blood type testing

Blood group determination of inheritance and Rh factor

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Human blood is divided into blood groups based on the absence or presence of certain antigens on the surface of red blood cells. Before the blood transfusion, blood group tests are performed, and during the examination of pregnant women to determine the Rh factor. Blood grouping is done to determine if there is any likelihood that two people are blood-related.

One of the most important antigens in the blood is blood group antigens (ABOs) and Rh-antigen. That is why tests related to these blood groups are most often performed, although there are other ways to determine blood groups. Both types of testing are determined on a blood sample taken from a vein.

The antigens he mentioned include proteins, glycoproteins, carbohydrates, and glycolipids. Still, it all depends on the blood group system, and some of the antigens are present on the surfaces of other cells.

Determination of blood groups A, B, AB or 0

blood group donation

Human blood is divided into four blood groups:

• If antigen A is located on the surface of blood cells, it is blood group A. Plasma, i.e. the liquid part of the blood, contains blood group B antibodies

• If antigen B is on the surface of red blood cells, it is blood group B. Then the plasma contains antibodies against blood group A.

• If neither of these two antigens is present on the surface, it is a blood group because, in the plasma, there are antibodies against blood group A and also antibodies against blood group B.

• There is a possibility of being on the surface red blood cells find antigen A and antigen B, which would mean that there are no antibodies in the plasma, and such persons have blood group AB.

Blood received through a transfusion must have the same antigens and red cells as the person receiving it. In short, the blood of the donor and recipient must be compatible. If incompatible blood is received, the antibodies will recognize the received blood as foreign and destroy the red blood cells.
Such a transfusion reaction occurs immediately after receiving a blood transfusion and can have serious consequences for the recipient’s health and can even lead to death.

Blood group 0 negative in the shadow does not have any antigen, so we call it universal, which means that it is compatible with all blood groups. Blood group AB positive is called the universal recipient, which means that people with this blood group can receive any blood group blood.

Antigens that are not so important and are located on the surface of red blood cells can cause problems, and before removal, their compatibility with those in the recipient’s blood is checked.

We note that transfusion reactions are rare today, precisely because of blood groups’ determination.

Determination of Rh factor

rh factor

Rh-factor testing determines its presence or absence in the blood.

• If there is Rh-factor in the blood – it will be Rh-positive
• If Rh-factor is not in the blood – it will be Rh-negative
• Blood containing Rh and A antigen is then A-positive
• Blood that contains Rh-factor and B antigen – then it is a B-negative blood group

The division of blood concerning the Rh factor is significant for pregnant women. The problem that can arise is that a woman has Rh-negative blood and carries a child with Rh-positive blood, which we call Rh-incompatibility. During childbirth or pregnancy, the baby’s Rh-positive blood and the Rh-negative blood of the mother may mix, after which the mother begins to produce antibodies. This production of antibodies is called Rh-sensitization, leading to the destruction of a child’s red blood cells.

Rh-sensitization does not affect the health of the child carried by the mother when sensitization occurs. But if a woman in her second pregnancy again carries a child who has Rh-positive blood, there could be problems of varying intensities, from mild to very dangerous.

This condition is called hemolytic disease of the newborn, and if treatment is not carried out and the mother is sensitized, in rare cases, the child may die.

Testing for this Rh-factor is done during the first examination of the uterus. If a woman has Rh-negative blood, she is given a vaccine, Rh-immunoglobulin, which prevents sensitization.

Note that after discovering the vaccine, the problems caused by Rh-sensitization are minimal and almost rare.

Blood group inheritance


We ourselves know that blood type determination is also done to determine paternity, in case the mother, father, or both parents’ identity is not completely certain.

In determining paternity, the blood groups of persons who could be the father of the child are compared with the mother and the child’s blood groups, and the birth father is determined by excluding persons for whom it is impossible to be fathers.

A child inherits genes A, B, or 0 from each parent. Geb B and gene A are dominant, while gene 0 is recessive
Determination of human blood group is done in the case of:

• Operations

• Blood transfusions

• Before the person donates blood

• Before a person donates an organ for a transplant

• At the first examination of the pregnant woman

• In case of blood relationship

Determination of blood group is done by taking a blood sample from a vein in a widespread and painless way. It is important to note that the contrast agent used in the X-ray procedure before determining the blood group may affect the blood group examination accuracy.

Also, taking medications like methyldopa, levodopa, and the like. It may show a false-positive result. Also, carcinoma or leukemia can cause a change in blood type. In addition to this improper handling of blood samples, the samples’ results may prove inaccurate.

Blood group 0

This blood type responds perfectly to stress, is an outstanding leader, very determined and experienced, stable, and lives well. It is good that with this blood group, breast cancer has a lower mortality rate than others, while bladder cancer has the highest risk of tumor progression. It poses the greatest danger of melanoma and is prone to gastritis, ulcers, and various allergies.

Signs of toxicity of this blood group:

• Inflammation

Menstrual problems

• Cramps

• Inflammation of the joints

• Fatigue

• Exhaustion

• Mental hyperactivity

Tips for this blood type:

• Chew food slowly

• Reduce cigarettes if you are a smoker

• More physical activity

• Talk to people

• Practice the technique of overcoming anger

Exercises for this blood type:

• Gymnastics

• Aerobics

• Riding a bike

• Weightlifting

Blood type 0 diet

Proper nutrition helps our health greatly. You will find tips on what is very good for you to consume in the following sentences. It is important to avoid caffeine and alcohol, especially when you are under stress because of the very high adrenaline in you.

