risk. These are factors you can’t influence.

But you can influence the following factors: high blood pressure, heart disease, minor strokes (transient ischemic attacks, TIA), smoking, and high red blood cell counts. High blood pressure is particularly pronounced among African-Americans. In blacks, high blood pressure occurs earlier than in whites and usually takes a more severe form. Blacks also have almost double the rate of fatal stroke.

Regardless of your race, it’s important to check your blood pressure – and treat it if it’s high.

What is high blood pressure?

brain pressure

When your blood pressure is checked, your doctor measures two values. The first number (systolic pressure) indicates your arteries’ pressure during heart House. The second number (diastolic pressure) indicates the pressure as the heart rests between beats.

Normal blood pressure is in a certain range; numbers do not specify it. However, it should be less than 140/90 in adults. If your blood pressure rises above this limit and stays at that value, you have high blood pressure.

“If I had at least gone to the doctor to check my blood pressure, he would have prescribed me a drug to regulate high blood pressure … Maybe then I wouldn’t have had a stroke.”

What causes high blood pressure?

In 90 to 95 percent of cases, the cause is unknown. In fact, you can have it for years without even knowing it. That is why it is an insidious cause – it simply arises quietly, without warning. There is some other underlying problem in the remaining cases, such as a kidney disorder, an adrenal tumor, or a congenital heart defect.

Why is high blood pressure harmful?

It is dangerous because you may already damage your body’s organs by the time you find out you have it. Compared to people who regulate their high blood pressure, you are seven times more likely to have a stroke; the probability of congestive heart disease is six times higher. The probability of coronary heart disease (which leads to a heart attack) is three times higher.

“Basically, high blood pressure is harmful because it puts extra strain on your heart and damages your arteries. And that’s by no means healthy.”

Tips on how to live with it?

There is only one sure way to find out if you have high blood pressure: go check it out! If you have normal blood pressure, you should check it every two years. If your blood pressure is close to the upper limit of normal or high blood pressure in your family history, you are at increased risk of developing high blood pressure. Your doctor will tell you how often you need to measure it.

Measuring blood pressure is quick and painless.

You can do this in a doctor’s office, hospital clinic, school, nurse’s room, in the clinic of your company, or public on the occasion of health actions if the appropriate equipment is available. You can also contact the Red Cross or a hospital.

What else can I do to reduce the risk of stroke?

  • If you smoke, quit now!
  • Smoking significantly increases the risk of stroke.
  • Recognize and treat diabetes.
  • If you have diabetes, never stop taking your medication without first talking to your doctor.
  • Don’t drink too much alcohol.
  • More than one drink a day can raise blood pressure.
  • Engage in physical activity.

Physical activity helps reduce the risk of heart disease, a risk factor for stroke.

Try to do moderate to heavy activities for 30 minutes at least 3-4 times a week.

Eat healthily.

Eat foods that are low in fat, cholesterol, and sodium.

You go for regular medical checkups.

Instead of a conclusion

Reduce the risk of disability or death from stroke:  CHECK YOUR BLOOD PRESSURE TODAY!

“High blood pressure and this stroke didn’t just sneak up on me like that. It found my whole family unprepared. Now they’re taking care of me.”

If your doctor tells you that you have high blood pressure (hypertension), it is important to know the following:

  • You can’t ignore high blood pressure; he will not disappear.
  • He can be treated.
  • Treating high blood pressure can prevent heart attack, stroke, or kidney failure.

Influenza, influenza virus infection

Influenza virus infections, influenza (ICD-10: J10, J11), are among the most common infectious diseases. Influenza is caused by highly contagious airborne viruses that cause acute febrile illness and result in varying degrees of systemic symptoms, from mild fatigue to respiratory failure and death. These symptoms contribute to significant loss of working days, mortality, and morbidity. The word “influenza” comes from the Italian language and means “influence,” as it was attributed to unfavorable astrological influences in the age of superstition.

