An anesthetic is used to reduce or eliminate pain so that doctors can make painful procedures or surgeries.
There are two types of anesthetics:
- general, leading to loss of consciousness.
- local, which reduces or eliminates pain in a part of the body
Anesthesia-induced sleep is not the same as normal sleep but a form of a time-limited unconscious state carefully controlled by an anesthesiologist. This involves applying a specific amount of anesthesia for each type of surgery. Different types of medications are given or removed to reduce pain and prolong a specific degree of unconsciousness during the procedure.
For some surgeries, the best option is to combine a local anesthetic such as spinal or epidural anesthesia with medications that hypnotically act on the patient. The anesthesiologist can explain the details before the procedure.
Who is an anesthesiologist?
An anesthesiologist consultant is a specialist doctor who, after graduating in medicine, spent another six years learning the anesthesia specialization. He oversees the conduct of anesthesia in all procedures.
What does an anesthesiologist do?
The anesthesiologist carefully studies the patient’s entire history (history of the patient’s health), using this information to assess the best treatment better. He discusses the patient’s various possibilities before the operation: he encourages the patient to ask questions and discuss everything that worries him. During the operation, the anesthesiologist stands next to the patient and takes care of his comfort and safety. These include pain control, body fluid replacement, measurement, and control of vital body functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and brain and renal function. This process continues after surgery when the anesthesiologist organizes control of any pain or weakness and advises it is safe to start eating and drinking.
Why are food and drink not allowed before surgery?
If there is food or fluid in the stomach, the patient may get sick during the operation, and the vomited contents may reach the lungs. Due to the anesthetics present, the body has lost the ability to cough reflexively and cannot cough up this aspirated vomit. This can cause serious lung damage. It is usually forbidden to ingest food six hours before surgery, but you can drink up clean fluid to two hours before surgery in some cases.
What about a dental crown and loose teeth?
Intubation through the throat and larynx is often required during surgery to allow normal breathing. The instrument used to place this tube through the larynx can damage the dental crown and lose teeth, and the anesthesiologist will ask you if you have such problems that he takes special care of it. The same applies to dentures, which must be removed before anesthetizing not to compress breathing.
Are anesthetics safe?
Anesthetics are generally completely safe, but every operation carries a certain risk. Recent research in the UK shows that deaths during anesthesia occur in about 5 per million anesthetics given. People with impaired health have an increased risk than those with stable health. This can be discussed with an anesthesiologist.
What is premedication?
Before the operation itself, the patient is given medication known as premedication to make him calmer, more relaxed, and prevent tension and fear. They may not even remember going to surgery and falling asleep.
How does the process of falling asleep happen?
The patient is given a small injection in his arm to put him to sleep. This is usually done in the room next to the operating room. For some patients, usually children, the injection site is coated with an anesthetic cream, not even to feel the injection sting. Others are given a mixture of gases so that they fall asleep quickly.
Parents are encouraged to stay by their children’s side until they fall asleep.
How and where does the patient wake up?
After the operation, the patient is stopped being given medication that keeps him unconscious and is taken to a recovery room where he is further cared for by specially trained staff. The longer the operation lasted and the longer the waking process. When he is fully awake, he is taken to a hospital room. Occasionally, patients wake up in the operating room after the operation, completely safe.
How do people feel after waking up?
Patients often feel cold and slightly confused. They may feel pain or nausea, but these problems will be resolved when the anesthesiologist visits the patient to check that everything is OK.
How does it feel after surgery?
How people feel after surgery depends on the type of procedure. They will be encouraged to get out of bed as soon as possible and be allowed to eat and drink for the first few hours after minor surgeries.