Depression and axiosity and cause

Depression and axioms are on the rise around the world. Bad mood, lack of confidence, melancholy, frequent crying, sleep disturbance, poor concentration as symptoms that manifest for at least two weeks in a row are a sure sign for the diagnosis of depression.

Depression belongs to disorders characterized as mood disorders (unipolar disorder). A depressed mood is characterized by withdrawal.

Depression cause

depression depression

In countless cases of one of these two diseases, the condition worsened due to the patients’ food consumed. Individuals who consumed healthy, uncooked food, fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and other nutrients in this form noticed a significant improvement in their condition. You should emphasize that some very severe symptoms of the above diseases are caused by consuming a certain food type.

Food allergies are one of the safe preconditions for the onset of depression. Food allergies are limited by contacting a doctor who is an allergy specialist or stop eating the food we use most often. Discontinuation of certain foods is prolonged for 21 days, and if the symptoms of allergy disappear, it can be determined with a high probability that the cause of allergies is food.

Food allergies can also cause numerous diseases such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, autism, and many other intellectual illnesses. This sensitivity of the organism to food can even lead to inflammation of the brain due to an allergic reaction. One of the most common causes of allergies is dairy products. Food allergies can also trigger migraines.

Diet and depression

Sugar, white poison, is considered very bad when consumed often and in the long run. Sugar is one of the main causes of depression.

The use of an increased amount of trans fatty acids increases this compound’s deposition on the cell walls. If a sufficiently thick sheath of trans fatty acids is created around the cells, changes and great damage can occur in the body because oxygen and insulin do not have the ability to penetrate the cell inside in sufficient quantities. If many cells enter this condition, they may develop insulin envy diabetes mellitus. The most common trans fatty acids that cause this disease are peanuts, margarine, fried foods.

Trans fatty acids prevent the assimilation of essential fatty acids. Since omega 3 and essential fatty acids are the leading dietary support for those suffering from depression or anxiety, You should emphasize their influence on reducing trans fatty acids in the human body. Your brain contains 60 percent fat, and its needs for omega 3 fatty acids are very high. Research teams have found relationships between a bad mood and deficient concentrations of omega 3 fatty acids in the body.

Omega 3 and essential fatty acids control intellectual problems as they increase brain cell receptors’ ability to realize signals associated with temperament and some other brain reactions. These brain processes can be one of the conditions under which they occur depression and animosity.

The following ingredients contain a high concentration of omega 3 fatty acids and essential fatty acids: flaxseed oil, fish oil, walnuts, and spirulina.

Heavy metals

Heavy metals such as mercury and aluminum are also conditions under which depression occurs animosity. Heavy metals have also been identified as one of the causes of autoimmune diseases, such as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. If someone is facing intellectual difficulties, it would be good to replace all pans, pots, and cutlery made of aluminum. Aluminum binds to chlorine which contains tap water, is taken into the body, and harms the human body. It would help if you also examined the level of mercury in the blood. If it is increased, You should increase fish intake for the organism to be cleansed of this heavy metal.

Excitotoxins are elements, mainly amino acids, that excite taste receptors on the tongue. These are substances that are flavorings and food additives. When found in the brain, these compounds cause brain cells to become so motivated to cause DNA disorders. One of these compounds is aspartame, and its side effects are as follows: migraine, nervousness, animosity, feelings of hopelessness, dementia, bipolar behavior, brain malignancy, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and more.

Some examples of excitotoxins are:


The most important cause of depression in most countries is aspartame. This excitotoxin motivates brain cells far from normal. This motivation can cause brain cell death. Sugar-free foods may contain aspartame. Some people consume aspartame to maintain their body weight and be slim, and they are not even aware that this is one of the factors under which depression occurs.

Sodium glutamate is a hydrolyzed plant protein. This beast is a supplement to almost every food that is garbage for our body. This compound is hazardous and is considered one of the main causes of depression.

Medicinal preparations that help people suffering from depression are vitamin B3, niacin, vitamin b6, vitamin b9, folic acid, vitamin b12, cobalamin, tryptophan amino acid, omega 3.

Autism – a tragedy of 21st century children

Autism is a disease that develops in early childhood and is often seen in children as young as three years old. This disease affects sociability and communication, the behavior of a person suffering from autism.

Diagnosis, misunderstanding of the environment, few experts and specialized institutions, are just some of the problems of people with autism and their families. On the International Day of Persons with Autism, doctors warn that the disease is taking on epidemic proportions .

Due to the growing number of children with autism, this disease is called the tragedy of children 21. century.

World statistics say that in the world, people with autism make up one percent of the population. It is known that about five million of them live with that disease in Europe alone. There are no precise data in Serbia, but it is assumed that there are about three thousand of them.

Autism symptoms

Children who show symptoms characteristic of autism do not communicate and enjoy themselves in the same way as completely healthy children their age. Although the causes of autism are numerous and varied, you can establish with certainty that the universal type of occurrence in various cultural and social groups has been growing significantly in the last 30 years. The data show that boys are more susceptible to this disease than girls and that most cases are hereditary.

The symptoms of autism are due to the high concentration of microbes, but they are not so much pronounced due to their presence due to the release of a large number of micro toxins into the bloodstream. Micro toxins increase the organism’s acidity and are manifested by certain reactions in the brain.

One of the common causes of autism is parasites found in the colon and liver.

Autism is associated with the mother’s infections by rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, clostridium virus so that the embryo itself becomes infected with this disease. When a baby is born, there are errors in its development, and these viruses remain in the intestines of the newborn.

Causes of autism

It seems that no other cause of autism has been recognized in us or our environment. However, the following factors seem to play a significant role: GMO foods, microbes, vaccines – not as a result of immunization but due to mercury content, environmental toxins, aspartame, monosodium glutamate (if used by pregnant women), chemicals in cosmetics (when used by pregnant women) ), certain proteins that are present in cow’s milk from cereals that cows are fed, soy milk that very young children consume (because it causes an excess of minerals).

Sources classifying autism cases have confirmed that genetically modified food has been the cause of several cases. This food has caused changes in children’s bodies at the DNA level. The onset of autism from GMOs is defined as the intake of these foods in the form of nutrients needed by the body for the development and normal functioning genetically modified.

Microbes and autism

bacterial microorganisms

For unknown reasons, the following microbes can be found in the body of autistic children at very high levels:

The rubella virus (the development and division of this virus usually begin in the mouth and throat).

Cytomegalovirus is very often present in the body of people with autism.

Borrelia burgdorferi microbe (the cause of Lyme disease) can also be associated with autism, especially if the child’s mother is infected with the virus. These microbes are transmitted during pregnancy. Infections with this microbe can cause instability of the baby’s immune system during the embryo’s development in the mother’s womb.

You can find various types of Clostridium bacteria in the intestines.

Conventional medicine and autism

Those who have researched the sources of autism claim that vaccines are also one of the causes. MMR vaccines have not been used since the late 1990s and represent a debatable case. This is a composite vaccine that creates the organism’s immunity against smallpox, mumps, and rubella. This vaccine contains a weakened form of smallpox, mumps, and rubella and creates the body’s resistance to these diseases.