Although most common influenza circulating strains in the annual flu cycle represent significant public health concerns, many more deadly strains of influenza appeared periodically. These deadly strains caused three global pandemics in the last century, the worst of which occurred in 1918. called the Spanish flu (although most cases occurred in the United States and elsewhere in Europe before Spain), and the pandemic killed between 20 and 50 million people.

In addition to humans, the flu also affects various animal species. Some of these influenza strains are species-specific, but new strains can spread from other animal species to humans. So that, e.g., the term “avian influenza” is used to denote zoonotic human infections by a strain of influenza that primarily affects birds.

Types of flu

Swine flu refers to infections with strains derived from pigs.

The flu’s signs and symptoms overlap with many other signs of the virus upper respiratory tract infections. Viruses such as adenovirus, enterovirus, and paramyxovirus can initially cause influenza symptoms.

The standard for diagnosing influenza A and B is a viral culture of nasopharyngeal or throat samples. However, this process can take 3-7 days, which is usually longer than the patient’s stays in the clinic, office, or emergency room and after a time when the therapy can be effective. Recently, PCR laboratory techniques have become available that require less than 24 hours and have good sensitivity. However, due to the cost and availability of tests, clinicians most often diagnose influenza only based on clinical criteria, which we will describe later.

As with other diseases, flu prevention is the most effective strategy. Every year, a vaccine is made that contains the antigens of the strains that are most likely to cause infection during the winter flu season. The vaccine provides good protection against immunized strains, becoming effective 10-14 days after administration. Antiviral medications that can prevent some flu cases are also available; if given after the development of the disease itself, they can reduce the duration and severity of the disease.

Influenza epidemiology

In the tropics, influenza occurs year-round, but in the northern hemisphere, the group season typically begins in early fall, peaks in mid-February, and ends in late spring of the following year. The duration and severity of a flu epidemic vary, depending on the virus’s causative strain.

In the 2006/2007 flu season, as representative of the “typical flu season,” nearly 180,000 respiratory samples tested positive for influenza. Data for the United States say that in 2006. This epidemic caused 849 deaths (608 in people over the age of 75) and in 2007—411 deaths (216 in those over 75 years of age). Combined with pneumonia, influenza claims 36,000 lives a year in the United States alone.

Unlike the typical flu season, the 2009/2010 season. It was marked by the H1N1 virus (swine flu), where the disease was more severe among people younger than 65 years than in non-pandemic seasons, with significantly higher pediatric mortality and higher hospitalization rates of children and young adults.

As for bird flu, as of March 2011. 532 cases were reported, with 315 deaths, with most East Asia cases. Cases were reported in all age groups ranging from 3 months to 75 years of age, with a mean age of 20. Most cases and the highest mortality rate (79%) were observed in persons aged 10-19.

Primary risk factors for human H5N1 influenza virus infection (“ bird flu “) is direct contact with an infected person or dead birds infected with it. Contact with the feces of infected birds or contaminated water surfaces is also considered an infection mechanism. Other specific risk factors are not known.

Pathophysiology of influenza

influenza vaccination
Influenza vaccination

Influenza viruses A and B belong to the family orthomyxovirus (This group of viruses also includes influenza C, which is not medically important, although epidemics of influenza C have been reported, especially in children), spherical enveloped viruses with a segmented single-stranded negative RNA coil. RNA consists of 8 genetic segments surrounded by 10 (in the influenza A) or 11 (influenza B) protein. Immunologically, the most important surface proteins are hemagglutinin (H) I neuraminidase (N).

Hemagglutinin and neuraminidase

Hemagglutinin and neuraminidase are the most important virulence factors and are the main targets of neutralizing antibodies of acquired immunity to influenza. Hemagglutinin binds to respiratory epithelial cells, enabling cellular infection. Neuraminidase cleaves the bond that holds newly replicated virions on the cell surface, allowing the infection to spread.