Poultry and meat:

– Good foods: veal liver, game, heart, lamb, beef
– Neutral foods: chicken, turkey, chicken
– Avoid: pork, bacon, and ham

Seafood and fish:

– Good foods: pike, leaf, cod
– Neutral foods: salmon, oysters, sardines, grouper, and mussels
– Avoid: squid, sea snail, octopus

Eggs and dairy products:

– Good foods: Dairy products make you fat and stimulate the production of gastrin
– Neutral food: butter, cheese, feta cheese, eggs
– Avoid: parmesan, kefir, sour cream, ice cream, smoothies, yogurt


– Good ingredients: onion, beet, artichoke, spinach, ginger, paprika, chard
– Neutral foods: mushrooms, garlic, celery, olives, beets
– Avoid: pickles, capers, olives, potatoes


– Good foods: pineapple, figs, mango, plums, cherries
– Neutral foods: melon, strawberry, grapes, cranberries
– Avoid: blackberries, avocados, oranges, coconut


– Good foods: green tea, mineral water
– Neutral foods: red wine
– Avoid: white wine, carbonated drinks, coffee, black tea

Blood group A

It has been determined that this is the oldest blood group. The first carriers are farmers and farmers. For this blood type, the connection between body and mind is vital.

Here we classify analytical types of people with a good sense of detail. They love to be brought to perfection and are very sensitive. They react more strongly to stress due to the increased adrenaline concentration in the body. People are susceptible to the needs of others.

People with this blood type suffer a lot from cancer, for which they have the lowest cure rate. There is also a risk of developing gynecological tumors and thyroid cancer.

Signs of toxicity of this blood group:

• Low sugar

• Flatulence

• Psoriasis, acne


• Cholesterol

Tips for this blood type:

• Eat more protein at the beginning of the day

• Do not skip meals

• Determine the work rhythm

• Sleep at least 8 hours

• Have your heart checked regularly

Exercises for this blood type:

• Aromatherapy

• Deep breathing

• Tai Chi

• Yoga

Blood group A diet

Proper nutrition greatly helps our health, in the following text you will find tips on what is good to consume, what is neutral and what should be avoided.

Meat and poultry

– Animal proteins are not recommended and should be avoided
– Avoid foods: beef, veal, game
– Neutral foods: turkey and chicken

Fish and seafood

– Good foods: sardines, cod, mackerel, trout
– Avoid foods: anchovies, oysters, eels, shrimp
– Neutral foods: grouper, dentex, tuna

Dairy Products:

– Use these products in as small quantities as possible
– Avoid foods: parmesan, emmentaler cheese, edam cheese, butter
– Neutral foods: feta cheese, goat’s milk, chicken eggs, kefir, yogurt


– Good foods: chard, broccoli, garlic, celery, artichokes
– Neutral foods: mushrooms, cauliflower, cabbage, chicory, zucchini, radishes
– Avoid foods: capers, tomatoes, eggplant, peppers


– Good foods: pineapple, figs, lemon, cranberry, grapefruit
– Neutral foods: peaches, melons, strawberries, apples, watermelons
– Avoid foods: coconut, oranges, tangerines and mangoes


– Good drinks: red wine, coffee and green tea
– Neutral foods: white wine
– Avoid foods: sweet carbonated drinks, spirits, beer, mineral water

Blood donation

Blood is very important in treating people who need it. Today there is a big problem of getting blood so it is very humane to give blood if you are able to do it. Giving blood takes about half an hour with all the procedure that needs to be done, which we will explain below.

In the half hour you spend you can save someone’s life. Alcohol should not be consumed before (the day before) when donating blood.

When donating blood, you will first fill out a questionnaire with some questions that are important and you are expected to answer them honestly. The questionnaire exists to protect the health of the person who will receive your blood but also to ask you about some of the questions in the questionnaire.

Blood donation is a humane act

Your hemoglobin, a blood dye-containing iron, is checked before donating blood. Iron deficiency indicates possible anemia. So you get a small sting in your fingertip, and you will make test hemoglobin on site.

Also, your doctor will measure your blood pressure, obeys the heart and lungs work, which means a kind of small systematic examination.

450 milliliters of blood are taken when donating blood. Needles and bags that are sterile and used only once are used. Taking the said amount of blood does not pose a health hazard to a healthy person. Just taking blood takes about 10 minutes. It is important to alert your doctor to any changes you notice or if you start to feel unwell.

After donating, your blood is tested for hepatitis B and C, HIV (AIDS), and syphilis. You can transmit these diseases through the blood. If any of the tests are positive, your doctor will contact you.

After donating blood, you must sit still for about 10 minutes, keeping the injection site pressed to prevent bruising and subsequent bleeding from the injection site.

After donating blood, you also receive a Thanksgiving meal, and it is recommended that you take at least the offered drink to make up for the lost volume.

So, be humane and donate blood. That way, you can save someone’s life!



Miko Lamberto

Ja sam nutricionista sa 10 godina iskustva, neke od svojih zapažanja sam preneo u naš blog. Za najnovije vesti i informacije o prirodi i pridonom lečenju nas pratite.

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