Conventional medicine has no prejudices and is subject to the theory of biology. Due to some compounds and organisms, there is a possibility of developing autism in young children, which is confirmed by conventional medicine as follows: viruses, yeast, fungi, mold, and bacteria.

In the viral structure, these organisms can very well and easily undergo selective secretion during the formation of vaccines that do not aim at harmful bacteria in the body.  In terms of the organism’s immunization, MMR vaccines keep a certain type of virus alive in an aluminum solution and live, creating a terrible effect on the organism with these metals. These viruses can also remain in a child’s intestines, leading to certain forms of autism and toxins.

Autism in Serbia

Vesna Trajković has been battling the illness of her son Uroš for 13 years.

“The first encounter with autism was when Uroš was born, and what is very important is that early diagnosis, work with the family. We, unfortunately, skipped that. We got the right diagnosis around the age of five, and around the second year, it was clear to us what it was about, “says Vesna.

Autism is one of the most serious neurodevelopmental disorders in children. It is incurable, and all symptoms appear by the third year of life.

Neuropsychiatrist Dr. Mila Selaković points out that early diagnosis and early intervention are of exceptional importance.

“The world’s situation now is such that autism is called the tragedy of children 21. century because it is simply the number of children, new children with autism go as if it were an epidemic “, says Dr. Selaković.

In most cases, parents have a hard time dealing with the disease’s problems! They are most worried about the future of children.

“Our biggest fears are what at the moment when we can no longer take care of our children, because what is happening now. What everyone is silent about is happening. That is reality. At the moment when something happens to the parent from the Center for Accommodation and Day Care of Children with Developmental Disabilities, they are forwarded to the Center for Social Work, and the children are placed in Kuline, Stamnice, Veternik “, notes Vesna Trajković.

That is why, they believe, the construction of the Autism Center in Denko’s Garden is important, which has been waiting for two years. It could house 30 to 40 people. An outpatient clinic is also planned, where parents would receive all the information.

Dr. Mila Selaković explains that it got stuck at the Ministry of Planning and Urbanism at the republic level.

“A general urban plan was awaited at that position. That was the real reason. We hope that there will be no obstacles in further actions “, says Dr. Sleaković.

Serbia currently has only one Autism Hospital in Belgrade, which accommodates 45 people under 26. The fact that more than 1,200 people with autism in the capital alone speaks for itself, and that number is constantly increasing.

Treatment of autism

One of the possible cures for autism and some other brain disorders, since many brain disorders have very similar sources, is long-term therapy for the disorder’s cause. You can achieve a lot with nutrition treatments such as reducing sugar intake and eliminating synthetic compounds in food. Mineral supplements can remove excess toxins from the large intestine caused by mercury and aluminum.

Accepted treatments in the treatment of autism are supported in the child’s development, various forms of therapy, and dietary treatments.

10 tips on how to prepare for pregnancy

Pregnancy is a condition that needs to be informed in advance. Nine months of pregnancy is a great effort for the mother’s body. Therefore, it is good to reach the peak of physical ability when preparing for that time. You can do this by rejecting bad life habits and adopting a healthy lifestyle.

Get rid of strenuous obligations

Planning a pregnancy primarily means choosing the right moment in your life that will be free of strenuous obligations, whether it is a family or business obligation. During the nine months of pregnancy, it would be best to concentrate only on the new condition and on the child to be born, without the impact of stressful obligations.

Even the future father’s presence plays a big role in the pregnancy: he should provide appropriate support to his wife at all times. If you have a long separation from your partner shortly, it is better to postpone the pregnancy.

Visit a gynecologist

A woman who wants to stay pregnant should have a gynecologist check-up. Every woman who lives a sexually active life is at risk of sexually transmitted diseases.

In addition to the gynecological examination, a PAPA test should be performed (an examination that examines cells from the cervix and vagina and shows the presence of inflammation or some types of pathogens), at least once a year, and certainly before the planned pregnancy. Some infections, in fact, can jeopardize the course and outcome of the pregnancy and should therefore be detected and treated sooner.

Check your pregnancy weight

The expectant mother should start the pregnancy with normal body weight. In this way, the body is in the best possible condition and will more easily withstand nine months of increased load.

If it’s your body weight too much, you should consult a doctor so that you can, without haste, implement a balanced and healthy diet, and lose extra pounds. That way, you won’t find yourself with a huge one at the end of your pregnancy extra pounds.

Namely, if the body is not burdened with too many kilograms during pregnancy, it will be less tiring, and it will be easier to perform the increased efforts required of it by pregnancy. Weight loss should be avoided on your own, without a doctor’s supervision, as this can lead to serious deficiencies in certain nutrients, which can be harmful to both the pregnant woman and the baby.

Get vaccinated against rubella before pregnancy

If acquired in pregnancy, this contagious disease, which is quite widespread, can cause severe disorders in the fetus, especially if the infection occurs in the first 16 weeks of pregnancy. The virus that causes the disease comes through the mother’s blood to the placenta, passes through it and reaches the fetus. It interferes with the development of certain of its organs, especially the central nervous system, heart, vision, and hearing.

So if a woman is not immune (she has not been vaccinated before or has not gotten over rubella), she should be vaccinated when deciding on a future pregnancy. Vaccination is prohibited during pregnancy, and it is generally advised to wait at least three months after vaccination.

Take folic acid

Many gynecologists advise taking folic acid-based preparations (this is one vitamin from group B vitamins) during the three months preceding pregnancy and in the first three months of pregnancy. Folic acid deficiency is associated with an increased risk of certain central nervous system malformations.

Get rid of minor health problems

It is best to stay in another state when the body is in excellent health. Therefore, you should consult a doctor to control minor health problems you would otherwise neglect. In a pregnancy that develops in a weakened organism, even small health problems can intensify.

In particular, you should control the teeth and gums’ health, and you should maintain good oral hygiene because problems on this side usually appear or intensify during pregnancy. You should also consult a doctor if you suffer from low back pain. A specialist can detect the existence of a herniated disc, and this is a more serious health problem that you must resolve before pregnancy. The enlarged abdomen and uterus’s weight is an increased strain on the spine and should be relieved.

Eat healthy

It is good to include many fresh fruits and vegetables in your diet to replenish your vitamin and mineral stores. The amount of fat, especially that of animal origin, should be limited in food. It is better to season the dish with olive oil, while you should reduce margarine and butter consumption.

You should include raw vegetables and foods rich in fiber in the diet to achieve (if you do not have it) regular bowel movements. This will also prevent it from occurring obstipation, which occurs in pregnancy, even in women who have never had it before.

Develop your body a bit

pregnancy preparation

It is best to start pregnancy with strengthened muscles that will support the constantly increasing weight of the uterus. Among the most advised sports, swimming is the most common: it allows the development of all muscles, especially those along the spine, thus easing the load for the next nine months. If the pregnancy progresses without complications, the pregnant woman can swim for almost the entire pregnancy.

They are good and long walking or gymnastics (at home or in the hall). Good heart rate and proper breathing during pregnancy will prove very useful because then the heart’s work increases anyway, as does the exchange of gases by breathing.

Stop smoking!