Virus identification

Influenza A identification is made by identifying both N and H. Sixteen N and 9 H types have been identified so far. Different combinations of HINs result in 144 combinations and potential virus subtypes. The most common subtypes of human influenza viruses identified today contain hemagglutinins 1, 2, and 3 and neuraminidases 1 and 2. These variants are responsible for species specificity due to receptor utilization differences (particularly sialic acid, which binds hemagglutinin and is cleaved by neuraminidase when the virus leaves the cell).

For example, influenza A subtype H5N1 expresses hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1.

H3N2 and H1N1 are the most commonly prevalent influenza A subtypes affecting humans. Each year, the vaccine used contains influenza A strains H1N1 and H3N2 and an influenza B strain.

Viral RNA polymerase does not have a mechanism to check for replication errors, so year-to-year variations are sufficient to provide a significant number of susceptible hosts. Also, the segmented genome can reorganize genomic segments from different strains of influenza in a co-infected host.

Animal flu

In addition to humans, influenza also infects various animal species. More than 100 types of influenza A infect most birds, pigs, horses, dogs, and seals. Some of these strains of influenza are species-specific. Species specificity depends in part on the ability of hemagglutinin to bind to various sialic acid receptors on airway epithelial cells. In humans, the influenza virus binds to alpha-2,6-sialic acid receptors.

In this context, the term avian influenza (“bird flu”) refers to a zoonotic human infection with an influenza strain that primarily infects birds. Swine flu refers to infections with strains that primarily affect pigs.

Influenza A is a genetically labile virus, where the frequency of mutations is almost 300 times higher than the frequency of mutations in other microorganisms.

Clinical picture


Presentations of influenza virus infection vary. Patients with influenza who have been previously immunized may have milder symptoms. Sudden onset of the disease is common. Many patients can give the time when the disease started. [/simptom]Fever can have wide variations, where some have a lower fever (around 37.5 degrees Celsius), and some develop up to 40 degrees Celsius. Some patients report a feeling of fever and chills.

Sore throat

The sore throat can be severe and can last for 3-5 days. A sore throat can be a significant reason why patients seek medical help. Myalgia is common and varies from mild to severe myalgia.

Frontal/retroorbital headache

Frontal/retroorbital headache is common and usually severe. Ocular symptoms develop in some patients with the flu, such as photophobia, a burning sensation, and pain when performing movements.

Some patients with influenza develop rhinitis of variable severity, but this is generally not the main symptom.

Weakness and severe fatigue

Weakness and severe fatigue can prevent patients from performing normal activities. Sometimes with flu patients, activities become difficult, and they may need bed rest.


Cough and other respiratory symptoms may be initially minimal but often progress as the infection progresses. They may report unproductive cough, pleurisy chest pain associated with cough, and dyspnea – respiratory system. In children, diarrhea may be present.

Acute encephalopathy is associated with influenza A infection.

The incubation period of influenza is on average 2 days but can vary from 1 to 4 days. Due to the aerosol transmission and possible (but less likely) transmission via asymptomatic individuals and contaminated surfaces, the patient may be unaware of disease exposure.

H1N1 flu pandemic

For the H1N1 flu pandemic, the initial symptoms were high fever, myalgia, rhinorrhea, and sore throat. Nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting were also reported.

In the medical history, avian influenza should be suspected in all patients exposed to sick, dead, or dying birds (such as poultry) or people with avian influenza. Many cases involve close contact, such as plucking or cleaning dead poultry or eating incompletely cooked poultry meat. Some patients have no history of exposure to diseased birds, suggesting that spread from asymptomatic birds is possible or that the virus may spread through the environment.

The average time from exposure to the disease’s onset is 2-4 days but can last up to 8 days. About 94-100% of cases begin with typical influenza syndrome, including high fever (over 38 degrees Celsius) and lower respiratory tract infection (cough and pleurisy). Headaches, myalgia, and fatigue are also common.

Dyspnoea has been reported in 76-100% of cases. Lower respiratory tract involvement appears to occur earlier with bird flu than with seasonal flu. Dyspnoea, hoarseness, and sputum can be the main complaints. Sputum is sometimes bloody.

Upper respiratory tract disorders such as sore throat or rhinorrhea occur in only about half of confirmed cases.

Gastrointestinal symptoms

Gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, and abdominal pain are common early complaints in 10-50% of patients. Bloody, watery diarrhea seems to be more common with bird flu than with human seasonal flu.

Encephalitis may occur. Only two people have presented encephalitis so far.

The incidence of asymptomatic or mild cases has not been established.

Physical examination

The general appearance varies among patients with influenza. Some appear acutely ill, with weakness and respiratory findings, while others appear only mildly ill. On examination, patients may have some of the following findings:

  • Fever of 37.5-40 degrees Celsius; fever is generally lower in older patients than in young adults,
  • tachycardia, which is probably the result of hypoxia, fever, or both,
  • pharyngitis – even in patients who report severe sore throat, the findings vary from minimal infection to more severe inflammation,
  • eyes may be red and watery,
  • the skin may be warm to hot, reflecting temperature status. Patients who have been febrile with low fluid intake may show signs of dehydration with dry skin,
  • pulmonary findings during the physical examination may include dry cough with clear lungs,
  • nasal discharge is absent in most patients.

High fever (over 38 degrees Celsius), tachypnea, and hypoxia can be reported with bird flu. Crepitations can sometimes be heard early and occasionally whistling. Patients typically have a productive cough, occasionally permeated with blood. Diarrhea is relatively common. Abdominal pain and vomiting are relatively rare. Signs of upper respiratory tract infection, including cholera (rhinitis), conjunctivitis, and pharyngitis, may not be noted, but these findings are not necessarily present.


Primary influenza pneumonia is characterized by progressive cough, dyspnea, and cyanosis after initial presentation. Thoracic X-ray shows a bilateral diffuse infiltrative pattern without consolidation, which may progress to a presentation similar to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

Risks for viral pneumonia include several complex host immune system responses and viral virulence. Women in the third trimester of pregnancy have a higher risk. Other complications of influenza A and B. Older individuals, especially patients in nursing homes and those with cardiovascular disease, usually represent the most at-risk groups; however, certain influenza strains may target younger individuals. For example, in the 1918-1919 pandemic. Many young adults died of pneumonia, which some experts believe was caused directly by the virus.

Secondary bacterial pneumonia

Secondary bacterial pneumonia can occur due to several pathogens (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza). Staphylococcal pneumonia, which develops 2-3 days after the initial presentation of viral pneumonia, should be feared the most. Patients appear severely ill, with hypoxia, elevated white blood cell count, productive bloody cough, and chest X-ray showing multiple cavitary infiltrates.

Methicillin susceptible S.aureus

Methicillin-susceptible S.aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S.aureus (MRSA) as causes of pneumonia after influenza pneumonia have also been reported. MRSA pneumonia can be severe and difficult to treat, and deaths occurred within 24 hours of presenting pneumonia symptoms.

S.pneumoniae or H.influenzae pneumonia

S.pneumoniae or H.influenzae pneumonia, if it occurs as a complication, usually develops 2-3 weeks after the onset of the initial symptoms of influenza and can be treated as community-acquired pneumonia (see guidelines).


Myositis is a rare complication. This group of patients may develop true rhabdomyolysis, with elevated creatine kinase levels and myoglobinuria. Myocarditis and pericarditis have been associated with influenza infection.

A meta-analysis of bird flu cases in four countries found that the clinical course of progression in ARDS and respiratory failure in 70-100% of cases. The median time for ARDS development was 6 days. Lymphopenia at presentation is a significant predictive factor in ARDS progression and death.

Severe cases of bird flu can progress to multiorgan failure. A study of 12 hospitalized patients with confirmed H5N1 influenza, 75% had respiratory failure, 42% heart failure, and 33% renal failure.