Smoking harms the child’s health in the womb, so from the moment a woman decides to stay pregnant, she should drastically reduce the number of cigarettes smoked, and it would be best to give them up completely. It would help if you also avoid passive smoking, i.e., staying in smoky rooms or near a smoker person.

Children born to mothers who smoke are usually less overweight than mothers who do not smoke. However, she later made up for that shortfall. But even lung maturation is thought to be slower in children whose make-up smokes.

Fight anemia

If you suffer from anemia, you should start treatment before pregnancy. Mild iron deficiency is sure to occur during pregnancy. This mineral, found in hemoglobin and gives the color of the blood, is found in red blood cells and carries oxygen to the tissues of both mother and child.

Anemia is a disorder that affects a large number of pregnant women. Therefore, it is even more important to determine whether it exists even before pregnancy so that the condition does not worsen further.


If you plan a pregnancy, plan and arrange a gynecologist visit to clarify all possible doubts and make all the necessary tests.


· When you decide to have a child, start taking more care of yourself. It is necessary to get rid of possible minor ailments, such as back pain and dental problems, so that this is not resolved during pregnancy.
· It is necessary to go to a gynecological examination to determine if everything is OK and consult whether you should take folic acid and iron supplements.

Haste in children and how to recognize it

We all know that haste and stuttering are closely related, and there is often confusion. Like stuttering, haste is a disorder of fluency (speech fluency), but they still differ in many ways.

Haste involves occasional “blockages” in speech, which can actually result from disorganized speech. This can mean that one speaks very quickly or that the person is actually insecure about what he or she wants to say.

Unlike stuttering, where a person actually knows what he wants to say but cannot utter it. It is known that stuttering often goes with haste and vice versa.

Hastiness syndrome can manifest itself in four basic communication activities: comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing.

Suppose we have a person who is being told something and thinks of something else. In that case, the person will not understand it, and this is a situation that happens to most of us. Still, if we also lack attention, there is a disturbance in understanding, which is regularly reflected in speech.

How to recognize haste?

haste in children

-very often, it is confusing and disorganized speech
-the awareness of one’s speech is limited
-occasionally “better speech” (fluent speech), when a person is warned to slow down a bit in speech or to pay more attention to speech (to control)
-so-called. “shortening” of words, especially those longer with consonant groups (e.g. “parking” shortened to “packing” …)
-Very incomprehensible speech
-family history-someone in the family or family or stutters or is hasty
-learning difficulties that are not the result of reduced intelligence or diagnosed dyslexia or dysgraphia
-often and untidy handwriting
-reduced attention, concentration, and very often hyperactivity
-difficulties with auditory perception (difficulty with capturing voices)

So, the basis of speech is disturbed, that is. Everything that represents larger wholes, organization: breathing, intonation, voice, rhythmicity and even accents, grammar. A hasty person often has an impoverished vocabulary regardless of the years he spent in school, does not understand, and does not use less frequent and more chosen words, especially those usually learned by reading.
He can have problems with the phonetically more complicated and rarer ones because he doesn’t remember your exact voice and syllabic structure. He invents new words, gives old ones a wrong or altered meaning. .It is also used with a lot of jokes and shouts.

Speech defects

At the time of starting school, parents and teachers usually begin to notice the speech defects of a child with haste and the consequent lag in mastering the technique of reading and writing. They begin to complain and punish the child. As one of the most noticeable symptoms of haste in speech is stuttering, repetition, and tripping, the little haste has often declared a stutterer.

If we are talking about the haste in childhood, it is usually a messy and restless but sympathetic, cheerful, and open child. Very difficult or not at all to accept the norms of the environment. He behaves naturally, disregarding essentially coercive rules. He eats when he is hungry, sleeps when he is sleepy, forgets to wash, puts on the usual clothing pieces. He finds it very difficult to fit in with children because he gets bored with every game to behave antisocially.

Usually, his speech is unacceptable, and he becomes the object of ridicule. He eats erratically, gets up from the table, does not listen to what is being said to him. At school, these are children who chatter, get up from the bench, walk around the classroom, causing general laughter, but they don’t do it because they are naughty or rude, but forget where they are and how they should behave. They forget homework, books and even a bag, not to mention all the possibilities provided by clothes and shoes. One shoe is brown, and the other is black, with socks on one foot and no on the other, instead of a school bag, my mother’s bag …

Deviations in communication skills

The environment and parents, in particular, find it easier to notice behavioral deviations in communication skills that come later. Objections and punishments begin. Parents and later teachers try to equate this so different individual with her peers. And a child can learn to sit, hold a fork and knife, be careful not to leave the house without pants. But these are all external things. You cannot control thoughts. Attention still wanders. One can sit, not listen so that the consequences are expressed precisely in speech and related activities and learning.

Haste is best recognized when a person reads, i.e., depending on other speech errors, the beginning of reading the text can be relatively good-the person initially concentrates on the text, but however the longer the reading lasts, the errors become more numerous because attention is shorter, and thinks something else. Then the person starts and then reads something well again, but all these moments are shorter, and when they come in the middle of reading the sentence, they still do not help him understand the text.
If these are more severe forms of haste, then he does not recognize all the letters even when we single them out, and when we give him the text to read guesses them, but not always. It often happens that he “reads by heart,” which means he guesses words, but not always. He may even happen to read approximately a good word — a well-read 2-3 syllables in a word, he further assumes.

People do not understand what they are reading.

It is basic for all hasty people not to understand what they have read, i.e., they cannot learn by reading. This is also the case with writing, i.e., a hasty person will show his chaos when writing and speech. you can best see this in writing a free composition because it will not have a logical sequence, i.e., “head and tail.” Sentences are short, and that otherwise, it looks like this- “I have a sister.
Today I’m going to the sea with my dad and everyone, but I won’t take the book. Marko took my car, he’s not my friend ….. “, and in fact, he started writing about his family. Spelling is not a strong side of hasty people either, i.e., they often write that they speak, and it doesn’t matter to them exactly how the words are grammatically spelled.

The handwriting is messy, disorganized, does not follow the lines on the paper, and sometimes if it is blank paper, they cannot orient themselves to the writing plane. Often their words move downwards, from small to larger letters, and difficult to understand.

It is difficult to distinguish graphically similar letters: ao, bdgp, mn, RV, Sz, ou … Then it often happens that teachers often confuse haste syndrome with dyslexia and dysgraphia, or even sometimes the child is characterized as lazy and uninterested, and then it is good to seek the help of a speech therapist to prevent such confusion.

What does “mess in the mind” mean?

problem in communication child

Basically, haste is a short-range of attention, and even that fluctuating attention, if you are not in a hurry to concentrate, is not very intense. Disorder in speech is a consequence of disorder in thought, but to recognize it, a disorder in thought must somehow manifest itself. While you can read emotions from the expression of a face, facial expression, or gesture, a disorder in the thoughts is manifested in work, speech, writing, behavior. It is most recognizable in speech and writing.

It is certain chaos, a rapid transition from one thought to another, insufficient restriction of the basic idea, the impossibility of elaborating the basic thought, strange associations that are equal in importance to the basic idea, the inability to concentrate essential, all transmitted orally.

What’s happening to the hawker?