Diagnosing the flu

The standard for diagnosing influenza A and B is viral culture nasopharyngeal specimens and pharyngeal specimens. Rapid diagnostic tests are also available, but most physicians diagnose influenza only based on clinical criteria because of their cost, availability, and susceptibility issues.

Complete blood counts and electrolyte levels are nonspecific but aid in diagnosis. Leukopenia and relative lymphopenia are typical influenza findings. Thrombocytopenia may be present.

Influenza prognosis

In patients without the comorbid disease, who acquire seasonal flu, the prognosis is excellent. However, some patients have an extended recovery time and remain weak and tired for weeks.

The prognosis in patients with avian influenza is related to hypoxia’s degree and duration. To date, cases have shown a mortality rate of 60%. The risk of mortality depends on the degree of respiratory disease more than bacterial complications (pneumonia). Little evidence is available regarding the long-term effects of the disease on survivors. The mortality rate for those cared for in most developed countries is significantly lower.

The U.S. CDC estimates that seasonal flu is responsible for an average of more than 20,000 deaths a year. Mortality rates are highest in newborns and the elderly.

How the heart works – heart disease

The heart is a strong muscle located in the middle of the chest, slightly to the left, and is protected by the sternum and ribs.

The heart works like a pump, allowing blood to circulate through the body. The heart beats about 100,000 beats a day.

Blood, pumped by the heart, supplies the body’s cells and tissues with oxygen and nutrients and carries away waste (harmful) substances.

On the inside, the heart has four cavities:

  • right atrium (atrium)
  • right ventricle
  • left atrium 
  • left ventricle 

The heart’s right side receives blood that comes from the body after supplying the tissues with nutrients and oxygen. This blood is “pumped” into the lungs, supplied with fresh oxygen. The blood then returns to the left side of the heart, from where it goes to the body, through the great main artery (aorta), and is distributed through the smaller arteries to all parts of the body.

The heart has 4 valves that ensure that the blood passes through the heart in one direction.

  • tricuspid valve
  • mitral valve
  • pulmonary (pulmonary) valve
  • aortic valve

The tricuspid and mitral valves control blood flow through the heart, while the pulmonary and aortic valves control blood flow from the heart.

Coronary arteries

The work of the human heart

Like any muscle, the heart needs oxygen and nutrients. The heart muscle receives blood with oxygen and nutrients through the coronary arteries, which are the first two branches of the aorta.

The two main coronary arteries (left and right) are located mostly in the anterior half of the heart:

  • The left coronary artery begins with a wider, shorter part, which we also call the left coronary artery’s main stem. It is then divided into two larger arteries: the anterior left descending branch, which provides branches for the septum between the ventricles and most of the anterior wall and apex, and the bypass or circumflex artery, which feeds the posterior side of the left ventricle. 
  • The right coronary artery feeds the right side of the heart and has branches that extend to the back of the heart.

The coronary arteries divide into smaller branches so that each part of the heart muscle receives oxygen and nutrients.

Coronary heart disease

Coronary arteries may become narrowed due to the accumulation of fatty layers on the arteries’ walls (atherosclerosis). As a result, less blood flows through the arteries. If 75% of the coronary artery is narrowed, the heart muscle may not get enough blood and oxygen. In case the heart muscle does not receive enough blood and oxygen, more warning signs usually appear.

Warning signs:

  • In the area of the chest, arms, neck, back, or jaw, you may feel the following:
    • pain (angina)
    • tension
    • pressure
    • burning, heat, or cramps
  • You could also have a feeling of shortness of breath
  • These “warning signs” or symptoms may occur when the heart is working harder than usual (e.g., during exercise) or after eating. You may also have symptoms at rest.
  • If you notice any of the above symptoms, stop what you are currently doing, sit down, and follow the instructions:
    • Take your nitro-glycerin (NTG) tablet or spray as you are told
    • If you still feel pain after 5 minutes, take another NTG tablet/spray
    • If you still feel pain after the next 5 minutes, take the third NTG tablet/spray
    • If the pain has not subsided even 5 minutes after taking the third NTG tablet/spray, you may have a heart attack. If this happens, have someone take you to the nearest ambulance station. If you are alone, do not drive. Call 94, ask for help, and then sit or lie down and rest.