He doesn’t seem to know what to say in advance. Breathing is not correct, so in a longer and more complicated sentence, there can be a so-called “respiratory” crisis (“wrong breathing”). However, this is not so common because, in hasty sentences, the sentences are mostly short. The structures are elementary. Within these short sentences, the melody is usually either monotonous or inadequate. It is effortless to feel that something does not “fit” in the speech in fast-paced people because the utterance sentence may sound questionable or even remain hanging intonation as if it is not completed.

In longer sentences, grammatical errors can occur because one has the impression that a person has forgotten something that was talked about, only then “chaos” comes to his head, and he looks for words or his words accumulate, or he tries to say two words at the same time. Leading to straightening, tripping, stuttering.

In the case of haste syndrome, we can often encounter difficulties in pronunciation (dyslalia), because in fact, the haste listens superficially, and his attention is fluctuating (scattered). Only superficial listening refers to listening to others, listening to oneself, and controlling the speech itself. This is especially important for the age of speech learning when auditory self-control is the primary control of speech. These are most often lexical dyslalia, astigmatism, and rotacism, but articulation can also be generally damaged due to superficiality. The excuse is such that the voices are barely recognizable, and it seems as if they are simply “sliding” over some.

If we connect this articulation with inadequate speech breathing, rhythm and tempo disorder, poor use of grammar, poor vocabulary, monotony, or wrong intonation. In the end, there is a stutter; we get a real picture of a quick-witted person. Most interesting in all this is that I can’t tell a real quick-witted person that he is very cheerful, he likes to speak, and there are no complexes because he is not aware of his speech.

A brief look at haste syndrome

In speech pathology, speaking that would correspond to the disorder of thought is called haste, and we also use English. Called “cluttering” or the old name “baptism” after the name of the legendary Libyan king Batharos whose way of speaking, according to the description, corresponded to haste.

The disorder’s basis is a short-range of attention, which is reflected in all activities. After concise attention to one activity, the hasty one begins to be interested in other things, forgets about the past activity, where he is, with whom, in what situation, he does not understand, that is, he does not notice that something is being said to him, that something is happening. He begins to act or speak, or both, but at odds with the situation.

Hastiness syndrome contains various forms of verbal and nonverbal behavior. It can manifest in speech in various ways, so the disorder has long been treated as a random sum of speech disorders in the same person, and as one of the most common symptoms is stuck in speech, it has often been considered stuttering.


-the child should be constantly warned to first think of what to say, to say the sentence to himself, and only then aloud
you should change-the child’s activity more often, and you should give new, acceptable tasks to him
-since their ability to remember is poorer, they should practice telling and retelling a story in which they should include as many details as possible.
-large breaks should be made between sentences so that the child has enough time to formulate a new thought
-singing as well as reciting contribute to slowing down speech and building the rhythm and melody that such a child lacks
-should focus on self-awareness because many hackers are unaware of their fast speech
-it is not enough to say “slow down,” but you should try to slow them down by tapping on syllables

Pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are sexually transmitted infections infected with a healthy person.

You can become infected through oral, anal, or vaginal intercourse. Sexually transmitted diseases should be treated, regardless of pregnancy. However, in pregnancy, they are dangerous not only for the woman but also for the fetus.

Like HIV infections, i.e., AIDS, some are not curable and can be fatal. At the first gynecological examination, the doctor will probably take all the necessary swabs. Still, in risky sexual intercourse, timely treatment is the best way to protect the woman and the fetus.

Sexually transmitted diseases are:
• Herpes
• Genital warts (HPV virus)
• Hepatitis B
• Chlamydia
• Syphilis
• Gonorrhea
• Trichomonas

Sometimes sexually transmitted diseases do not cause symptoms. When present, symptoms may include:

Growths, painful swellings, warts near the mouth, anus, penis, or vagina
• Swelling or redness near the penis or
• Painful or painless skin rash
• Dysuria (pain when urinating)
• Weight loss, diarrhea, night sweats
• Pain, fever, chills
• Jaundice
• Discharge from the penis or vagina
• Vaginal bleeding other than menstrual
• Pain during sexual intercourse
• Severe itching of the penis or vagina

Sexually transmitted diseases can harm a child’s development during pregnancy, depending on the type of infection:

HIV / AIDS: today, new drugs can almost completely prevent mother-to-child transmission of the virus. However, when this happens, the consequences are catastrophic – a child can develop HIV infection

Herpes: herpes virus infection in pregnant women is relatively harmless until delivery. Active herpetic lesions in the genital area are highly contagious, and the baby can become infected by passing through the birth canal. The virus can also multiply sooner, so a woman can be contagious even before skin changes occur. Therefore, many women with a herpes infection give birth by cesarean section, thus preventing the virus’s transmission to the newborn.

Gonorrhea: Gonorrhea is a prevalent sexually transmitted disease. The vaginal swabs make the diagnosis. During pregnancy, it can cause vaginal discharge, dysuria, abdominal pain. A pregnant woman with untreated gonorrhea is at increased risk for miscarriage or premature birth. A baby born during an active mother’s illness may be blind, have joint inflammation, or life-threatening sepsis

HPV (genital warts): This is a prevalent sexually transmitted disease. Genital warts are small cauliflower clumps that burn or itch. If a woman becomes infected during pregnancy, you may delay treatment until after delivery. Sometimes during pregnancy, due to the hormonal influence of the nipples. If they grow large enough to block the birth canal, the baby should be delivered by cesarean section.

Chlamydia: chlamydia may increase the risk of miscarriage and premature birth. Newborns who are exposed to the infection can get a severe eye infection or pneumonia

Syphilis: syphilis is most commonly diagnosed by blood tests, although a syphilitic lesion can also be tested. Syphilis is easily transmitted to the fetus. It can cause a fatal infection in newborns. Children are often premature. Untreated children who survive the infection damage the brain, eyes, ears, heart, skin, teeth, and bones.

Hepatitis B: it is a viral infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus. A pregnant woman infected with hepatitis B can transmit the infection to the fetus through the placenta. Also, a baby can become infected at birth. Women with hepatitis B infection are more prone to premature birth. Fortunately, early screening and hepatitis B vaccine can prevent infection.

Trichomoniasis: trichomoniasis is an infection that leads to yellow-green vaginal discharge and painful intercourse or dysuria. May increase the risk of premature birth. Rarely, a baby can become infected during birth and have vaginal discharge after birth.

At the first gynecological examination, the doctor will do the usual tests for the most common sexually transmitted diseases. You should pay special attention in the case of a new sexual partner in pregnant women.

Treatment of sexually transmitted diseases

The treatment of sexually transmitted diseases during pregnancy depends on how advanced the infection is and the pregnancy stage. Many bacterial infections, such as syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia, are treated with antibiotics orally or parenterally (as an injection):

• HIV / AIDS: although an incurable disease, the transmission of the virus to a child can be prevented by multimodal therapy.

• Herpes. The doctor may prescribe an antiviral drug to treat the lesions. Women with active disease give birth by cesarean section to prevent transmission of the infection to the newborn.

• Gonorrhea: Pregnant women infected with gonorrhea are treated with antibiotics. Gonorrhea is often an asymptomatic disease, so the newborn is given intraocular medication after birth to prevent the development of an eye infection.

• HPV (genital warts): you may delay treatment of genital warts until after delivery

• Chlamydia: Pregnant women with chlamydia are treated with antibiotics. Newborns receive medication at birth that can prevent eye infection, but not pneumonia that can develop later

• Syphilis: Your doctor will prescribe therapy during pregnancy to reduce the risk of transmitting the infection to the baby and prevent the progression of syphilis in the mother.

• Hepatitis B: If the mother is infected with hepatitis B, the newborn will receive an injection of antibodies to prevent infection.

• Trichomoniasis: pregnant women can be treated during pregnancy

How to protect yourself from sexually transmitted diseases:

• Abstinence, which is the only safe way to prevent sexually transmitted diseases
• Using condoms, especially in the case of multiple sexual partners
• By limiting the number of sexual partners
• Monogamy
• Careful selection of sexual partners, exclusion of risky and polygamous persons
• Regular medical examinations. There is no need to risk transmitting the disease to a partner or child. The absence of a sexually transmitted disease in early pregnancy does not mean that a woman cannot become infected later in pregnancy. Risky sex always requires new testing
• By avoiding alcohol and drugs before sexual intercourse, entering into risky sexual intercourse is less likely. Also, alcohol and drugs can harm the developing fetus
• Knowing the symptoms and signs of sexually transmitted diseases and the ability to recognize them in yourself and your partner
• Learning about sexually transmitted diseases because more knowledge means better protection

Tips for proper breastfeeding

Numerous problems that leave mothers with wounds and make babies irritable and sad can occur during breastfeeding. The most common problems are the baby’s incorrect placement and incorrect gripping of the breast. Other problems include cracked or painful nipples, clogged mammary ducts, and painfully filled breasts with milk (or vice versa – they do not produce enough milk). Breastfeeding can also be a strenuous physical process, especially in the first few weeks, so it may take some time for mom and baby to learn how to work in harmony.

Get rid of the pressure

If you feel uncomfortable fullness in the breasts before breastfeeding, squeeze some milk by hand. Repeat the pressure with your fingers above and below the areola (dark area around the nipple). This will slightly reduce the milk’s pressure and allow your baby to accept the breast more easily.



If your breasts are so full that no milk comes out of them, put on a warm, moist compress and hold it for a few minutes. A warm towel is good, or try disposable diapers, which hold plenty of water and retain heat. When you are in the tub, soak the diaper in warm water and place it over your breasts.

Use a milk pump if your baby falls asleep while sucking or when he has finished feeding, and you still feel uncomfortable fullness in your breasts – pumping and small amounts of milk can relieve the pressure. But since this will become more milk next time, don’t make it a common procedure because you will produce more milk than the baby needs.

Breastfeed often, day and night. In fact, you should breastfeed 8 to 12 times in 24 hours. Feed your baby every time he seems interested in eating.

Take a good position (you and your baby) to succeed.

Breastfeeding – a natural cure

Use a breastfeeding pillow; it is a horseshoe-shaped pillow specially designed for breastfeeding mothers. It rests around your diaphragm, providing a comfortable backrest for resting your arms while breastfeeding your baby.

Make sure your baby is not hot. A baby is more likely to fall asleep in the middle of feeding if it is swaddled too hot while breastfeeding.

Breastfeed your baby in a quiet environment with dim light. Relaxation makes the breastfeeding process easier for everyone.

When feeding your baby, make sure her whole body is facing you. Hold her buttocks in one hand, resting her head at the elbow curve of that hand. Pull the other hand under the breast, holding it completely. Tick the baby’s lower lip. That will make her open her mouth wide. Pull the baby straight forward so that her mouth is near your areola (dark area around the nipple). Ensure that the mouth covers the entire areola or as much of it as possible.

Sucking will stop when the baby is full. If for some reason you need to separate the baby from the nipple, such as moving it to the other side (or answering the doorbell), gently insert your little finger into the corner between the baby’s mouth and the skin of your nipple to you have stopped sucking. Babies have a natural survival reflex: they hold their breasts tighter if they are suddenly cut off while sucking. If you can slowly break the contact between your nipple and your baby’s mouth before you separate the baby, you will reduce the tingling, contributing to nipple pain.

Left, right, left

Happy baby

Happy baby

To make sure both breasts are doing their part, start each breastfeeding with the breast you finished pre-feeding. If you are so tired that you are not sure that you will remember which breast it was, attach the zihernadla to your vests on the side where you should start breastfeeding next time. By changing the breast, you offer. First, it allows both of them to empty.

Do you call a doctor?

If you are worried that your baby is not getting enough milk or if the baby is not sucking at least once during the day, contact your midwife, community nurse, or general practitioner immediately. You should also see your doctor if you have a red, sore spot on your breast, accompanied by flu-like symptoms or fever. These are the symptoms of an infection known as mastitis, caused by bacteria that have penetrated your breast through cracks in the nipple.

Mastitis is treated with antibiotics. Drink plenty of water, lie in bed, if you can, continue to breastfeed your baby – even more often – until the infection is cured.

Become more productive

If you feel that you are not producing enough milk, drink one glass of non-alcoholic beer every day. Beer contains a derivative of the fungus that increases prolactin, a hormone that affects milk production. Just make sure the beer is non-alcoholic and drink it 30 minutes before breastfeeding.

Apply a pressure technique to your breasts to stimulate milk flow. According to doctors who specialize in acupressure, the best pressure points are just above your breasts. Place your thumbs between the third and fourth ribs just below the collarbone and in line with the nipples. Press incessantly, for about one minute. If this procedure helps, you can repeat it as often as you like.

Drink wild spice tea every morning. Herbalists have long recommended wild spice to firstborns to boost their milk production. Some research suggests that wild spice has a mild estrogenic effect that could boost breast milk production because babies like the mild taste of wild spice resembling licorice. Put 1 teaspoon of wild spice seeds in a cup of boiling water, let it soak for two or three minutes, then strain and drink tea.

Chew some healthy means to achieve

Eat garlic-flavored foods. The taste of garlic seems to affect the taste of breast milk in a way that babies like. One American study showed that babies took more milk and stayed on the breast longer if their mothers ate a little garlic a few hours before breastfeeding. Garlic is also perfect for you.

Cut the pain in the beginning

If one nipple is very painful, offer the other to your baby first. Even if you used it during the previous feeding, it is better to use a nipple that is in good condition until the one that hurts recovers.

Between feedings, put a cold towel on both breasts to relieve pain.

If your nipples are cracked or sore, let them dry naturally in the air after feeding. Accelerate healing with your own milk: when the nipple dries, squeeze a drop of milk and put it on both your nipples. Other healing ointments include vitamin E oil – squeezed from a punctured capsule (remove any trace of oil before the next feeding), olive oil, almond oil, or lanolin cream.

Grandma’s story

It has long been known that breastfeeding breasts will fill with milk if you breastfeed your baby too often. Frequent breastfeeding actually provides better breast emptying – and your baby will be happier.

Keep the mammary ducts open

For a clogged mammary duct (which can manifest as a red, painful lump in your breast), soap the sore spot while in the tub or shower, then gently pull a wide-toothed comb over it to stimulate milk flow and help remove clogging. (In principle, avoid washing your nipples with soap because it can dry them out).