Remember: Symptoms of a heart attack are similar to angina but are generally more intense and long-lasting. In any case, if you notice these symptoms more often, consult a cardiologist or surgeon.

Risk factors for coronary artery disease

Certain factors are known to increase your chances of coronary artery disease.
Risk factors for coronary artery disease are:

Why are risk factors important?

It has been shown that changing or modifying risk factors can affect your health, as it can help reduce the risk of developing heart disease or slow the development of the disease.

What can I do?

You have the most important role in preserving your health! Here are some suggestions on how you can help yourself. Because you know you have heart disease, you may have already changed or modified some of your risk factors.




Quit smoking

You eat a lot of fatty foods.

Reduce the amount of fat in your diet

You have high blood pressure.

Control your blood pressure

You exercise little or not at all.

Walk briskly (15-30 min.) 3-4 times a week.

You are overweight

Achieve a favorable body weight, according to your height and age

Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (ACB) (Coronary Bypass)

  • ACB surgery improves blood flow to the heart muscle, reduces (alleviates) symptoms, and improves heart function. Using a portion of the leg vein (saphenous vein) and/or the thoracic-thoracic artery (internal thoracic-thoracic artery), the surgeon bridges the narrowing or blockage in the coronary arteries. 
    The number of bridges you will have depends on the number of damaged arteries and the size and quality of the arteries behind the narrowing site.
  • When part of the leg vein is used, one end is sutured to the aorta and the other to the coronary artery below the blockage (blockage).
  • When the internal thoracic artery is used, one end is attached to the aorta’s left branch, while the other is sutured to the coronary artery below the blockage.
  • Oxygen-enriched blood can then pass through the transplanted portion to the heart muscle area behind the site of narrowing or blockage.

    Note: narrowed or clogged arteries are not removed.

Heart valve disease

  • Normal heart valves are thin, smooth structures that direct blood through the heart cavities and prevent them from returning.
  • Over time, damage or thickening of the heart valve can occur. Due to these changes, the valves are harder to open (stenosis) or do not close completely (insufficiency). Heart valves may be altered or damaged:
    • due to a congenital anomaly
    • due to infections
    • cause of rheumatic fevers or scarlet fever
  • Aortic and mitral valves are most commonly damaged. These valves control the blood through the main ventricle (left ventricle).
  • When the valves do not open and close as they should, less blood passes, or it returns. As a result, the heart works harder to pump blood into the body. If the heart is unable to do so, heart failure occurs.
  • After heart failure, the heart cannot pump blood as it should, and blood is not drained from the heart. Blood lags in the lungs and other parts of the body. As a result, you may be short of breath, swollen legs, feet, dry cough, or extreme fatigue. If the heart valves do not work properly, an enlargement of the heart can occur over time.
  • Abnormal valves can also cause irregular heartbeat or blood clots forming in the heart.
  • When medications no longer help with heart failure or do not improve pumping the heart, surgery is often needed to repair or replace the valve.

Heart valve surgery

  • When possible, your own valve is repaired. Otherwise, you must replace it. Some people feel better immediately after surgery due to the relief of symptoms. However, most people need several months to begin to feel the positive effects of heart surgery. The heart needs some time to recover from the strenuous work before surgery. For this reason, your doctor may ask you to continue taking some medications and adhere to a certain diet.
  • When a heart valve needs to be replaced, a mechanical or biological valve is used.
  • Whether you have a biological or mechanical valve, there is a risk of infection. If you undergo dental, urological, or unclean surgical procedures after implanting an artificial valve, you will need to be given antibiotics as a precaution.
  • Before each of the above procedures, tell your doctor (dentist, surgeon, etc.) that you have an artificial valve.