Empty your breasts as completely as possible during each feeding. First, offer your baby a breast that has a sore spot.

Try to gently massage the area with the nodule in the direction of the nipple during feeding.

Increase the blood flow in the injured area by placing a warm towel on the breast and then gently massaging it.

Make sure your chest vest is the right size. Maternity and lingerie stores in larger stores often have counselors who can help you choose the right vest. It would be perfect to choose a cotton vest with wide braces. The breastfeeding opening should not be too small so that the tissue does not press into the breast and cause a blockage.

Breastfeeding tips when you need them

When problems arise, you want instant answers. Some organizations have hotlines 24 hours a day and websites that can also be helpful.

La Leche League is for every recommendation. It offers help to mothers, encouragement, information, and teaching. She also seeks to understand breastfeeding better.

Baby Center

It is a parent-oriented website with lots of friendly advice on all aspects of breastfeeding, from getting started to overcoming problems and weaning babies from breastfeeding.

Baby nutrition

For the baby to grow normally and develop, its daily needs are 100cal-110cal / kg of body weight in the first year of life.

In the second year of life, 70cal / kg of body weight is needed.

Knowing that 1.5 ml of breast milk gives 1cal, then the required daily amount of breast milk is 150 ml of milk per kilo of body weight, while in the second year, the baby needs 105 ml of milk/kg of body weight.
This amount of calories is a need for metabolic processes, growth, muscle activity, and unintended physiological loss.


A typical baby needs 150 ml of water/kg of body weight per day.
Food composition:

a) Proteins are needed for the renewal and building of body tissue. Each protein’s nutritional value depends on the ratio of essential fatty acids it contains.

b) Fats are needed as sources of energy and as sources and drivers of fat-soluble vitamins. A, E, D

c) Carbohydrates – are needed as a source of energy. Too many carbohydrates can cause vomiting and diarrhea. Insufficient carbohydrates can lead to ketosis (the body, due to lack of glycogen in the tissue and produced from carbohydrates, will begin to consume fat (fatty acids) glycerol molecules will enter the process of lipolysis, and the body will start to use body fat in the absence of carbohydrates. During prolonged use of fats instead of carbohydrates as an energy source, acetyl-coal produced in the liver as an oxidation process will enter a process called the curbs cycle, create ketone bodies, and lead to ketosis.)

d) Vitamins: A, B, C, D serve to:

1) to maintain good health

2) Maintaining natural growth and development

3) Protection against diseases

4) They act as enzymes

e) Minerals-babies need more minerals than adults to grow normally. The main minerals needed for development are sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, chlorine, potassium, iron, calcium.


All mothers are advised to feed their baby breast milk, that is, to breastfeed her, for multiple benefits.

1) Perfectly balanced natural food provides the baby with all the necessary ingredients for average growth and development.

2) Sterile-pure-no harmful microbes, no boiling of bottles and pacifiers.

3) Easily digestible

4) Soothes baby-helps natural growth and natural sleep

5) Increases the baby’s immunity

6) Whenever needed, there is

7) Cheap for parents

8) It supports uterine contractions, stops bleeding after childbirth, and regenerates the uterus, bringing it to the state before birth.

9) Gives emotional satisfaction to mother and baby.


1) Active pulmonary tuberculosis

2) Chronic nephritis, cancer, severe heart disease.

3) The second half of pregnancy (due to hormones that increase in pregnancy, prolactin will decrease, which affects milk production, and only sucking can lead to uterine contractions, which in turn can cause premature birth or abortion)

4) Baby allergy to breast milk

5) Recommendations of the doctor treating the mother or baby



During the first two weeks, you should feed the baby for two hours or if the needs require more often, after which breastfeeding is usually established for 3-4 hours or as needed by the mother and baby. Breastfeeding time is at least 20 minutes, 10 minutes on one breast and 10 minutes on the other breast or until the baby is satisfied. The baby should lie in a semi-raised position leaning on the mother’s forearm that holds the baby’s body and head. On the other hand, the mother has the breast from which the baby is sucking, taking care that the baby’s nose is open for unrestricted breathing. Under normal conditions, both breasts should be given alternately to the baby at each feeding.

You should take care during breastfeeding to ensure that the baby does not fall asleep. The mother should pull the nipple of the breast outwards – inside to make sure that the baby is sucking. During belching, and prevent gas-induced stomach cramps. The baby should be put to sleep on its side so that the milk enters the lungs, and the baby suffocates in case of vomiting.

SUFFICIENTLY NUTRITION BABY is calm, does not cry much, sleeps well, and generally looks good. The best indicator of a baby’s good nutrition is a constant increase in weight. A healthy, well-fed baby should gain from 100 = 120gr every three to four days on weight in the first four months. Measuring the baby’s weight over two to three days will show if the baby is getting enough milk.


If the mother does not have enough milk, the baby will cry constantly, will not sleep, the baby’s weight gain will be minimal or will not increase, and weight loss may occur. There will be a problem with emptying the intestinal contents (the stool may be green which is a sign of hunger)—swallowing air while crying can cause more vomiting and more significant weight loss.

OVER FOOD OF A BABY can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss, or obesity with all its problems.


A breastfeeding mother must read the instructions that came with the medicine or consult a pediatrician about the medicine’s safety before using any medication and the effect the drug may have on the baby.

Large amounts of alcohol, coffee, and tea in the mother’s diet can affect the baby because they are excreted in milk.
Smoking is very harmful because nicotine is excreted in milk, and the baby eats it.


At the end of the first month, you should start giving AD drops or better natural fish oil, and vitamin C. Vitamin c is best shown in the form of freshly squeezed lemon or orange, first a few drops and then increase the amount every day. Lemon is packed into the water until you can give the oranges half a teaspoon at first until it comes to the juice of one whole orange. Iron should be included at the end of the second month, and it is best to behalf and then one teaspoon of freshly squeezed organically grown green vegetables that do not contain pesticides. You can also give newly pressed apple juice without pesticides to babies at the end of the second month.

The most crucial thing in a baby’s diet is to give everything that is not breast milk 1/4 teaspoon on the first day and then increase it every day by a quarter of a teaspoon, following very carefully how the baby reacts to what you have given her. NEVER give two new things in food. Let the baby always get only one fresh food so that there is a reaction to the food to know what it is from. The problem of today is not food but food poisoning, and although you will buy something organic, it will still contain pesticides, and that is what it will baby to react. It would be ideal for giving your baby freshly squeezed fruit juices from the second month. Still, if you can’t afford as much pure fruit that is not contaminated with pesticides and fertilizers, you better leave your baby to breastfeed only if you have enough milk and start feeding later. It would be good to give the baby a boiled, mashed apple in the third month, and she will be thrilled to eat it, be careful to start slowly with the piggy bank on the first two days and follow the baby’s reaction. It would help if you did all this in agreement with the pediatrician.

Pregnancy and nutrition information for pregnant women

What after childbirth?