Other types of heart surgery

angioplasty coronary heart disease

Coronary artery bypass grafting and valve surgery are the most common types of heart surgery. Below are some more types of heart surgeries you might have, related to heart problems.

Repair of atrial or ventricular septal defect

Some patients may need surgical closure of the opening.
The septum separates the atrium’s ventricles (atrial septal defect – ASD) or the ventricle (ventricular septal defect – VSD). VSD can occur as a result of damage caused by a heart attack. Some people may be born with ASD or VSD, which requires surgery in adulthood.

Aortic aneurysm surgery

The aorta can be the site of various diseases. The aorta may dilate or its inner layers may rupture to form an aneurysm (“bulge”), requiring surgical replacement with commercially available material.

Ventricular aneurysm surgery

Heart attacks (heart attacks) cause damage to the ventricle, which weakens the muscles of the wall and can cause protrusions on the walls of the ventricle (aneurysm). The aneurysm reduces the efficiency of the heart as a pump. This requires surgical removal of the aneurysm.

Myectomy – in HCM

The septum between the ventricles may increase. Excess tissue that blocks blood flow from the heart is removed

Myxoma removal

Sometimes the heart can be the seat of tumor tissue growth (myxoma) which can interfere with the functioning of the heart. This growth can be surgically removed.

Bental’s operation

This procedure involves replacing both the aortic valve and the ascending portion of the aorta.

Congenital heart defects

Some patients experience old age with a birth defect. These are less common situations, which require surgical therapy, which should be explained to you in more detail by the surgeon.

Combined operations

Some heart patients due to atherosclerosis have narrowing of the large carotid arteries. If the surgeon decides that narrowing of the jugular veins could compromise the results of heart surgery, the jugular veins are operated on before or during heart surgery.

Risks and complications of heart surgery

The decision to have heart surgery often involves weighing the benefits against the risks. The risks associated with different heart surgeries vary from one operation to another and depend on various factors, such as:

  • patient age
  • recent heart attack
  • other health problems (e.g., kidney disease)
  • condition of the heart muscle
  • the number of heart valves that need to be repaired or replaced.

Your surgeon will explain the risks of surgery to you and compare the risks of surgery to the risks if you do not have surgery.

Heart surgery is a major operation that can lead to minor or major complications.

Your anesthesiologist will introduce you to the possible and expected risks and difficulties in the perioperative period.

Complications may include:

  • bleeding
  • irregular heartbeat
  • wound infection
  • breathing problems
  • heart attack, stroke, or death
  • heart rhythm problems that may result in the need for a permanent pacemaker.

Your surgeon will explain each of the possible complications.

Natural remedies to regulate heart problems

If used as a tea or food supplement, the so-called hot spices (ginger, cinnamon, cloves, and cayenne pepper) contribute to blood vessels’ health because they stimulate circulation, dilate blood vessels that supply blood to the extremities.

In the treatment of heart and blood vessel diseases, medicinal herbs are also used: hawthorn, bear’s onion, nettle, lemon balm, garlic, white mistletoe, prosciutto, flax, bitter gourd, etc.

Hawthorn is one of the most valuable natural remedies that strengthen the heart muscle, which regulates blood pressure and calms the heart muscle’s inflammatory processes. It is also effective in angina pectoris and atherosclerosis.

To regulate blood pressure, the following are used: garlic, bear onion, restavić, and olive oil.

Drink against angina pectoris and atherosclerosis

– 10 fresh primrose stalks (aboveground only),
– liter quality wine,
– 2 tablespoons of wine vinegar
– 300 g of honey.

Tea against inflammation of the heart sac

Mix 30g of called flowers, mountain ash, hawthorn, and 10g of rosemary. Two tablespoons of this tea mixture, pour 400 ml of cold water, cover, and leave to stand for 10-12 hours (overnight). Heat to boiling, cook for 2-3 minutes. Cool, strain, and drink 3 tablespoons three times a day.