Breast milk is the natural food of every newborn and infant. The biochemical composition of breast milk is adapted to the newborn’s needs. Breast milk is optimally digestible, protects the baby from infections, and reduces the risk of allergies. All of this affects the health and happier growth of your baby. Also, breastfeeding establishes a strong emotional bond between mother and child.
A balanced and varied diet is also essential during breastfeeding. With her proper eating habits, the breastfeeding mother provides the optimal foundation for the child’s growth and development.
During breastfeeding, the need for energy and nutrients increases since the baby draws all the necessary substances for its growth and development from breast milk. Thus, breastfeeding loses essential nutrients to compensate for her diet.

The rule is: DO NOT EAT FOR TWO!
Diet during breastfeeding is not complicated and does not require any special diet. You should eat mixed and varied foods that include all basic food groups: cereals, milk, dairy products, meat, fruits, and vegetables. Breastfeeding is needed on average 500 kcal daily more than a healthy woman who is not pregnant and not breastfeeding. Additional energy needs also depend on the mother’s constitution and the newborn’s needs.

Nutrition of healthy, normally fed nursing mothers

(Mardešić Duško et al., Pediatrics, Školska knjiga, 2000)


Average needs healthy women

Additional needs breastfeeding

Energy (kcal/day)


+ 500

Protein (g / day)


+ 20



+ 20% / day

Fluid (l / day)


according to the feeling of thirst

An extra 500 kcal a day is not much, so you need to be careful about what and how you eat to avoid gaining excess weight.

Certain foods present in the breastfeeding mother’s diet can cause bloating, colic, or indigestion in the baby.

“Problematic” foods in breastfeeding

● Citrus fruits – can cause redness of the skin in babies.
● Beans, peas, legumes, onions, cabbage, kale – can cause bloating and cramps in babies.
● Caffeine and theobromine (in cocoa and chocolate) – in higher doses can cause irritability and restlessness in babies.
● Tein – an ingredient in tea that has a similar effect as caffeine. Consumption of tea is recommended, but you should choose those with a lower weight proportion. You should avoid black tea.
● Not very salty or spicy is not recommended
● fragrant vegetables (garlic, onions, broccoli) contain fragrant oils that pass into the milk and give it an odor that will cause indigestion in most babies.
● Dairy products – very often, cramps in babies can occur due to the mother’s consumption of dairy products.

However, no food should be removed from the mother’s menu until the child’s disturbances have been proven. Namely, all possible problems caused by foods present in the mother’s menu, the practice has shown, but there is no solid scientific evidence yet. Please do not allow your diet to become monotonous because then it is tough to meet all the body’s needs for nutrients.
That’s why it’s up to mothers to pay attention to their baby’s sensitivity.

Fluid intake during breastfeeding

Fluid needs during breastfeeding are higher than usual. It is best to deal with the feeling of thirst, which is intensified in most breastfeeding mothers.

Special teas for breastfeeding women can be found on the market (eg: HiPP tea for breastfeeding women ) for which there is a scientifically proven lactogenic effect (increase milk production) and multivitamin drinks for breastfeeding mothers (eg: HiPP diet drinks for breastfeeding women with iron and folic acid ).

Breastfeeding and smoking

Smoking is prohibited during breastfeeding. Women who smoke produce less milk and stop breastfeeding earlier. Their children often experience nausea, vomiting, diarrhea …

Smoking should not be allowed in the rooms where the child stays because passive smoking is harmful to the baby’s health. Respiratory infections in babies exposed to tobacco smoke are much more likely to occur.

Breastfeeding vegetarians and macrobiotics

Any form of vegetarian and macrobiotic diet carries the risk of iron, calcium, zinc, and vitamin D. . Namely, all forms of a plant-based diet are rich in phytates, and some other food ingredients interfere with the absorption of important vitamins and minerals. Also, a major problem is the lack of vitamin B12 with the proviso of animal origin.

Breastfeeding vegetarians and macrobiotics are recommended to supplement their diet with multivitamin-mineral supplements and vitamin B12 injections, but they should definitely consult a doctor.

Supplemental nutrition during breastfeeding

For the child’s proper development, a healthy diet of the mother is necessary. Inadequate maternal nutrition can adversely affect maternal health status and cause a decline in immunity. The need for nutrients is increased during breastfeeding, but you can provide your body with a sufficient amount with a balanced diet. The exceptions are iron and folic acid, which need to be taken additionally, of course, with prior consultation with a doctor.

If, for some reason, the breastfeeding mother is not able to eat a variety of foods, it is necessary to supplement the diet with supplements prepared according to the specifics of the breastfeeding mother’s diet (e.g., HiPP multivitamin drinks with iron and folic acid ).

One day through the diet of a pregnant woman

With a balanced diet and without much effort and sacrifice, you can provide your body with most of the necessary nutrients. See what a healthy pregnant woman’s diet should look like.


E.value (kcal)

Calcium (mg)

Iron (mg)

Fiber (mg)

2 integral rice crackers (15g)

1 glass of natural orange juice (2.4dcl)






E.value (kcal)

Calcium (mg)

Iron (mg)

Fiber (mg)

1 slice of rye bread (60g)

1 tablespoon fresh cow’s cheese (50g)

1 small tomato (100g)






E.value (kcal)

Calcium (mg)

Iron (mg)

Fiber (mg)

1 larger banana (135g)

1 cup Ab culture 0.1% mm (2.4dcl)






E.value (kcal)

Calcium (mg)

Iron (mg)

Fiber (mg)

200g chicken fillet (without skin)

2 small potatoes (250g)

100g mushrooms

200g lettuce

2 teaspoons olive oil (10g)






E.value (kcal)

Calcium (mg)

Iron (mg)

Fiber (mg)

2 tablespoons fresh cow’s cheese (100g)

1 small apple (106g)






E.value (kcal)

Calcium (mg)

Iron (mg)

Fiber (mg)

5g integral pasta

2 small carrots (100g)

1 small pepper (100g)

1 small tomato (100g)

3 slices of edam (60g)

2 tablespoons sour cream 12% mm (60g)





E. value (kcal)

Calcium (mg)

Iron (mg)

Fiber (mg)






Supplemental nutrition during pregnancy

There are many dietary supplements for pregnant women on the market today, but it should be borne in mind that such preparations are not omnipotent. A proper and balanced diet is a major factor affecting mother and baby’s health.

However, due to the increased need for all nutrients in pregnancy, it is difficult for the body to provide a sufficient amount of all nutrients through a normal diet. One should know that vitamins and minerals are not substitutes for diet but only a supplement to it.
Taking care of a quality diet certainly includes taking care of food supplements throughout the pregnancy.
Therefore, it is recommended to supplement the diet with multivitamin-mineral preparations, but you need to know what to choose.

● The body can make the best use of its calcium from natural sources (milk and dairy products), and additional intake during pregnancy is not required

● too much vitamin A can cause damage to the fetus, and increased pregnancy needs can be offset by a balanced diet (increase the intake of fresh fruits and vegetables containing beta carotene)

● input iron is necessary to increase during pregnancy, but too much iron in prenatal preparations will be poorly absorbed.

● There are several interactions between nutrients:

  • high doses of iron interfere with zinc intake and copper absorption
  • increased doses of zinc affect copper absorption
  • high plasma folate concentrations decrease zinc absorption
  • calcium inhibits iron absorption
  • calcium affects the metabolism of zinc, phosphorus, and magnesium

Due to all existing evidence of nutrient interactions and their impact on body functions, caution should be exercised in their supplementation to avoid side effects.
Study the composition of the product carefully and consult your doctor or nutritionist.

Anemia in pregnancy

According to the WHO, iron comes first when it comes to a deficiency in the body of all micronutrients. Several factors affect iron deficiency.

Anemia in pregnancy is becoming more frequent and becoming a public health problem. Due to all the negative consequences of pregnancy anemia, it is necessary to pay more attention to this problem to avoid complications.

Factors affecting iron deficiency:

▪ Insufficient food intake
▪ poor absorption from the digestive system
▪ increased iron loss
▪ increased needs of the organism

During rapid growth and development and pregnancy, women have increased iron needs, and there is a risk of anemia. Thus, pregnancy is a state of specific metabolic needs, so a specific diet is necessary to avoid possible complications caused by nutrient deficiencies. Namely, insufficient iron intake results in too little supply, so even the fetus cannot meet the iron needs. This increases the risk of complications, increased blood loss during childbirth, increased preterm birth rates, low fetal birth weights, and perinatal mortality.

Pregnancy anemia is a major problem in both industrialized and developing countries—the WHO reported gestational anemia. In developing countries, 35-75% of pregnant women suffer from anemia, and in developed countries, 18%.

Due to growth and increased pregnancy needs, pregnant women are particularly susceptible to iron-deficiency anemia. Numerous negative consequences of anemia for both mother and child have been observed.
Most iron is needed during the third trimester. A sufficient amount of iron is difficult to settle from food due to a restrictive diet and difficult iron bioavailability due to high dietary fiber and phytate intake.

Current findings indicate that anemia in pregnancy is a risk factor that can result in preterm birth and low fetal birth weight. Although little is actually known about supplemental iron benefits for mother and child, iron supplementation is still a widespread health measure. Many women around the world become anemic during pregnancy.

Anemia and fetal birth weight

In several studies, an association between hemoglobin concentration in maternal blood and fetal birth weight was observed. A proportional relationship between anemia and fetal weight was observed. The higher the hemoglobin concentration, the higher the newborn’s weight, and iron supplementation plays an important role.

Anemia and preterm birth

baby nutrition

There is a lot of evidence of the negative impact of anemia in the early stages of pregnancy on preterm birth resulting in low fetal birth weight.
Klebanoff et al. conducted a study in which they showed a double risk of preterm birth in anemic women.

Thus, iron deficiency anemia is a risk factor in early pregnancy. Premature birth also greatly affects the health of the fetus.

Anemia and nervous system development

Iron deficiency anemia in the early stages of life is associated with the nervous system’s development and affects behavior. Numerous studies on children show that this is an irreversible (irreversible) effect. This is most evident in the chemistry of neurotransmitters and the organization and morphology of neural connections.

The brain utilizes iron depending on the brain region, and the passage of iron through the blood-brain barrier is controlled. Iron deficiency in the brain has numerous consequences from a neurochemical and neurobiological aspect.

Thus, iron is an essential micronutrient for neurological functioning and development.

Anemia and the risk of postpartum depression (PPD)

Anemia’s influence on the occurrence of postpartum depression (PPD) is not a fully elucidated mechanism. PPD is a serious disorder with negative consequences for the mother and child’s physical and mental condition. Psychosocial factors that increase the risk of PPD are known, such as prenatal depression, child care, child temperament, lack of self-esteem, poor social status, etc. PPD can have long-term consequences in terms of the developmental and cognitive arrest.

In addition to evidence that thyroid dysfunction plays a role in individual cases of PPD, some physiological variables have been identified that may be a significant predictor of this disorder’s onset. One of them is fatigue, and the other is anemia. Anemia promotes fatigue and is associated with additional symptoms such as tenderness, apathy, and inability to concentrate. Besides, iron deficiency affects the metabolism of the thyroid gland. Thus, anemia is associated with depressive symptoms. The study, which aimed to confirm this hypothesis, included 37 women who had just given birth. The researchers visited the women in their homes on the 7th, 14th. And 28. day after delivery. At each visit, a blood sample was taken from the women to determine hemoglobin levels. Anemia was defined in cases where the hemoglobin concentration was  120 g / L. Besides, the researchers obtained information on eating habits, prenatal care, and work status using a questionnaire. At the last meeting, the women completed the questionnaire by assessing the symptoms of depression.

The study results showed that early postpartum anemia indicated by low hemoglobin levels is a significant factor in the development of PPD.

Lower Hb concentration is a normal occurrence in a healthy pregnancy and the first 3-4 days after delivery. Then the concentration should start to rise. In 8 women in this study, it was observed during the visit that the Hb concentration did not return to normal. All 8 women soon developed symptoms of depression.
Thus, anemia can contribute to the development of a depressed state. Some of the symptoms that result from anemia (fatigue, irritability, poor concentration) significantly affect the mother’s feelings in the period after pregnancy and the relationship with the child.

However, further tests are needed to establish the relationship between these parameters with certainty.

Nutrient needs in pregnancy

In pregnancy, all nutrients need are increased, especially for iron, iodine, and folic acid. It is necessary to provide the body with a sufficient amount of all nutrients to avoid the consequences of their lack.

The diet should ensure nutrient intake that meets the fetus and the woman’s needs.
In pregnancy, metabolism is influenced by hormones that redirect nutrients to the placenta and the mammary glands. Renal function is altered, so the excretion of water-soluble vitamins is increased. Blood volume and composition also change. In the third trimester of pregnancy, the blood volume increases by 35-45%, mostly due to the expansion of the plasma volume and the increase in the mass of erythrocytes.

Due to the changes that occur in pregnancy (“second condition”), pregnant women’s diet must follow the changes that occur in a woman’s body. In the development and growth of the unborn child, the mother’s diet plays an important role, but this does not mean that the mother has to eat twice as much food.

From conception until childbirth, there are many changes in a woman’s body, including increased bodywork; it is necessary to balance the nutritional components (proteins, fats, and carbohydrates) and the necessary vitamins and minerals. The mother’s need for certain vitamins and minerals during pregnancy increases significantly.
But what is good in small amounts may not be better in larger amounts, especially during pregnancy. Vitamins and minerals in high doses can have harmful effects on the body. This is especially evident during pregnancy, with vitamin A and vitamin D, which exhibit toxic effects when ingested at levels that are not in line with recommended daily amounts.

Recommended daily intake of nutrients for pregnant women

(DRI, 1997)



(25 – 40 years)

Pregnant women

Energy (kcal)

1800 – 2000

2000 – 2300

Vit. A (μg)



Vit. C (mg)



Vit. D (μg)



Vit. E (mg)



Vit. K (μg)



Vit. B1 (mg)



Vit. B2 (mg)



Vit. B3 (mg)



Vit. B6 (mg)



Vit. B12 (μg)



Folic acid (μg)



Pantothenic acid (mg)



Biotin (μg)



Choline (mg)



Calcium (mg)



Phosphorus (mg)



Magnesium (mg)



Iron (mg)



Zinc (mg)



Fluorine (mg)



Iodine (μg)



Selenium (μg)



Chromium (μg)



Copper (μg)



Manganese (mg)